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I 



I 



THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

FOUNDED BY JAMES LOEB, LL.D. 

EDITED BY 
fT. E, PAGE, C.H., LITT.D. 

tE. CAPPS, PH.D., LL.D. tW. H. D. ROUSE, litt.d. 

L, A. POST, M.A. E. H. WARMINGTON, m.a., f.r.hist.soo. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 
V 



PLUTAKCH'S 
LIVES 

WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY 

BERNADOTTE PERRIN 

IN ELEVEN VOLUMES 
V 



AfiESILAUS AND POMPEY 
PELOPIDAS AND MARCELLUS 




CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

LONDON 

WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTD 

MCMLV 




First printed 1917 
Reprinted 1955 



Printed in Great Britain 



CONTENTS 



PAOE 

PREFATORY NOTE vi 

ORDER OF THE PARALLEL LIVES IN THIS EDITION . . . viii 

TRADITIONAL ORDER OF THE PARALLEL LIVES .... ix 

AOESILAU8 1 

POMPET 115 

COMPARISON OF AGESILAUS AND POMPEY 326 

PELOPIDA8 339 

MARCELLUS 435 

COMPARISON OF PKL0PIDA3 AND MARCBLLUS 522 

DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 633 



PREFATORY NOTE 

As in the preceding volumes of this series, agree- 
ment between the Sintenis (Teubner, 1873-1875) 
and Bekker (Tauchnitz, 1855-1857) editions of the 
Parallel Lives has been taken as the basis for the 
text. Any preference of one to the other, and any 
departure from both, have been indicated. An 
abridged account of the manuscripts of Plutarch 
may be found in the Introduction to the first 
volume. Of the Lives presented in this volume, the 
Agesilaiis and Pompey are contained in the Codex 
Sangermanensis (S^) and the Codex Seitenstettensis 
(S), and in a few instances weight has been given 
to readings from the Codex Matritensis (M*), on 
the authority of the collations of Charles Graux, as 
published in Bursians Jnhreshericht (1884). No 
attempt has been made, naturally, to furnish either 
a diplomatic text or a full critical apparatus. For 
these, the reader must still be referred to the major 
edition of Sintenis (Leipzig, 1839-1846, 4 voll., 8vo). 
The reading which follows the colon in the critical 
notes is that of the Teubner Sintenis, and also, unless 

vi 



PREFATORY NOTE 

otherwise stated in the note, of the Tauchnitz 
Bekker. 

All the standard translations of the Lives have 
been carefully compared and utilized, including that 
of the Pompey by Professor Long. 

B. PERRIN. 

New Havbn, Connioticut, U.S.A. 
March, 1917. 



vu 



ORDER OF THE PARALLEL LIVES IN THIS 

EDITION IN THE CHRONOLOGICAL SEQUENCE 

OF THE GREEK LIVES. 



Volume I. 

z^' (1) Theseus and Romulua. 
\ [^ Comparison. 

(2) Lycurgus and Numa. 
Comparison. 

(3) Solon and Publicola. 
Comparison. 

Volume II. 

(4) Themistocles and 

Caraillus. 



(9) Aristides and Cato the 
Elder. 
Comparison. 

(13) Cimon and Lucullus. 
Comparison. 

Volume III. 

(5) Pericles and Fabius Max- 

im us. 
Comparison. 

(14) Nicias and Crassus. 
Comparison. 

Volume IV. 

(6) Alcibiades and Coriola- 

nus. 
Comparison. 
(12) Lysander and Sulla. 
Comparison. 

Volume V. 

(16) Agesilaiis and Pompey. 
Comparison. 
(8) Pelopidas and Marcellus. 
Comparison. 



(22) 



Volume VI. 
Dion and Brutus. 
Comparison. 
(7) Timoleon and Aemilius 
Paulus. 
Comparison. 

Volume VII. 
Demosthenes and Cicero. 
Comparison. 
Alexander and Julius 

Caesar. 



(20) 
(17) 



Volume VIII. 
(15) Sertorius and Eumenes. 

Comparison. 
(18) Phocion and Cato the 
Younger. 



Volume IX. 
(21) Demetrius and Antony. 

Comparison. 
(11) PyrrhusandCaiusMarius. 



Volume X. 




(19) Agis and Cleomenes, and 


Tiberius and 


Caius 


Gracchus. 




Comparison. 




(10) Philopoemen and 


Flam- 


ininus. 




Comparison. 




Volume XI. 




(24) Aratus. 




(23) Artaxerxea. 




(25) Galba. 




(26) Otho. 





VIU 



7- 



t^rJir-^ 



.-f.,.-. 



KU 



THE TRADITIONAL ORDER OF THE 
PARALLEL LIVES. 

(1) Theseus and Romulus. 

(2) Lycurgus and Numa. 

(3) Solon and Publicnla. 

(4) Themistocles and Camillus. 

(5) Pericles and Fabius Maxiinua. 

(6) Alcibiades and Coriolanus. 

(7) Timoleon and Aemilius Paulas. 

(8) Pelopidas and Marcellus. 

(9) Aristides and Cato the Elder. 

(10) Philopoemen and Flamininus. 

(11) Pyrrhus and Caius Marius. 

(12) Lysander and Sulla. 
(18) Cimon and LucuUus. 

(14) Niciaa and Crassus. 

(15) Sertorius and Eumenes. 

(16) Age.silaus and Pompey. 

(17) Alexander and Julius Caesar. 

(18) Phocion and Calo tlie Younger. 

(19) Agis and Cleomenes, and Tiberius and Caius 

Gracchus. 

(20) Demosthenes and Cicero. 

(21) Demetrius and Antony. 

(22) Dion and Brutus. 

(24) Aratus. 

(23) Artaxerxes. 

(25) Galba. 

(26) Otho. 



IX 



AGESILAUS 



a. 162( 
P- 

596 



ArH2IAA02 

^- '-A/JXtSa/Ao? o Zev^tSd/iou ^a(Ti\evcra<i eVt- PanJ 
(pavo)^ AaKeSaijuLovicov, KaTeXnrev v'lov €k yvvaiK6<; ^^'''°" 
eu8oKi/u,ov, Aafi'rrt,8ov<;, ^Ayiv, koX rroXv vecorepov 
i^ Ev7ra>\La<i t?)? M€Xi]ai'TnriSa Ovyarpo'i, 'A7?;- 
(Tikaov. eirel he t^9 ^acn\€La<i "AyiBi irpocrr)- 
Kovarjf; Kara rov vofiov i8t,(OTy]<i eSoKei ^loreucreiv 
AyrjaiXao';, i'jX^V '^W Xeyo/xevriv aycoyrjv iv 
AaKeSaifiovi, aK\i]pav /xev ovaav ttj SiaiTrj Kal 
TToXvTTOvov, TTathevovaav he tou? veov<i dp^eadai. 

2 Bio KUi ^aai v vtto tov %LfjL(oviSov rrjv SirdpTijv 
Trpocnjyopeuadai " Safiaai/j^^poTov,^^ O)? pLoXiara 
hia roiv edo)v roix; TroXtVa? Tot9 v6p.0L<i Treidrjviovi 
Kal x^ipor]d€i<; irotovaav, oyairep iinrov^ evOv'i i^ 
cipxv^ Ba/iia^o/u,awv<i. rayr?;? d(f)Li](Ttv 6 vofio'i 
Ti}<i avdyKri<i toi)? eVt fiaaiXeia rpecpo/xevov; 

3 7rai8a<;. 'AyrjaiXdo) Se Kal tovto VTrrjp^ev cBiov, 
eXdelv e-nl ro apx'£iv /xr) diraiSevToi' tov dp^e- 
auai.^ 010 Kal ttoXv tmv ^aatXewv evapp^oaro- 
rarov aurov toU uTr^^/coot? irapeax.^, '''V 4>^(^^'- 
rjye/jLOViKW Kal ^acnXiKO} 7rpoaKTriad/xevo<i diro 
TJ)? 0.70)7?}? TO hrip.oTiKov Kal (pCkdvOpwirov. 

II. ¥jV he Tal<i KaXovp,evai^ dyeXaL^ twv avv- 
Tpe(f)op.evu)v Traihcov Avaavhpov ea-^ev ipaarrjv, 

* rod apx^ffBat with M^ and Cobet : &pxe(r9<u. 



AGESILAUS 



I. Archidamus, the son of Zeuxidamas, after an 
illustrious reign over the Lacedaemonians, left 
behind him a son, Agis, by Lampido, a woman of 
honourable family ; and a much younger son, 
Agesilaiis, by Eupolia, the daughter of Melesippidas. 
The kingdom belonged to Agis by law, and it was 
thought that Agesilaiis would pass his life in a private 
station. He was therefore given the so-called 
"agoge," or course of public training in Sparta, which, 
although austere in its mode of life and full of 
hardships, educated the youth to obedience. For 
this reason it was, we are told, that Simonides gave 
Sparta the epithet of "man-subduing," since more 
than in any other state her customs made her 
citizens obedient to the laws and tractable, like 
horses that are broken in while yet they are colts. 
From this compulsory training the law exempts the 
heirs-apparent to the throne. But Agesilaiis ,was 
singular in this also, that he had been educated to 
obey before he came to command. For this reason 
he was much more in harmony with his subjects 
than any of the kings ; to the commanding and 
kingly traits which were his by nature there had 
been added by his public training those of popularity 
and kindliness. 

II. While he was among the so-called "bands" 
of boys who were reared together, he had as his 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

CKTrXayevTa /xdXicrTa rep Koa/xUp tt}? (f)V(T€a)^ 
avrou. (f)i\ov€iK6TaTO<; yap (ov koI 6vjxoei8e- 
axaTO? ev rot^ veoi<; koX irdvTa irpcoreveiv 0ov\o- 
/xevo^, Koi TO (T(f)oSp6v 'i'X^oiv koI paySalov dp.axov 
Kol hv(J6K(3ia(TTOv, evTreiOeia ttoXlv av koX irpao- 
TrjTL roLovTo<i rjv olo^ (f)o/3(p /jbrjSev, al(T')(yvr] Be 
TTcivra ttoicIv to, irpocrraTTop-eva, koX toI^ yjr6yoi<; 
aXyvveadat p,dWov r] tou? irovovi ^apvvecrdai' 

2 TTjv Se Tov aKeXov; iryjpcoaiv rj re (iipa tov (rco- 
/xaTo<; dv6ovvTO<; iireKpvTrre, koI to ^aStw? (jiepeiv 
Kai i\apco<; to toiovto, irai^ovTa koi (TKMTTTovTa 
irpoiTOv eauTov, ov fxiKpov ^p eTravopOdi/xa rov 
irddov;, dWd koX ttjv (piXorL/xLav eK^rfKoTepav 
eiroLec, 7rpo<i fxi-jheva ttovov ^r/Se irpd^iv dira- 
yopevovTo^ aurov 8id tt)v p^&)XoT7/Ta. tt}? 8e 
fiop(firi<i eUova fiev ovk e^ofjiev (avTo^; yap ovk 
TjaeXrjaev, dWd Kal dirodvi'jaKwv aTretTre " P'>''IT€ 
irXaarav p,i]Te fjiip.r)\dv" Tiva Troci^aacrdai tov 
awfiaro^ elfcova), XiyeTUt Be p,LKp6<; re yeveaOai 

3 Kai Tr)v oyp-iv €VKaTacf)p6vr)To<;' rj Be IXapoTri^; koX 
TO evdvpbov ev aTravrt KUipu) Kal 7raiyvicoBe<;, 
a')(^deLvov Be Kal rpa^v fnjBeTroTe fiijre (jjcovfj fiiJTe 
o\jr€i, TOiv KoXSiv Kal 6}paiu)v epaapbtoiTepov avTov 
^XP'' inP^'i Trapelx^v. o)? Be %e6^pa(TT0<i IcjTopet, 
TOV Ap-x^iBap.ov e^rj/jLLaiaav ol e^opoi yr^puavTa 
yvvalKa /xiKpdv " Ov yap /3a(TiXel<i," €(f)aaav, 597 
" dfipjiv, dWd /SacriXelBia yevvdaec." 

IIL Baai\€vovTO<i Be "AyiBo^ rjKev 'A\Ki/3idBr)<f 
eK St/ceXta? (j)vyd<i et? AaKeBaipiova- Kal y^povov 
OVTTQ) TToXvv iv Tj) TToXei Bidycov, gJ.Tiav ecrye ttj 
4 



X 



V 



AGESILAUS, II. i-iii. I 

lover Lysander,^ who was smitten particularly with his 
native decorum. For although he was contentious 
and high-spirited beyond his fellows^ wishing to be 
first in all things, and having a vehemence and tury 
which none could contend with or overwhelm, on the 
other hand he had such a readiness to obey and such 
gentleness, that he did whatever was enjoined 
upon him, not at all from a sense of fear, but always 
from a sense of honour, and was more distressed 
by censure than he was oppressed by hardships. As 
for his deformity, the beauty of his person in its 
youthful prime covered this from sight, while the 
ease and gaiety with which he bore such a 
misfortune, being first to jest and joke about himself, 
went far towards rectifying it. Indeed, his lameness 
brought his ambition into clearer light, since it led 
him to decline no hardship and no enterprise 
whatever. We have no likeness of him (for he 
himself would not consent to one, and even when he 
lay dying foi-bade the making of " either statue or 
picture " of his person), but he is said to have been 
a little man of unimposing presence. And yet his 
gaiety and good spirits in every crisis, and his 
raillery, which was never offensive or harsh either in 
word or look, made him more lovable, down to his 
old age, than the young and beautiful. But 
according to Theophrastus, Archidamus was fined 
by the ephors for marrying a little woman, " For 
she will bear us," they said, " not kings, but 
kinglets." 

III. It was during the reign of Agis that 
Alcibiades came from Sicily as an exile to Sparta, 
and he had not been long in the city when he 
incurred the charge of illicit intercourse with Timaea, 

y. ^ Cf. Lycurgus, xvii. 1 ; 'Lysandcr, xxii. 3. " CT 

^ 5 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

<yvvaiKX Tov ^a(TtXeay<i, Ti/uLala, (Tvvelvai. fcal to 
'yevvrjOev i^ avTr)^ Traihapcov ovk e^t] ^ivdxTKeiv 
6 'A7t9, aXhS i^ ^AXKi^tdSov yeyouevai. tovto 
Be ov Trdvv SvaKoXax: t7]V Tifiaiav evejKetv (f)^]ai 
Aovpi<;, dWa koI yjrLOvpc^oucrav oIkoi irpo^ T(X9 
€i\a)TiSa<; ^AXki^iuStiv to TraiSiov, ov AewTU^t- 

2 Srjv, KoKelv Kal fievToi koI tov ^AXki/SuiSijv 
avrov ov irpo^ vjBpLV rrj Tip,aLa <pdvai 7r\rjaid^€iv, 
dXXd (fnXoripiov/jLevov ^acrtXeveadat. '%7rapTidra<; 
inrb TOiv i^ kavrov yeyovoTcov. Bia ravra p^ev 
TTJ^ AaKehaipLOvo<i 'AXKi^ui8r)<i vire^riXOe, (po^rj- 
Oel<; TOV ^Aytv 6 Se Trat? tov p,€v dXXov ')(p6vov 
VTroTTTa rjv t5) "AyiBi, Kal ypyjcriov Tip,r]v ovk 
elx^ Trap' avTW, voaovvTi Se rrpoairecrcbv Kal 
BuKpvwv eireiaev vlov d7ro(f)rjvai, ttoXXmv evavTLOv. 

3 Ou pirjv dXXa T€XevT7]<TavT0<; tov "AyiSo^ o 
AvaavSpo<;, ijSr] KaTavevavp,a')(riK(a<i 'Adi]vaLov<; 
Kal fieyicTTOv ev XTrdpTtj Bwdfievo^;, tov ^Ayrjai- 
Xaov iirl ttjv ^aaiXeiav Trporjyev, &)? ov irpocr^- 
Kovaav ovTt vodw t& AewTv^lhr]. ttoXXoI Be 
Kal TOiv dXXoiV TToXiTMv, Bid Tr)v dpeTTjv ^ tov 
'Ayrjo'iXdov Kal to crvvTeTpdcjiOai Kal p^eTea^r]- 
Kevai Trj<i dycoyrj'i, icpiXoTipuovvro Kal (TweirpaTTOv 
avTqi irpodvp^oi^. rjv Be AioTreidr]^ dvrjp '^^^ptja p,oXo- 
ya ev XwdpTrj, puivTeicJv re naXaicov vTroTrXeco^ 
Kal BoKOiv irepl ra Oela ao(f)0<i eivac Kal TrepiTTo?. 

4 ovTo<; OVK 6<^rj OepiiTOV eJvat ')(^(oX6v yeveaOai r?)? 
AaKeBaipLova ^aaiXea, Kal ')^p)](Tp,ov ev ttj Blkt] 
TOiovTOV dveyivaxTKe' 

^pd^eo Bt], liirdpTrj, KaiTrep pueydXav^o'^ eovcra, 

pit] aeOev dpTL7roBo<; jBXdaTrj x^^h /3acnXeia' 

^ 5ia T^;*' aperiiv Ooraes and Bekker, after Bryan ; t^v 
iperiiu. 

6 



AGESILAUS, III. 1-4 

the wife of the king. The child, too, that was born 
of her, Agis refused to recognize as his own, 
declaring that Alcibiades was its father. Duris says 
that Timaea was not very much disturbed at this, 
but in whispers to her Helot maids at home 
actually called the child Alcibiades, not Leotychides ; 
moreover, that Alcibiades himself also declared that 
he had not approached Timaea out of wanton passion, 
but because he was ambitious to have the Spartans 
reigned over by his descendants.^-^ On this account 
Alcibiades withdrew from Sparta, being in fear of 
Agis ; and the boy was always an object of suspicion 
to Agis, and was not honoured by him as legitimate. \ "^*^ , 
But when the king lay sick, the supplications and ' •, 
tears of Leotychides prevailed upon him to declare fy 
him his son in the presence of many witnesses. 

Notwithstanding this, after the death of Agis,- 
Lysander, who by this time had subdued the 
Athenians at sea and was a man of the greatest 
influence in Sparta, tried to advance Agesilaiis to the 
throne, on the plea that Leotychides was a bastard 
and had no claim upon it. Many of the other citizens 
also, owing to the excellence of Agesilaiis and the fact 
that he had been reared with them under the common 
restraints of the public training, warmly espoused 
the plan of Lysander and co-operated with him. But 
there was a diviner in Sparta, named Diopeithes, who 
was well supplied with ancient prophecies, and was 
thought to be eminently wise in religious matters. 
This man declared it contrary to the will of Heaven 
that a lame man should be king of Sparta, and cited 
at the trial of the case the following oracle : — 

" Bethink thee now, O Sparta, though thou art 
very glorious, lest from thee, sound of foot, there 
\ 1 C£. Alcibiades, xxiii. 7 f. ^ In 398 B.C. 

, . ' sz^ 7 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Srjpov yap vovcrot ere Kara cr^ija ova iv aeXinoL 
(f)6t,ai^p6Tov T eVt KVfia KvXivho^ievov iroke- 
fioio. 

5 7r/3o<? ravra Av(Tav8po<; eXeyev &)?, el ttcivv <f)0- 
^olvTO roi' y^prja-jxov ol ^Trapriarai, <f)v\aKT60v 
avTol^ €17] rov AeQ)TV)(^i8y]v ov yap el irpoa- 
TTTaiaa^ ti<; rov rroSa ^aaiXevoi, rw dew hia- 
(pepetv, aW' el firj yv/]cno<; top /jir)Se 'HpaKXeiSrj^;, 
rovTo Trjv ')(w\rjv elvai j^aaiXelav. 6 he 'A777- 
aikao'i e(/)>/ Ka\ top UoaeiSci) KaTa/naprvpelv rov 
AewTvxlhov rrjv voOeiav, eK^aXovra aeiafio) rov 
OaXdfiov rov ^ Kyiv arr eKelvov Se rrXeov rj SeKa 
/MTjVMV 8ie\d6vTO)V yeveadai rov A€ft)Ti;^iS>;y. 

IV. Oyro) Be Kal Sia ravra ^aaiX€v<; diro- 
Sei^^^ei? WyT]aLXao<; evdv<; ecy^e Kal ra XPV- 
/lara rod "AyiSo<i, co? voOov d'ne\dcra<i rov Aew- 
rvviBrjv. 6po)V he rov<; airo p,r]rpo'i ot/cetof? 
imeLKelf; fiev 6vra<i, la')(ypbi<; he 7revofj.evov<;, dire- 
veifiev avroi<i ra f'j/xiaea rwv \pr]fidrQ)v, evvoiav 
eavrm Kal ho^av dvrl (p96vov Kal hvcrfiev6ia<; 
irrl rfi KXrjpovofxia KaracrKeva^o/jievo'i. o he 
Srjcriv 6 "SevocpMV, ore rrdvra rfj rrarpihi ireiOo- 
fjbevo<i t'cr^ue rrXeicrrov, Mcrre iroielv o ^ovXoiro, 

2 roiovrov iari. ro)v ecpopoov rjv rore Kal rwv 
yepovrwv to fieyiarov iv rfj 7To\ireia Kpdros, 
wv ol fxev iviavrov dpxovai p,6vov, ol he yepovre<i 
hid ^lov ravTTjV exovai rrjv ri/xt]V, errl rw firj 
rrdvra rol<i /SaaiXevcTtv e^elvat avvraxdevTe<i, 



8 



AGESILAUS, in. 4-iv. 2 

spring a maimed royalty ; for long will unexpected 
toils oppress thee, and onward-rolling billows of 
man-destroying war." 

To this Lysander answered that, in case the 
Spartans stood in great fear of the oracle, they must 
be on their guard against Leotychides ; for it 
mattered not to the god that one who halted in his 
gait should be king, but if one who was not lawfully 
begotten, nor even a descendant of Heracles, should 
be king, this was what the god meant by the 
"maimed royalty." And Agesilaiis declared that 
Poseidon also had borne witness to the bastardy of 
Leotychides, for he had cast Agis forth fi-om his bed- 
chamber by an earthquake, and after this more than 

 "^\ ten months elapsed before Leotychides was born.^ 

IV. In this way, and for these reasons, Agesilaiis 
was appointed king, and straightway enjoyed 
possession of the estates of Agis as well as his throne, 
after expelling Leotychides as a bastard. But seeing 
that his kinsmen on his mother's side, though worthy 
folk, were excessively poor, he distributed among 
them the half of his estates, thereby making his 
inheritance yield him good-will and reputation 
\ instead of envy and hatred. As for Xenophon's 

' ^statement 2 that by obeying his country in every- 
thing he won very great power, so that he did what 
he pleased, the case is as follows. At that time the 
ephors and the senators had the greatest power in 
the state, of whom the former hold office for a year 
only, wliile the senators enjoy their dignity for life, 
their offices having been instituted to restrain the 
power of the kings, as I have said in my Life of 

^ 1 Gf. Alcibiades, xxiii. 8; Lysanderi xxii. 3ff.; Xenophon, 
1 Hellenica, iii. 3, 2. « XenoTphon'sf A gesilaiia, vi. 4. 

J ' 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ft)9 ev Tot9 'jrepl AvKovpyov yeypaTrrai. Bcb koI 
7raTpi.K7]V Tiva tt/jo? avToix; airo tov irakaiov 
8c€TeXovp €vOv<; ol ^acriXelf; (piXoveiKtav koI hia- 

3 <^opav nrapakapftdvovre'i. 6 he ^ K'yrjcri\ao<i eVt 
Trjv ivavTiav ohov rfkOe, ical to iroK.epelv koI 
TO irpocrKpoveiv avrol^ iaaa<i iOepdireve, Trdar]^ 
fiev diT fKeivwv 7rpd^e(o<i dp-)(^opevo<i, el Be kXtj- 
0€Lr), ddrrov tj ^dhrjv eTretyopevo';, 6a-dKL<; he 
Tv\oL Kadi'}pevo<; ev t&) ^aaikiKO) dcoKW koX XPV- 
pxiTL^cov, eTTiovat, Tot9 e(f)opoi<i inre^aviaraTO, roiv 

8' et9 rrjv yepovatav del KarararTO pevmv eKdarw 598 

4 ')(\alvav eirepTre kcu ^ovv dpiaTelov. e« 8e 
TOVTcov Tipdv hoKbiV KoX p.eyoX.'uveiv to d^iwpa 
rrj<i eKeivcov dp')(r)^, eXdvOavev av^wv ttjv eav- 
rov 8vvap,iv xal rfj ^aaiXeia trpocTTLdeptvoq 
peyedo^ €k t/;? 77/309 avrov evvoiaf avyy^copov- 
pevov. 

V. 'Ef 8e Tat9 7r/309 tol'9 dWov<i TToXira'i 
opiXiaLs e^6p6<; rjv dpepirrorepo^ rj (f)iXo<;. Tol'9 
pep yap €\dpov<; dSl/cws ovk e/SXame, T049 Be 
(f)iXoi^ Koi TO. prj BiKaia avveirpaTTe. kuI TOv<i 
pep e^dpov^i rjd'^vpeTO prj ripdp KaTopdovpTa<i, 
TOv<i 8e ^iXov9 OVK eBvparo i^eyeip dpaprdpop- 
Ta9, aWa /cal ^07]6o)p rjydXXeTO Kol crvpe^a- 
piaprdvoiP avrol'i' ovBep yap u>ero ro)v (fycXiKcop 
2 VTTOvpyrjpdrcop ala'^^pop elpai. toi<; 5' av 8ia- 
<f>6poi<i inaia-acn irpoiTo^ avpay^Oopevo'; Kal Berj- 
detcrt (Tvp^TTpaTTCop 7rpoOvp<t)(; eBtjpaycoyeL Kal 
TrpoarjyeTO irdpra^. opwvre^ ovp ol €<popoi ravra 
Kol <po^ovp.epoi, Tr]p BvpaptP i^rjplcoaap avrop, 
alriap virecTroyTe'i on Tot'9 KOivov<i 7ro\tTa9 IBLovi 
KTarai. 



10 



> 



AGESILAUS, IV. 2-v. 2 

Lycurgus.^ Therefore from the outset, and from 
generation to generation, the kings were traditionally 
at feud and variance with them. But Agesilaiis took 
the opposite course. Instead of colliding and fighting 
with them, he courted their favour, winning their 
support before setting out on any undertaking ; and 
whenever he was invited to meet them, hastening to 
them on the run. If ever the ephors visited him 
when he was seated in his royal chair and administer- 
ing justice, he rose in their honour ; and as men 
were from time to time made members of the senate, 
he would send each one a cloak and an ox as a mark 
of honour. Consequently, while he was thought to 
be honouring and exalting the dignity of their office, 
he was unawares increasing his own influence and 
adding to the power of the king a greatness which 
was conceded out of good-will towards him. 

V. In his dealings with the rest of the citizens he 
was less blame-worthy as an enemy than as a friend ; 
for he would not injure his enemies without just 
cause, but joined his friends even in their unjust 
practices. And whereas he was ashamed not to 
honour his enemies when they did well, he could not 
bring himself to censure his friends when they did 
amiss, but actually prided himself on aiding them and 
sharing in their misdeeds. For he thought no aid 
disgraceful that was given to a friend. But if, on the 
other hand, his adversaries stumbled and fell, he was 
first to sympathize with them and give them zealous 
aid if they desired it, and so won the hearts and 
the allegiance of all. The ephors, accordingly, seeing 
this, and fearing his power, laid a fine upon him, 
alleging as a reason that he made the citizens his own, 
who should be the common property of the state. 

1 Chapters v. 6 f. ; vii. 1 f. 

II 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

3 Kaddirep yap ol ^vcnKol ro veiKO^ otoviai 
Kol TTjv epiv, el TMv oXcov i^aipeOett], cnrjvai, 
fiev av Ta ovpdvia, TravaaaOai he Trdvrcov ^ ttjv 
yevecnv kol KivrjaLV vtto rrj<i TTpo<; frdvTa Trdvrwv 
dpjj,ovia<;, ovto)^ eoiKev 6 AaKwviKo<i voixoOeTi]<; 
VTre/cKavfia t?}? dpeTr)<i e/x^aXeiv fi? ttjv iroXi- 
reiav to ^iXoTLp^ov koL <f)i,\6v6iKOV, del Tiva rolf 
d<ya6ol<i Sia(f)opdv koI a/xiWav elvai Trpo<i dWrj- 
\ov<i ^ov\6/jL€vo<;, rrjv he dvOvTreiKovaav Ta> 
dveXeyKTO) ^apii' dpyrjv Kal dvaycovicTTOv ovcrav 

4 ovK opdoi^ ofiovoiav Xeyeadai. tovto he d/xeXei 
avveo)paK€vat Kal top "OfMijpov olovTal rive^' ov 
yap dv TOP Wy afxifivova iroifjaai ')(^alpovra rov 
'Ohvacr€(i)<; Kal tou 'A^j^tWeo)? ei? Xoihoplav 
TTpoay^6evT(t)v " eK7rdyXoi<i eVeecrcrfv," el fxi] fieya 
TOt? KotvoL<i dyaOov evofii^ev elvac top tt/jo? dXXrj- 
\ov<; ^P]Xov Kal rrjv hiacpopdv tmv dplcrTCdv. 
ravra fiev ovv ovk dv oi/tco? rt? aTrXw? crvyy^cii- 
pr](jeiev' al yap virep^oXal toov cpiXoveiKitov '^aXe- 
Tral Tat? noXeai, Kal fieydXavi KLvhvvov<i €)(^ovat. 

VI. Toy he KyrjcnXdov ttjv ^acnXeiav veaxnl 
'irap6tXr](f)6ro'?, drn'^yyeXXov rLve<i e^ 'Acr/a? tjkov- 
T6? ft)? Ylepawv ^aaiXev^ irapacrKeud^oiTO 
/xeydXai aroXw AaKehai/jioviov^ eK^aXelv t^? 
6aXdaar)<;. 6 he Avaavhpo<; eTTidvp.wv avOi<i 
€l<i ^ Kaiav diroaraXrjvaL Kal ^0Tjdr}(TaL rol^ 
(f)iXoi<;, ov<i avro<; p,ev dpxovTa<; Kal Kvplov<; 
Twv iroXecop aTreXnre, KaKco'i he 'y^pco/xevoi Kal 
^ialco<; TOif TTpdy/jLaaiv e^eTrnrrov viro tcoj/ ttoXl- 
Twv Kal direOvriaKov, dveiretae rov ^ AyrjcriXaov 
iircOeaOat rfj aTpareia Kal TrpoTToXefiijaai tt}? 

1 TravTup Coraes and Bekker have TrdvTus (lUterly), an 
early, anonymous correction. 

12 



AGESILAUS, V. 3-vi. i 

Natural philosophers are of the opinion that, if 
strife and discord should be banished from the 
universe, the heavenly bodies would stand still, and 
all generation and motion would cease in consequence 
of the general harmony. And so the Spartan law- 
giver seems to have introduced the spirit of ambition 
and contention into his civil polity as an incentive to 
virtue, desiring that good citizens should always be 
somewhat at variance and in conflict with one another, 
and deeming that complaisance which weakly yields 
without debate, which knows no effort and no 
struggle, to be wrongly called concord. And .some 
think that Homer also was clearly of this mind ; for 
he would not have represented Agamemnon as 
pleased when Odysseus and Achilles were carried 
away into abuse of one another with "frightful 
words," ^ if he had not thought the general interests 
likely to profit by the mutual rivalry and quarrelling 
of the chieftains. This principle, however, must not 
be accepted without some reservations ; for excessive 
rivalries are injurious to states, and productive of 
great perils. 

VI. Agesilaiis had but recently come to the 
throne, when tidings were brought from Asia that the 
Persian king was preparing a great armament with 
which to drive the Lacedaemonians fi*om the sea. 
Now, Lysander was eager to be sent again into Asia, 
and to aid his friends there. These he had left 
governors and masters of the cities, but owing to 
their unjust and violent conduct of affairs, they 
were being driven out by the citizens, and even put 
to death. He therefore persuaded Agesilaus to 
undertake the expedition and make war in behalf of 

^ Odyssey, viii. 75 ff. 

13 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

EXXaSof, aTrtoTaTco Sia^dvra koX (^ddaavra rrjv 

2 Tov ^ap/3dpov 7rapaaK€vi]v. dfia Se rol<; iv 
'Acrla (f)l\oi<i eTreareWe Tre/XTreiv et? AaKeSaifiova 
Kol (TTpaTTjyov 'AyyjalXaov alreia-dai. irapeX- 
6o)v ovv el<i TO 7r\r]do<; ^AyTja(,\ao<i dveSe^aTo 
Tov TToXefiov, el Soiev avrw rpiaKovra fiev rjye- 
fi6va<; KoX (TVfi^ou\ov<; XTrapTiaTa^, v€oBa/u,coBei^ 
Se \oyd8a<; Stcr^tXioi'?, rrjv Se av/x/xa'^iKrjv et? 

3 k^aKLa')(^L\Lov<i hvvapuv. crv pLir pdTTOVTO<i 8e tov 
Avcrdvhpov irdvTa TrpodvpiOi<i i\(n](f)LaavTO, kuI 
TOV ^Aytja-lXaov e^eTrefnrov €vdv<; ^ e')(^ovTa tov<; 
TpidKOVTa STra/OTtara?, o)v 6 AvaavBpo<; rjv irpo)- 
To?,^ oi) Bia Trjv eavTov ho^av Koi hvvapLiv fxovov, 
dWd Koi hid Trjv ^AyijacXdov (ptXlav, w fiel^ov 
eBoKet TTJ'i ^aaiXeiwi dyadov 8ia7r€7rpd')(^6ai ttjv 
(TTpaTrjylav eKeivrjv. 

4 ^AOpoc^op.evr](; Se Tr]<; Svvdpeco^ et? VepaiaTov, 
avTo<; el<i AvXiha KaTeXdcov /iera TOiv (^iXoiv 
Koi vvKT€pevaa<i eSo^e kutu tov<; virrovs etTreiv 
Tiva 7rpo<; avTov " 'fl ^acnXev AaKeSaip^ovlwv, 599 | 
OTi p.€v ovSeh T?}9 'EXXaSo? opov crvp,7rdar}<; dire- 
Selx^y] (TTpaTrjyo'i rj irpoTepov 'Ayapepvcov Kol cri/ 
vvv yLter' CKelvov, evvoel<i hi'j'iTovOev' enel Be tu)V p,ev 
avTMv dp-^€i<; eKeiv(p, Tol<i Be auTol^ 7roXepet<;, aTro 
Be TMv avTOiv tottwv 6ppa<i eirX tov -rroXepov, €Ik6<; 
ecTTi Kol Ovaai ere Trj dew Ovaiav rjv eKelvo<; ev- 

5 TavOa 6vaa<i e^eirXevcrev" dp,a Be 7r&)9 vTTrjXde 
TOV ^ AyrjaiXaov o T779 Koprjt; a(^ayiacrpb6<i, rjv 
TTUTrjp ea(j)a^e TreiadeU toi<; p,dvTe(Tiv. ov prjv 



14 



^ i^tir(ixTToi> evebs MSS. : e^inffiirov after Reiske. 
* irpiuTOS S : (vdvf irpwTOS. 



AGESILAUS, VI. 1-5 

Hellas, proceeding to the farthest point across the 
sea, and thus anticipating the preparations of the 
Barbarian. At the same time he wrote to his friends 
in Asia urging them to send messengers to Sparta 
and demand Agesilaiis as their commander. Accord- 
ingly, Agesilaiis went before the assembly of the 
people and agreed to undertake the war if they 
would grant him thirty Spartans as captains and 
counsellors, a select corps of two thousand enfran- 
chised Helots, and a force of allies amounting to six 
thousand. They readily voted everything, owing to 
the co-operation of Lysander, and sent Agesilaiis 
forth at once with the thirty Spartans. Of these 
Lysander was first and foremost, not only because of 
his own reputation and influence, but also because of 
the friendship of Agesilaiis, in whose eyes his 
procuring him this command was a greater boon than 
his raising him to the throne. 

While his forces were assembling at Geraestus,^ 
Agesilaiis himself went to Aulis with his friends and 
spent the night. As he slept, he thought a voice came 
to him, saying : " King of the Lacedaemonians, thou 
art surely aware that no one has ever been appointed 
general of all Hellas together except Agamemnon, 
in former times, and now thyself, after him. And 
since thou commandest the same hosts that he did, 
and wagest war on the same foes, and settest out for 
the war from the same place, it is meet that thou 
shouldst sacrifice also to the goddess the sacrifice 
which he made there before he set sail." Almost at 
once Agesilaiis remembered the sacrifice of his own 
daughter 2 which Agamemnon had there made in 
obedience to the soothsayers. He was not disturbed, 

^ In the spring of 396 B.C. 

8 Iphigeneia. Cf. Euripides, Iph. AuL, 1540 fF. (Kirchhoflf). 

15 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Sierdpa^ev avrov, ak\ avaara^ Koi Sirjyrjcrd- 
/jievo<i Tot9 <^tXot9 TO. <f>avevTa Tr}v fiev deov €(f)ij 
Tifirjaetv oh eiKo^ eart \aLpeii' deov ovaav, ov 
fii/itjaeaOai Se rijv dirdOeLav^ rov Tore cTTparr}- 
you. KoX Karaare'^a^ eXac^ov eiceXevaev dirdp^a- 
adai Tov eavTov fidvriv, ov^ wairep eloidet tovto 

6 TTOietv viro twi^ Bocwtmv rerayp^evo^. aKovaavTe^ 
ovv ol jBoiwrdpy^at tt/oo? opyrjv KLvridevre<i eVeyu,- 
^\rav UTT^/pera?, dirayopevovTes T(p ^AyrjaiXdw /xt) 
dveiv irapd TOv<i vo/jlou<; koX rd TraTpia Solcotiov. 
ol Be Kal ravTU aTTr'jyyecXav Kal rd firjpia Btep- 
piyjrav dtro rov ^cop,ov. ^j^aXeTTCo? ovv e'^cov 6 
^AyyjcTiXao'; direTrXei, rot? re (Br]/3aioi<; Stcopyta- 
p,evo<; Kal yeyovax; SvcreXTri^ Sid tov olcovov, co? 
dreXoov avrw tmv irpd^eoiv yevrjaop^evaiv koI t^9 
trTparcia<; eirl to TrpocrrJKOv ovk dcpi^op^evrj^. 

VII. 'ETrei Se rjKev ei<; "K(}}ecrov, evOv^; d^icopa 
fxeya Kal Svvap.i<; yv eirax^V'^ teal ^apela ire pi tov 
AvaavSpov, 6)(Xov (jfjOiTwyro? eVt Td<i Oupa<i eKda- 
roTe Kal TrdvTcov TrapaKoXovOovvTWV Kal depa- 
TrevovTcov eKctvov, to? ovofxa fiev Kal a')(ripLa rfjs 
(XTpaTriyta^ tov ^ AyrjcnXaov eyovTa^ hia tov 
vop>ov, epyrp he Kvptov ovTa ^ dirdvTcov Kal Svvd- 
fievov Kal irpdrTovra iravra tov AvaavSpov. 

2 ouSet? yap heivoTepo<i ovSe (po^epcoTepof eKeivov 
Twv eh Trjv ^Aaiav dTToaTaXevTwv eyevero crTpa- 
T^iyoiV, ovhe /jiel^ova roi)? (ptXov^ avrjp dXXo<i 
evepyeTTjaer ov8e KaKd Ti]XiKavTa tov^ e')(dpov<i 
ircoirjaev. mv en TrpocrcfidTcov ovrcov ol dvOponroi 



* airddetav S and Amyot : aixadiav {stupidity). 

* fXovra Coraes, after Reiske : ovra. 
' Kipi-ov ivTa Reiske : Kipiov. 

x6 



AGESILAUS, VI. 5-vii. 2 

however, but after rising up and imparting his vision 
to his friends, declared that he would honour the 
goddess with a sacrifice in which she could fitly take 
pleasure, being a goddess, and would not imitate the 
cruel insensibility of his predecessor. So he caused 
a hind to be wreathed with chaplets, and ordered 
his own seer to perform the sacrifice, instead of the 
one customarily appointed to this office by the 
Boeotians. Accordingly, when the Boeotian magis- 
trates heard of this, they were moved to anger, and 
sent their officers, forbidding Agesilaiis to sacrifice 
contrary to the laws and customs of the Boeotians. 
These officers not only delivered their message, but 
\ also snatched the thigh-pieces of the victim from the 
'Taltar.^ Agesilaiis therefore sailed away in great (?L-^ 
' distress of mind ; he was not only highly incensed at 
the Thebans, but also full of ill-boding on account of 
the omen. He was convinced that his undertakings 
would be incomplete, and that his expedition would 
. have no fitting issue. 

VII. As soon as he came to Ephesus, the great 
dignity and influence which Lysander enjoyed were 
burdensome and grievous to him. The doors of 
Lysander were always beset with a throng, and all 
followed in his train and paid him court, as though 
\ Agesilaiis had the command in name and outward 
/^ppearance, to comply with the law, while in fact 
Lysander was master of all, had all jiower, and did 
everything.2 In fact, none of the generals sent out 
to Asia ever had more power or inspired more fear 
than he ; none other conferred greater favours on Iiis 
friends, or inflicted such great injuries upon his 
enemies. All this was still fresh in men's minds, and 

, 1 Cf. Xenophon, Hell. iii. 4, 3 f. 
^ 2 Cf. Xenophou, Hell. iii. 4, 7. 

17 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

fivr)/j,ov€vovT€<;, aX\co<; Be rov fiev 'AytjalXaoi 
acpeXr] Kal Xirov iv Tai<; ofxCkiat^ /cal hi]^oriKov 
opcovTC^, iKeiv(p Se Tr]v avrijv 6fioL(i><; (j^ohporrjTa 
Kal Tpa-^inriTa Kal ^pa^vXoyiav irapovaav, 
vTreTriTTTov avrw iravTairacn, Kal [x6v(p irpoa-ely^ov. 

3 eK Be TOUTOV irpoorop /m€v ol Xonrol ^Traprtdrai 
')(a\e7rw<i ecf^epov inr-qpeTav AvadvSpov fiaWov rj 
avp-^ovXoi /Sao-tXeo)? ovre';' eireLra 8' avro<i 6 
'AyrjaiXao'i, el Kal firj (pdoi^epof rjv fit]Be ri')(deTO 
TOi? Ti/j,o)fievoi<i, dXXa (pLX6ri/j,o<; wv acpoSpa Kal 
(piX6v€iK0<i, e(f)o/3eiTO fii], k&v iveyKcoal ti Xa/xTrpov 
al 7rpd^et,<i, tovto AvadvSpou yevrjrai, Bid rrjv 
Bo^av. ouT&)9 ovv eirolei. 

4 UpMTOv dvreKpove rat'i (Tvix^ovXiai<; auroO, 
Kal 7rpo<i a<i eKCivo^ eairovBdKet pdXicna Trpd^ei^i 
eoiv "^aipeiv Kal Trapap.eXoiv, erepa irpo eKeivwv 
eirpaTrev eTreira tmv evrvyxavovrayv Kal Beo- 
fieviov ov<i atcrOoiTO AvadvBpw fidXiara Treiroi- 
06Ta<i, aTTpdKTOu^ dTreTrep-Tre' Kal nepl Ta<i Kpiaet*; 
OfioLO)^ ot9 eKeZvo<i e7n]ped^oi, TOVTov<i eBeL irXeov 
€-)(^ovTa<i dweXOelv, Kal roviavnov ov<; (f)avep6<i 
yevoiTO 7rpo9vpovpevo<i axpeXetv, ')(^aXe'iTov rjv firj 

5 Kal ^rip.io)6y}vai. yivofievcop Be tovtoov ov Kara 
TV')(r)v, dXX^ olov eK irapaaKevrj'i Kal opaXS)^, 
alad6p€vo<i TTjv alriav 6 AvaavBpo^ ovk dire- 
KpvTrrero irpo^ tov^ (f>iXov<;, aXA,' eXeyev to? Be" 
avTov drifidi^oLVTO, Kal TrapeKdXei depaireveiv 
i6vTa<; TOP /BaaiXea Kal tov^ fiaXXov avrov 
Bvvapevov^, 

VIII. 'fiif ovv ravTa irpdrreiv Kal Xeyeiv 
eBoKec (f)66vop eKeipo) fir)^ap(it)/xepo<i, en /xaXXop 
avTov Kaddy^aadai l3ovX6p,evo<i ^ AyijalXao^i dire- 

i8 



AGESILAUS, VII. 2-vin. i 

besides, when they saw the simple, plain, and familiar 
manners of Agesilaiis, while Lysander retained the 
same vehemence and harshness, and the same brevity 
of speech as before, they yielded to the latter's in- 
fluence altogether, and attached themselves to him 
alone. As a consequence of this, in the first place, 
the rest of the Spartans were displeased to find them- 
selves assistants of Lysander rather than counsellors 
of the king ; and, in the second place, Agesilaiis him- 
self, though he was not an envious man, nor displeased 
that others should be honoured, but exceedingly ambi- 
tious and high-spirited, began to fear that any brilUant 
success which he might achieve in his undertakings 
would be attributed to Lysander, owing to popular 
opinion. He went to work, therefore, in this way. 

To begin with, he resisted the counsels of Lysander, 
and whatever enterprises were most earnestly favoured 
by him, these he ignored and neglected, and did other 
things in their stead ; again, of those who came to 
solicit favours from him, he sent away empty-handed 
all who put their chief confidence in Lysander ; and 
in judicial cases likewise, all those against whom 
Lysander inveighed were sure to come off victorious, 
while, on the contrary, those whom he was manifestly 
eager to help had hard work even to escape being 
fined. These things happened, not casually, but as 
if of set purpose, and uniformly. At last Lysander 
perceived the reason, and did not hide it from his 
friends, but told them it was on his account that tliey 
were slighted, and advised them to go and pay their 
court to the king, and to those more influential with 
him than himself. 

Vin. Accordingly, since his words and acts 
seemed contrived to bring odium upon the king, 
Agesilaiis, wishing to despite him still more, 

19 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Bei^e KpeoSaLTy]v koI irpoaelirev, «?- Xeyerai, 
TToWwv (iKOvovTwv " NOf ovv depaiTeveTcoaav 

2 OVTOL Cl'TTLOVre'i TOV i/jLOV Kp€00aiT7]v'' d^d6/jLevo<i 

ovv 6 AvcravSpo^ Xeyei tt/jo? avrov " "IhSci? apa 
aa<^Si<i/ AyrjaiXae, (^i\ov<i eXarrovvy "Nr] I^r,'^^ 60C 
€(f)r], " TOV<i efxov /xel^ov Bvvaadai /SovXopLevovi. 
Koi 6 AvaavSpo^, " 'AXX' tcra><;," e<pj], " raura 
(Tol XeXeKTai (BeXnov r) ep-oi ireTrpaKrai. 86<i 8e 
p,ot riva Tu^ip Kol X(^p(^^ evda p,7] Xviroiv eaopai 

3 (TOi ^p7;crt/zo9." eV tovtou Trep^Trerai p,€v e^' 

^XXtjaTTOi'Tov, Kol X7ri0pi8dT7]v, avBpa TLiparjv, 
aTTo T>79 ^apva^d^ou ')(wpa<i pberd -^piipidTCiiv 
av)(ya)V Kol SiaKoaccdv iinreoyv ij'yaye 7rp6<; rov 
^AyrjaiXaov, ovk €Xi]y€ Se tt}? opyrj^, dXXa ^a- 
pe(o<; (pepcov i]8r} tov Xolttov ')(p6vov e^ovXevev 
OTTO)? royv Sveiv o'lKwv ttjv ^acnXeiav d(^eX6pL€vo^ 
€l<i pLecrov oLTracnv dirohoLrj "^'TrapTidraL'^, KaX 
ihoKGL pLeydXrjv av direpydaaadai Kivijcnv ck 
Taurr;? t?}? Bia(f)opd<;, el p-rj rrporepov ireXeu- 

4 TTjaev el<i Jioicorlav cnparevaa^. outo)<; al (f)tX6- 
ripLoi (f)vaei<; iv rats" TroXiTeiat'i, to ciyav p-rj 
(f)vXa^dpi6vai, rov dyadov piel^ov to kukov e)(^ovai. 
Koi yap el Avaavhpo<i rjv (popriKOf;, coa-nep rfv, 
virep^aXXoiV ttj (f)iXorip,la rov Kaipov, ovk rjyvoei 
hrjiTovdev ^ AyiiaiXao<i erepav dpLepnTTorepav eirav- 
opOcoaiv ovcrav dvhpo^ evho^ov kul 4)iXoTipLov 
irXrjpLpLeXovvTO'i. dXX^ eoiKe ravTw TrdOei p,i]Te 
eKelvo^ dp^ovTO^ i^ovcnav yvoyvat, p-y'jTe ovro'i 
dyvoiav iveyKclv crvp/jOovi. 

IX. 'Evrel Be Ti(Ta(peppi]<i ev dpxf} P'f^v ^o/3>/- 



1 N!j aC Cobet, comparing Xenophoii, Hell. iii. 4, 9 : 
HiZiiv (I know how to humble). 

20 



AGESILAUS, VIII. i-ix. i 

appointed him his carver of meats, and once 
said, we are told, in the hearing of many : " Now 
then, let these suppliants go off to my carver of 
meats and pay their court to him." Lysander, then, 
deeply pained, said to him : " I see, Agesilaiis, that 
thou knowest veiy well how to humble thy friends." 
" Yes indeed," said the king, "those who wish to be 
more powerful than I am." Then Lysander said: 
"Well, perhaps these words of thine are fairer than 
my deeds. Give me, however, some post and place 
where I shall be of service to thee, without vexing 
thee." ^ Upon this he was sent to the Hellespont, 
and brought over to Agesilaiis from the country of 
Pharnabazus, Spithridates, a Persian, with much 
money and two hundred horsemen. He did not, 
however, lay aside his wrath, but continued his 
resentment, and from this time on planned how he 
might wrest the kingdom from the two royal families, 
and make all Spartans once more eligible to it. And 
it was thought that he would have brought about a 
great disturbance in consequence of this quarrel, had 
not deat h ov ertaken him on his expedition into 
Boeotia.^ Thus ambitious natures in a common- 
wealth, if they do not observe due bounds, work 
greater harm tlian good. For even though Lysander 
was troublesome, as he was, in gratifying his am- 
bition unseasonably, still, Agesilaiis must surely have 
known another and more blameless way of correcting 
a man of high repute and ambition when he erred. 
As it was, it seems to have been due to the same 
passion that the one would not recognize the au- 
thority of his superior, nor the other endure the 
being ignored by his friend and comrade. 

IX. At first Tisajjhernes was afraid of Agesilaiis, 

-- ^ Cf. Lysander, xxiii. 9. ^ Cf. Lysander, xxiv.-xxviii. 
VOL. V ' '  ^' B 




\ 

PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

6el<; rbv ^AyijaiXaov eiroLrjaaTO cnrovBd<i, 009 ra? 
TToXei? avTM ra<i 'EW7]vt8a<i a<^r}aovTO<i avro- 
v6fM0V<; /3acri\e&)?, vcnepov he 7Teiadel<i €-)(€iv 
Suva/xiv iKavrjv e^i'jvejKe tov iroXefiov, aa-jxevo^ 6 

2 ^ A'yi)crL\ao<i ehe^aro, TrpoaSoKia lyap yv fMeyaXy] 
T779 aTpaT€ia<;- kol heivov rjjeiTO tou? fiev avv 
S€V0(j)6)im fivpiov; i^Keiv eVi dakarrav, oaaKi^i 
i^ov\i]d7]crav avTol ToaavTdKL<i ^aatkea vevLKrj- 
Kora^;, avrov he AaKeSai/xovicov ap^ovTO<i r}<yov- 
fxevcov <yTJ<; koI daXdcrcrr}^ ixrjhev epyov d^Lov 
fiV7jfj,r]<i <f)avyvai Trpo? Tov<i "KW7]va<;. evdvt; 
ovv d/jiVv6fievo<; dTrdrr) BiKala rrjv Tia-a<f)epi'ou<; 
eiTiopKlav, eirehet^ev u><; eVt Haplav irpod^wv, 
ixel he ttjv hvvafxiv tov l3apj3dpov avvaOpol- 

3 aavTo<i dpa<; et? ^pvyiav ive/SaXe. koX iroKei'^ 
fiev elXe av)(yd<i koI -x^pTj/uLdroyv d(f)06vcov exv- 
plevcrev, e7Tih€iKvvp,€vo<i Tot? cf)l\oi,^ on to fiev 
aireicrd/xevov dhtKelv tcov Oeojv eari KaTa(f)povetv, 
ev he Tw TrapaXoyl^eaOai tou? 7ro\eplov<i ov 
p,6vov TO hiKaLOV, dWd koX ho^a ttoWtj koI to 
pued^ r)hovrj<i Kephaiveiv evecm. Tot? he iTTTrevaiv 
iXaTTO)d€l<i Kol TOiV lepwv dXo^cov <f)av6VT(ov, 
dva')((>) py](J a<i et? ' R(f)eaov ittttikov avvrjye, Tot? 
ev7r6pot<i irpoenroiv, et, p,r] jSouXovTai cnpaTeveaOai, 
irapacr'xeiv eKacrrov I'ttttov dv6^ eaurov kol dvhpa. 

4 TToXXol S' ^aav ovroi, koX crvve/Saive tm 'Ayqai- 
Xdo) Ta')(y 7roXXov<; Koi 7roX6/jLiKov<; e^^i-i' fTTTret? 
civtI heiXoyv ottXitcop. epiiaOovvTO yap ol fit] 
^ovXopevoi aTpareveaOai tol'9 ^ovXoixevov<; crrpa- 



22 



AGESILAUS, IX. 1-4 

and made a treaty in which he promised him to 
make the Greek cities free and independent of the 
King. Afterwards, however, when he was convinced 
that he had a sufficient force, he declared war, and 
Agesilaiis gladly accepted it. For he had great ex- 
pectations from his expedition, and he thought it 
would be a disgraceful thing if, whereas Xenophon 
and his Ten Thousand had penetrated to the sea, 
and vanquished the King just as often as they 
themselves desired, he, in command of the Lace- 
daemonians, who had the supremacy on sea and 
land, should perform no deed worthy of remem- 
brance in the eyes of the Hellenes. At once, 
then, requittDg the perjury of Tisaphernes with a 
righteous deception, he gave out word that he was 
going to lead his troops against Caria ; but when the 
Barbax'ian had assembled his forces there, he set out 
and made an incursion into Phrygia. He captured 
many cities and made himself master of boundless 
treasure, thus shewing plainly to his friends that the 
violation of a treaty is contempt for the, gods, but 
that in outwitting one's enemies there is not only 
justice, but also great glory, and profit mixed with 
pleasure. However, since he was inferior in cavalry 
and his sacrifices were unpropitious, he retired to 
Ephesus and began to get together a force of horse- 
men, commanding the Avell-to-do, in case they did 
not wish to perform military service themselves, to 
furnish instead every man a horse and rider. There 
were many who chose this course, and so it came 
to pass that Agesilaiis quickly had a large force 
of warlike horsemen instead of worthless men-at- 
arms.i For those who did not wish to do military 
service hired those who did, and those who did not 

L- 1 Cf. Xenophon, Hell. iii. 4, 15. 

23 



> 



J 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

reveaOai, ol he fxr) ^ovKofievoi 'nnreveiv tou5 
^ov\ofiepov<i lirTTeveiv} koI yap rov ^Aya/xe/J-vova 
TTOiTjaai Ka\.c!)<; on dyjXeiav "ttttov ayaOijv Xa^cov 
KaKov avSpa koX TrXouatov a7r')]Wa^e tj}? arpa- 
5 rem?, iirel Be K€\€vaavro<; avTou rov^ at;Y/"'flXco- 
Tov^ arrohvoine'i iimrpaaKov ol XacpvpoTTcbXai, 
Kot rrj<; jiev iaOr]TO<; rjcrav wvqral ttoWol, tmv Be 
awfidrcov \evKO)V koX aTToKoyv TravraTraai Bia Ta<i 
crKiaTpa(f)ia<; yu/jLvovp.€V(ov Kareyekwv co? «X/^'i" 
(7TC0V Kol p.TjBevo'i a^Lcov, eVtcTTa? o AyrjaLXao^;, 
" OvTOi /u,eV," eTirev, " ol? fid'^ecrde, Taina Be 
vtrep (t)v pLa^eaoe. 

X. Ixaipov he ovTO<i av6L<; ep^aXelv eh rrjv 
TToXepiav TTpoelirev el<i Avhtav ciTrd^eiv, ovKeri 
"xjrevhopevo^; ivravda rov lLiaa(f)epvrjV' aX\' eKelvo^; 
eavrov e^rjiraTija-e, hia rrjv epLirpoaOev cnrdrriv 
diriaTcov rw ^AyrjaiXdw, koX vvv yovv avrov 
d^eaOai rr}? Kapta^ vopl^wv ovcrrj^i hvalinrov 601 

2 TToXv TM 'nrTTiKU) XeiTTopevov. eirel he, co? Trpoei- 
irev, o ^ Ay 7] a iXao<^ rJKev et? to Trepl Sa/oSet? irehiov, 
r^vayKu^eTO Kara a7rovhi]V eKeldev av ^orjOelv o 
Tiaa(f)€pi''t]<i' Kol tt} 'liT'irw hte^eXavvcov hi€(f)Oecpe 
iroXXovf; rcov dra/CTO)? to irehiov TTopdovvrcov. 
evvoi]aa<i ovv 6 AyrjoLXaa on toI<; TroXepLoi^ 
ovTTQ) rrdpean to ire^ov, avro) he t?*}? hvvdp,eo)^ 

3 ovhev aTreanv, eaTxevcre htaywviaaadai. Kal TOi? 
pLev LTTTreva-iv dvapl^a<; ro TreXraanKov, eXavveiv 
eKeXevcrev (o? Td')(^Lara kol Trpoa^dXXeiv rol^t 
ivavTL0L<;, avTO<i he evdv<i rou? OTrXtTa? iirriye, 
y€i'opt,€vrj<; he Tp07rt]<; rtav ^ap^dpwv eTTUKoXovd-q- 

^ iaiadovvTo . . . tTTTreyeii/ bracketed by Sintenis- and Cobet. 
The sentence is wanting iu Apophlhtg. Lacon. 12 [Morula, 
p. 209 b). 

24 



AGESILAUS, IX. 4-x. 3 

wish to serve as horsemen hired those who did. 
Indeed, Agesilaiis thought Agamemnon had done 
well in accepting a good mare and freeing a cowardly 
rich man fi-om military service. ^ And once when, by 
his orders, his prisoners of war were stripped of their 
clothing and offered for sale by the venders of booty, 
their clothing found many purchasers, but their 
naked bodies, which were utterly white and delicate, 
owing to their effeminate habits, were ridiculed as 
useless and worthless. Then Agesilaiis, noticing, 
said: "These are the men with whom you fight, 
and these the things for which you fight." 

X, When the season again favoured an incursion 
mto the enemy's country,^ Agesilaiis gave out that 
he would march into Lydia, and this time he was 
not trying to deceive Tisaphernes. That satrap, how- 
ever, utterly deluded himself, in that he disbelieved 
Agesilaiis because of his former trick, and thought 
that now, at any rate, the king would attack Caria, 
although it was ill-suited for cavalry, and he was far 
inferior in that arm of the service. But Agesilaus, 
as he had given out that he Avould do, marched into 
the plain of Sardis, and then Tisaphei-nes was forced 
to hasten thither from Caria with aid and relief; and 
riding through the plain with his cavalry, he cut off" 
many straggling plunderers there. Agesilaiis, ac- 
cordingly, reflecting that the enemy's infantry had 
not yet come up, while his own forces were complete, 
made haste to give battle. He mingled his light- 
armed infantry with his horsemen, and ordered them 
to charge at full speed and assault the enemy, while 
he himself at once led up his men-at-ai-ms. The 
Barbarians were put to flight, and the Greeks, 

1 Iliad, xxiii. 296 ff. 

^ In the spring of 395 B.C.; ef. Xenophon, Hell. lit. 4, 16 ff. 

25 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

aavTe(i ol "¥AWr]ve<; eXa^ov to aTparuTreSov Ka\ 
TToWoix; dveiXov. e« rauTrj'i t?}? fid-)('>]<; ov fxovov 
VTTrjp^ev avTo2<i dyeiv koI (pepeiv aSeco? ryv f^aai- 
Xe«<? -y^capav, dWa Kal Slktjv irnSeLv Tiaatf)epvi]v 
SiSovTa, p,o')(^dripov dvSpa Kal tm <yeveL TWv'YjWr}- 

4 vwv direyBkaTaTov. €7T€p,yjre <yap €vdeo)<; o I3acn- 
Xeu? TtOpavarrjv eV avrov, 09 eKeivov fxev Tr]v 
K€(j)a\7]v aTrerefie, rov Se ^AyijalXaov tj^lov 8ia- 
Xuadfievov dTroirXeiv oLKaSe, Kal y^pi'ipbara hihov^ 
avT(f> Trpoaeirep.'^ev. o he tt}? p^ev elptjvrj'i ecpi] 
rrjv TToXiv elvai Kvpiav, avro^ Be ttXovtl^cov tov^ 
arparLOL)Ta<i ijSeaOac p,dX\ov rj irXovTOiV avros' 
Kal dX\o)<i <ye p.evTOC vop.L^eiv "EXXi]va<; KaXov ov 
Bojpa Xap^^dveiv, dXXd Xdcjivpa irapa TOiv TToXe- 

5 pi'iwv. 0/1.0)9 Be TO) T id pavcrrr) '^^api^eaOac /3ovX6- 
p.€vo<;, ore rov koivov i^^pov 'EXX7]vcov ireTi- 
pid)pr]T0 Ti(Ta<pepvr]v, aTnjyayei' els' ^pvy'iav to 
(TTpdT€vp.a, Xa/3u)V e(p6Biov Trap" avTOu TpiuKOVTa 
TaXaina. 

Kat KaO' 6B0V o)V <TKVTdX')]V Bex^Tai irapd twv 
o'lkoi, Te\cov KeXevovfrav avTov dp-^eiv dp,a Kal 
Tov vavTiKOv. TOUTO pbovcp TrdvTwv VTrrjp^ev 
^Ayi]cnXd(p. Kal p.eyiaT0<; fxev rjv 6pioXoyovp,evu><i 
Kal TMV t6t€ ^d)VTa>v eirccfiaveaTaTO'i, o)? etprjKe 
TTov Kal ©eowo/iTTO?, eavTM ye p.r)v eBlBov Bi dpe- 

6 Trjv (jjpovelv p,el^ov rj Bid ttjv i)yepiovla]'. Tore Bt 
TOV vavTiKov KaTaaT)'](Ta^ dp-)(^0VTa TleiaavBpov 
dpiapTelv eBo^ev, on irpecr^vrepaiv Kal c^povipioi- 
Tep(ov irapovTcov ov aKeylrdpLevo<i to tt}? TraTplBo^, 
dXXd TTJV oiKeiOTTjTa Tip,6i)v Kal Trj yvvaixl xapi- 
^op.evo'i, rj<; dBeX(po<; rjv 6 Ueia-avBpci, eKeiva 
irapeBuiKe ttjv vavap^iav. 



26 






AGESILAUS, X. 3-6 

following close upon them, took their camp and slew 
many of them. As a result of this battle, the Greeks 
could not only harry the country of the King without 
fear, but had the satisfaction of seeing due punish- 
ment inflicted upon Tisaphernes, an abominable man, 
and most hateful to the Greek race. For the King 
at once sent Tithraustes after him, who cut off his 
head, and asked Agesilaiis to make terms and sail 
back home, offering him money at the hands of 
envoys. But Agesilaiis answered that it was for his 
city to make peace, and that for his own part, he 
took more pleasure in enriching his soldiers than in 
getting rich himself; moreover, the Greeks, he said, 
thought it honourable to take, not gifts, but spoils, 
from their enemies. Nevertheless, desiring to gratify 
Tithraustes, because he had punished Tisaphernes, 
that common enemy of the Greeks, he led his army 
back into Phrygia, taking thirty talents from the 
viceroy to cover the expenses of the march. 

On the road he received a dispatch-roll from the 
magistrates at home, which bade him assume control 
of the navy as well as of the army.^ This was an 
honour which no one ever received but Affesilaiis. 
And he was confessedly the greatest and most il- 
lustrious man of his time, as Theopompus also has 
somewhere said, although he prided himself more on 
his virtues than on his high command. But in 
putting Peisander in charge of the navy at this time, 
he was thought to have made a mistake ; for there 
were older and more competent men to be had, and 
yet he gave the admiralty to him, not out of regard 
for the public good, but in recognition of the claims 
of relationship and to gratify his wife, who was a sister 
of Peisander. 

1 Cf. Xenophon, Hell. iii. 4, 27 ff. 

27 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XL AvTO<i Se rov arpuTOv Karaar/jaa^; et? tijv 
VTTO ^apva^d^(p reTay/xevrjv -^wpav ov fiovov ev 
a(^9uvoL<i Biijye irdaiv, aWa koI ■y^p)]iiaTa avvfjje 
iroWd' KOI -npoekdoiv a)(^pi Tla(^\ayovLa<i Trpocr- 
r}ydy€TO top ^aacXea TOiv Y\a^\ay6vu>v, Koxft', 
eTrtdufiijo-avTa t?}? (f)i\La<; avrov Si' dperrjv KaX 

2 TTiaTiv. 6 he ^TTiOpLSaTrj^, to? d7ro(Tra<i tov 
^apval3d^ov to irpSyrov r/Xde Trpo? rov 'Ayijat- 
Xaov, del avvaTrehi^iiei koI crvvearpdTeuev avrS), 
KaWiarov viov fiev exf^v, IS/Ieya^dTtjv, ov 7rai86<i 
6vT0<i rjpa a(f)o8po)<i ^Ayi]al\ao<;, KaXrjv Se Kal 
dvyarepa Trapdevov iv rjXiKLa ydfiov, TavTtjv 

3 eireiae yijfiai tov Kotvv 6 ^AyijcrlXaof;- kol Xa^cou 
vap avTOv ^tXtoi;? tTTTret? koX hicx^iXiov^ ireXra' 
crra? av0i<; dvexcopyjaev et9 ^pvylav, koX KaKco<; 
iiroiet, Tr]p ^apva^d^ov ')(^c!opav ov^ vTro/xevovTOi; 
ovSe TTiarevovTO^ toI^ ipv/xaaiv, dXXa e'%a)i' del 
ra irXelcna avv eavru) rwv ti/xlcov koI dyaTrijTMV 
e^e^wpei Kal vTT6(f)€uyev aXXore dXXa')(^6ae rfj<i 
^c6pa9 ixedLhpv6[xevo<i, p-ej^pt ov 7rapa(f)vXd^a'i 
avTov 6 ^7Ti0pLBdTr]<; Kal irapaXa/Scov 'HpcTnrlBav 
TOP 'StirapTtdrrip eXa/Se to arpaTOTreSov Kal T(av 

4 ')(pr]/xdr(ov dTrdvTcov eKpdrrjaev. evda Srj 7nKp6<; 
o)v 6 'Viptinrlha^ i^eraarr}^ rcov KXaTrevrcov, Kal 
TOL"? ^ap^dpov<i dpayKa^cop aTroTiOecrOat., Kal 
irdvTa icfiopcbp Kal Biep€vvcop,ei'o^, Trapco^vi'e top 
ItiTiOpihdTriv, Mcrre direXdelv evdvi et? XdpBeif 
fierd T(i)p YlacjiXayovcop. 

TouTO Xeyerac rO) ^ Ay }]a iXdco yeveadat irdvTwv 60$ 



28 



AGESILAUS, XI. 1-4 

XI. As for himself, he stationed his army in the 
province of Pharnabazus,^ where he not only lived in 
universal plenty, but also accumulated much money. 
He also advanced to the confines of Paphlagonia and 
brought Cotys, the king of the Paphlagonians, into 
alliance with him, for his virtues, and the confidence 
which he inspired, inclined the king to desire his 
friendship. Spithridates also, from the time when 
he abandoned Pharnabazus and came to Agesilaiis, 
always accompanied him in his journeys and expedi- 
tions. Spithridates had a son, a very beautiful boy, 
named Megabates, of whom Agesilaiis was ardently 
enamoured, and a beautiful daughter also, a maiden 
of marriageable age. This daughter Agesilaiis per- 
suaded Cotys to marry, and then receiving from him 
a thousand horsemen and two thousand targeteers, 
he retired again into Phrygia, and harassed the 
country of Pharnabazus, who did not stand his ground 
nor trust in his defences, but always kept most of 
liis valued and precious things with him, and with- 
drew or fled from one part of the country to another, 
having no abiding place. At last Spithridates, who 
had narrowly watched him, in conjunction with 
Herippidas the Spartan,^ seized his camp and 
made himself master of all his treasures. Here, 
however, Herippidas, who had too sharp an eye 
to the booty that was stolen, and forced the Bar- 
barians to restore it, watching over and enquiring 
into everything, exasperated Spithridates, so that 
he marched off at once to Sardis with the Paph- 
lagonians. 

This is said to have annoyed Agesilaiis beyond all 

1 In the fall of 395 B.C.; cf. Xenophon, Hdl. iv. 1, 1 fif. 

* The leader of the second company of thirty Spartan 
counsellors sent out in the spring of 395 B.C. Cf. Xenophon, 
Hdl. iii. 4, 20. 

29 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

aiaapoTUTov. y-^Oero /nev yap avhpa yevvatov 
dTro/Se^XtjKax; top XTnOpiBdrriv Kal avv avrQ> 
hvvafjiiv ovK oXLyrjv, rjayyvero he rrj Sia^oXfj rrjf; 
fiiKpoXoyla^; Kal dvekevOepla^, 779 ov fiovov avrov, 
aX\a Kal rrjv TrarpiSa Kadapeuovaav del irape- 

5 ^eii' €cf)i\oTip.€iTo. %ft)/oi9 he ro)v e/xcftavMV rov- 
Tcov eKvi^ei' avrov ov [xerpiw^ tov naiSo'? 
ep(o<; evearay/jiei'O'i, el Kal ttuvv 7rap6vTo<i ainov 
To3 (piXoveiKU) ')(^pu)fievo^ eireipdro veaviKco^ diro- 
pudyeaOai Tvpo'i rijv eTTiOv/xiav. Kal Trore tov 
^leya^aTOV 7rpoacovTO<i oo? daTraao/xevov Kal 

6 <^t\i']aovTo<i e^eKXivev. iirel 8e eKelvo^i alcy^vv- 
6el<; eTravcraro Kal to Xoittov drrcodev rjhi irpoarj- 
yopevev, d^06/jievo<i av irdXiv Kal /xeTa/j.eXopievo'i 
rfi <^vyfi rov (j)i\)]/j,aro<i, 6 WyijaiXao^ irpoae- 
TToietTO Oavfj-d^eiv 6 tc 8r) TradcJov avrov 6 Me7a- 
^drr}^ diro aT6/jLaT0<; ov (f)iXo(f)povoiTO. " Xv yap 
atrioq, ' oi avvi]Oei<; e(paaav, " ov)(^ v7roaTd<i, 
dXXd T/jeo"a<? to (^iXrjixa rov KaXov Kal (f)O^i]0ei<i' 
€7rel Kal vvv dv eXOoi aoi 7rei(J0el<; e'/ceu'o? eVTo? 
<f)cX7]fxaT0<;' dXX oVw? av9L<i ovk dTToheiXLaaei^.^' 

7 'Xpovou ovv TLva 7rpo<i eavrw yevop^evo^ Ayrj- 
alXao'i Kal htaaL0)7ri](ra<i, " OvBev," €(f)rj, " heu'ov^ 
rreiOeiv vp,d<; eKeirov iycb yap p.01 Sokm Ti']vav 
rdv fxa-^av rav irepl rov (f)i.Xdp.aTO<: dhiov dv 
IJid')(^e(Tdai, irdXiv rj irdvTa oaa reOeap^at -y^pvcna 
p,oc yeveaOai.'' TOiouTO? p,ev r/v tov AleyafSdrov 
irapovTO'i, dTreX9ovTO<i ye jurjv ovtco TrepiKao)^ 
€(T^ev ft)? ■)^aXe7r6v elireiv el irdXiv av p.eTa^a\o- 
fievov Kal (pavevTOf; eveKapreprjae fx-q (f)t.Xi]Orjvai, 

^ Zetvhv Reiske's correction of the Sttv of the MSS., adopted 
by both Sinteuis and Bekker ; Stephanas read Se? {there is 
no need). 

30 



AGESILAUS, XI. 4-7 

else. For he was pained at tlie loss of a gallant man 
in Spithridates, and with him of a considerable force, 
and was ashamed to labour under the charge of petti- 
ness and illiberality, from which he was always am- 
bitious to keep not only himself, but also his country, 
pure and free. And apart from these manifest 
reasons, he was irritated beyond measure by his love 
for the boy, which was now instilled into his heart, 
although when the boy was present he would summon 
all his resolution and strive mightily to battle against 
his desires. Indeed, when Megabates once came up 
and offered to embrace and kiss him, he declined his 
caresses. The boy was mortified at this, and desisted, 
and afterwards kept his distance when addressing 
him, whereupon Agesilaiis, distressed now and re- 
pentant for having avoided his kiss, pretended to 
wonder what ailed Megabates that he did not greet 
him with a kiss. " It is thy fault," the king's com- 
panions said ; " thou didst not accept, but didst 
decline the fair one's kiss in fear and trembling ; yet 
even now he might be persuaded to come within 
range of thy lips ; but see that thou dost not again 
play the coward." Then, after some time spent in 
silent reflection, Agesilaiis said : " There is no harm 
in your persuading him ; for I think I would more 
gladly fight that battle of the kiss over again 
than possess all the gold I have ever seen." Of 
such a mind was he while Megabates was with him, 
though when the boy was gone, he was so on fire 
with love for him that it were hard to say whether, 
had the boy come back into his presence, he would 
have had the strength to refuse his kisses.^ 

1 Cf, Xenophon's Agesilaus, v. 4-7. 

31 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XIL Mera ravra ^apvd^a^o<; et? \6yov<i 
avTw (TVvekOelv ■)]0€\'>](r€, kuI avvrjyev a/i^oTepof? 
ft)i/ ^ivof; Kv^iK7]vo'i ' A7roWo(})di>t]<;. 7rp6repo<; 
8e fiera rcov (piXcov 6 ^AyijaiXao'i iXdcov et? to 
Xf^pi'Ov, vTTo (TKia rcvi TToa? oucTTTi ^aOela^ Kara- 
^aXcov kavTov, ivravOa Trepie/xeve rov ^apvd- 

2 ^a^ov. 6 Be &)9 iirPjXdev, v7ro^e^\i]p,€V(op avro) 
kooSlcov re /xaXuKcov koI ttolklXcov hairihoiv, alhe- 
aOel^i rov ^ AyrjaiXaov ovToy KaraKelfievov kutc- 
kXlvi] Kal auTO?, ox; eTu^ei', eVt T^;<f 7r6a<; '^afxal^e, 
Kalirep iaOrjra Oavpbaarrjv XeTrrorijTi Kal i^acpaU 
ii'SeSuKco'i. daTTaad/jLevoi, Se dXXi'jXovi 6 p,ev 
^apvd^a^o<; ovk rjiropei Xoycov Bi/caicov, are Br] 
TToXXa Kal fieydXa AaK€BaL/j,ovCoi<i ^pr;o"<yu.09 
yeyovMt; iv rep 7rpo<i ^ AdrjvaLOVi iroXefio), vvv Be 

3 TTopOovfieva VTT avroiv o Be ^ Ay rjcriXao^i, opcov 
TOL/9 avv avT(p STrapTidra'i vtt al(j-)(yvii<i kvtttov- 
ra? ei? Tqv yfjv Kal Bia7ropovvTa<; (dBcKovp-evov 
yap ecopcov rov ^apvdjBa^ov), " 'H/u-et?," elirev, 
" oi ^apvd/Sa^e, Kal (J)lXoi 6vr€<; izporepov /3aac- 
Xeco^ €Xpd)pieOa rol'i eKSivov rcpdyp-acri (piXiKco^ 
Kal vvv TToXe/jLioi yeyovore^ rroXepLLKO)^. ev avv 
Kal ere rcov ^aaiXeco'i Kri]p,dr(ov 6pct)vre<i elvai 
^ovXopevov, elKorw^ Bta crov jBXdTrropLev eKelvov. 

4 a<^' rj<i B' av r)p.epa<i aeavrbv d^id}(Tr)<i 'KXX/jVcov 
(j)i.Xov Kal (Tu/jL/uia'X^ov p,dXXov rj BovXov Xeyeadac 
^aaiXeci)'?, ravrrjv vofii^e rrjv cfydXayya Kal rd 
oirXa Kal to.? vav<; Kal 'jrdvra<; rj/j,d<; rwv aoiv 
KTi-Jixdroov (f>vXaKa^ elvat Kal tt}? iXeu6epia<i, ^? 
dvev KaXov dvdpd)7roi<i ouBev ovBe ^rjXcorov icmv." 

5 eK rovrov XeyeL Trpo'i avrov ^apvd/3a^o^ i)v 
€ix€ oiavoiav. tjya) yap, eiirev, eav fxev 
dXXov iKTTefi\lrr) ^aatXev<i arparrjyov, eaofiai 

32 



AGESILAUS, XII. 1-5 

XII. After this, Pharnabazus desired to have a con- 
ference with liim, and Apollophanes of Cyzicus, who 
was a guest-friend of both, brought the two together. 
Agesilaiis, with his friends, came first to the appointed 
place, and throwing himself down in a shady place 
where the grass was deep, there awaited Pharnabazus. 
And when Pharnabazus came, although soft cushions 
and broidered rugs had been sj)read for him, he was 
ashamed to see Agesilaiis reclining as he was, and 
threw himself down likewise, without further cere- 
mony, on the grassy ground, although he was clad in 
raiment of wonderful delicacy and dyes. After 
mutual salutations, Pharnabazus had plenty of just 
complaints to make, since, although he had rendered 
the Lacedaemonians many great services in their 
war against the Athenians, his territory was now 
being ravaged by them. But Agesilaiis, seeing the 
Spartans with him bowed to tlie earth with shame 
and at a loss for words (for they saw that Pharna- 
bazus was a wronged man), said : " We, O Pharna- 
bazus, during our former friendship with the King, 
treated what belongs to him in a friendly w'ay, and 
now that we have become his enemies, we treat it in 
a hostile way. Accordingly, seeing that thou also 
desirest to be one of the King's chattels, we naturally 
injure him through thee. But from the day when 
thou shalt deem thyself worthy to be called a friend 
and ally of the Greeks instead of a slave of the King, 
consider this army, these arms and ships, and all of 
us, to be guai'dians of thy possessions and of thy 
liberty, without which nothing in tlie world is 
honourable or even worthy to be desired." Upon 
this, Pharnabazus declared to him his purposes. 
"As for me, indeed," he said, "if the King shall 
send out another general in my stead, I will be on 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

/ie^' vfxwv, iav S' ifiol trapahw rrjv r)ye/j,ovLav, 
ovSev iWeL-ylro) TrpoOv/j-La^ afivvofxevo<i v/xd(; /cat 
KaKco<; TTOLOiv v7T€p eKeivov." ravra h aKOvcra<; o 
^Ayrja-lXao'; rjaOif, koX t/)? Ee^idf; avrov \a^6- 
/ifvo? Kul avve^avacrrd^, " Et^e," elirev, " oi 
<i>apvd^a^€, Toiovro<; (ov (pi\o<s rjp^lv yevoio fxaXKov 
i] TroXe/iio<;. 

XIII. 'ATTfovTO? Be Tov ^apva/3d^ov p.eTa 
T(ov (f)l\Q)v, 6 u/o? vTroXeicpdel^ TrpoaeSpape rut 
^AyrjaiXdo) koI /xeiSicou elirev "'E7&) ae ^evov, 
(o ^ KyrjcrCkae, 7rotoup,af ' kuI iraXrov ex^v ev 603 
rfi 'xetpX hihaxTiv uvtm. S€^dfj,€Vo<; ovv 6 ^Ayrjai- 
\ao<i Kol ijaOeli; rf] re o-yjrei Koi rfj (f)i\o(f)poa-vvT} 
TOV 7rai86<;, eVecr/coTrei toi)? TTapovTa<i, et Ti<i e^oi 
TL roiovTov olov dvTLhovvai koKw kuI yevvaito 

2 Scopov. IScov Se ittttov ^iSaiou ^ tov ypa(^ew<i 
KeKoa/jLTjp^evov (pa\dpoL<;, Ta')(^v TavTa ire p Lair da a^ 
Tw fieipaKLw SiScocri. koX to Xoittov ovk iiraveTO 
fj.ep,vi]p,€vo^, dWd kol '^povcp TrepilovTt tov oIkov 
d7roaTepy]6ei'TO<; avTov kuX (f)vyovTO<; vtto tmv 
dSeXcficov et? UeXoTrovprjcrov, l(T)(ypo)<; iirepeXeiTO. 

3 Kai Ti KOI Tcov ipcoTiKcJv avT(p avveTrpa^ev. vpd- 
crOi] yap dOXijTOv vratSo? e^ ^AdrjvMV eVet Be 
fi€ya<; cbv kol aKXijpo'i OXv/XTnacnv eKivBvvevaev 
eKKpidfjvai, KUTacpevyet 77/309 tov ^ Ayrja'iKaov 
6 Tlepai]'; Seopevo^ virep tov 7ratS6<i' 6 Be koX 
TOVTO ^ovXopevo^ avT(p ')(^api^€aOac, p,d\a p,6\c'i 
Bi€7rpd^aTo crvv TroWfj irpayp-aTeia. 

TaWtt pev ydp rjv dKpi/3r]<; kol v6pip,of;, iv 
* 'iSaioi/ with S and Xenophon {Hdl. iv. 1, 39) : 'ASai'ou. 
34 



\ 



AGESILAUS, xn. 5-xiii. 3 

your side ; but if he entrusts me with the command, 
1 will spare no efforts to punish and injure you in his 
behalf." On hearing this, Agesilaiis was delighted, 
and said, as he seized his hand and rose up with him, 
" O Pharnabazus, I would that such a man as thou 
might be our friend rather than our enemy." ^ 

XIII. As Pharnabazus and his friends were going 
away, his son, who was left behind, ran up to 
Agesilaiis and said with a smile : " I make thee my 
guest-friend, Agesilaiis," and offered him a javelin 
which he held in his hand. Agesilaiis accepted it, 
and being delighted with the fair looks and kindly 
bearing of the boy, looked round upon his com- 
panions to see if any one of them had anything that 
would do for a return-gift to a fair and gallant friend ; 
and seeing that the horse of Idaeus, his secretary, 
had a decorated head-gear, he quickly took this off 
and gave it to the youth. Nor afterwards did he 
cease to remember him, but when, as time went on, 
the youth was robbed of his home by his brothers 
and driven into exile in Pelopoimesus, he paid him 
much attention. He even gave him some assistance 
in his love aflairs. For the Persian was enamoured 
of an Athenian boy, an athlete, who, owing to his 
stature and strength, was in danger of being ruled 
out of the lists at 01ym])ia. He therefore had re- 
course to Agesilaiis with entreaties to help the boy, 
and Agesilaiis, wishing to gratify him in this matter 
also, with very great difficulty and with much trouble 
effected his desires.^ 

Indeed, although in other matters he was exact and 

^ 1 Cf. Xenophon, Hell. iv. 1, 28-38, wfiere Agesilaiis adds 
a promise to respect, in future, the property of riiarnabazus, 
^ even in case of war. 
V 2 Cf. Xenophon, Htll. iv. 1, 39 f. 

35 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

8e T0i9 (f)i\tKoi<i 7rp6(})a(riv ivofii^ev elvat to \iav 
i hiicaiov. ^epeTUL jovv iiriaToXiov avTOv vrpo? 
'IBpiea TOP Kapa tolovto- " Nt/cta? el /xev /xrj 
ahiKcl, a(f)€<;' fl Be ahiKel, i]/uicv d(f)€<;' Travrcof 
5e d<i)e<;,^^ ev fiev ovv rot? ifkeiaToi^ TOiouTO<i 
VTvep roiv (f)i\a>v 6 ^ Ay rjcriXaoi;' can 8e oirov 
7rpo<; TO avfK^epov e-^prjro t& KaipS) /xdWov, a><; 
iSi]\a)aev, dval^uyT]'; avTM 0opv/3(i)Becrrepa<i yevo- 
fiivr]<;, daOevovvja KaraXnTuyv top epoifxevov. eKei- 
vov yap heofievov koI Ka\ovvro<i avrov aircovra, 
/xeraaTpa(f)€l<i elirev to? 'X^aKeirov ekeelv dfia Kai 
(f)pov€tu. Tovrl fjL€P '\epu)vvfjbo^ 6 (})L\o(TO(f)o^ laro- 
prjKev. 

XIV. "HSt; he 7repu6vTO<; eviavjov hevrepov 
TTJ arpar^jyia TroXy? dvco \6yos i-)((X)p€L rov 'A777- 
cnXdov, Kol So^a Oavixacnt) Karel-^e Tf](; re 
o'a)(f)po(Tvvr)<; avrov Koi eureXeta? Ka\ /xerpiorrjro'i. 
€(TKr]vov p.ev yap diroh-qfiMV KaO^ avrov ev roc<; 
dyLcordroi<; tepol^, a fir} ttoWoI KaOopwaiv dv0pco- 
iroi TTpdrrovra^ rj/xd<;, rovrcov tou? Oeoi/'i iroiov- 
/uLevo'i eVoTTTa? Kal /Mdprvpa<;' ev Be y^iXidai 
(Trparioyrcov rocravrai^ ov paBlco'i dv ra etSe 
2 (f)av\oiepav ari/3d8a t?}? 'Ayi](Ti\.dov. 7rp6<; re 
6d\rro^ ovTQ) Kal yfrvxo'i el)(^ev Mcrirep /jlovo<; del 
■^(ppjcrdac rat? vtto rov Oeov KeKpa/xevai^; o)pai<i 
'7re(f)VKd)<i. ijSccrrov 8e Oea/na rot? KaroLKovcrc rrjv 
^Ao'iav"KWr](Tiv rjaav ol TrdXai ^apei<; /cat a(po- 
prjroi Kal Btappeovre^ vtto irXovrov Kal rpv(f)f]<i 
virap'xpt Kal arparijyol 8eSiore<i Kal Oepairevovre'i 



36 



AGESILAUS, xiii. 3-xiv. 2 

law-abiding, in matters of friendship he thought that 
rigid justice was a mere pretext. At any rate, there 
is in circulation a letter of his to Hidrieus the Carian, 
which runs as follows : "As for Nicias, if he is inno- 
cent, acquit him ; if he is guilty, acquit him for my 
sake ; but in any case acquit him." Such, then, was 
Agesilaiis in most cases where the interests of his 
friends were concerned ; but sometimes he used a 
critical situation rather for his own advantage. Of 
this he gave an instance when, as he was decamping 
in some haste and confusion, he left his favourite 
behind him sick. The sick one besought him loudly 
as he was departing, but he merely turned and said 
that it was hard to be compassionate and at the same 
time jirudent. This story is related by Hieronymus 
the philosopher. 

XIV. Agesilaiis had now been nearly two years in 
the field, and much was said about him in the interior 
parts of Asia, and a wonderful opinion of his self- 
restraint, of his simplicity of life, and of his modera- 
tion, everywhere prevailed. For when he made a 
journey, he would take up his quarters in the most 
sacred precincts by himself,^ thus making the gods 
overseers and witnesses of those acts which few 
men are permitted to see us perform ; and among so 
many thousands of soldiers, one could hardly find a 
meaner couch than that of Agesilaiis ; while to heat 
and cold he was as indifferent as if nature had given 
him alone the power to adapt himself to the seasons 
as God has tempered them. And it was most pleasing 
to the Greeks who dwelt in Asia to see the Persian 
vicei'oys and generals, who had long been insufferably 
cruel, and had revelled in wealth and luxury, now 
fearful and obsequious before a man who went about 

^ Cf. Xeiiophon's Agesilaiis, v. 7. 

37 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

avOpwTTOv iv rpi^covi irepilovTa XtrrS, Ka\ 7rpb<; ev 
prifia ^pa-)(y koI AaKoyvuKOv ap/ji6^ovT€<i eauTOU? 
fcal fieraa-^^Tj/xaTi^ovTe^;, Mare 7ro\Xoi<i eirrjeL ra 
To^lTi/xodiov Xiyeiv, 

"Ap?/9 Tvpavvov y^pvaov he ' EXXa? ov BeBoiKc, 

XV. K.ii'ov/jievr]<; Be t?}? 'Acrt'a9 f<ctl TroXXa- 
•)(0V 7rpo9 atroaraaiv vireiKovar]^;, app,oadfievo<i 
Ta? avToOi TToXet?, Kal Tai9 TTo\ireiai<; Bl-^a 
<f)6i'0V Kal (f)vy>]<; avOpooTrwv aTTohov'i tov Trpoarj- 
Kovra Koafxov, ejvfOKet irpoaai y^copelv, koL tov 
TToXefiov Bidpa<i diro Tij<; EXXr]viKf]<i daXdrrriq, 
irepl rov aa>/iiaTO<; ^aaiXei Kal t?;9 eV 'E/<:/3a- 
rdvoi'i Kal ^ovcroi<; evhai pLovia<i Sia/xd^^^eadai, Kal 
irepLaTrdcrai Trpojrov avrou tijp a'yoXrjV, to? p,r] 
KaOe^oiro tol'9 iroXeixovi /Spa^evcov T049 "FjXXr)cri, 

2 Kal SiacbOeipcov rov^ Sijpaywyov^i. ev rovrrp Be 
dcpiKveirai 7rpo9 avrov 'E7riKvBiBa<; 6 Ziraprid- 
Trj<i, dirayyeXXoov otl ttoXv^ TrepiearijKe rrjv 'Eirdp- 
Trju 7roXeyLio9 'EXX7]vi,k6^, Kal KaXovaiv eKelvov 01 
€(f)opoi Kal KeXevovai Tot9 o'lkoi /3or]6eiv. 

'n ^dp^ap' e^evp6vTe<i "¥jXXrive<i KUKa' 

TL yap av ti<; aXXo tov (fydovov eKelvov irpoaeiTroi 
Kal rrjv Tore auaraaiv Kal avvra^tv e(f>^ eaurou'i 
TMV ' KXXijvcov ; ot rP]<i tv^V^ ^^^ <^epO/U.eV?;9 fVe- 
Xd^ovTO, Kal ra onXa 7rpo9 T01/9 ^ap^dpov^ 
^XeiTOvra Kal rov iroXefiov 'i'jBy'j t>}9 'EXXa8o9 604 

3 €^(pKia/u,evov avOi<; et9 eavrov^; erpeyp-av. ou yap 
e'7&)7e crvfKpepopiai tm YLopivOifp Arj/xapdrw fieyd- 
Xrjt; 7]Bovri^ aTToXeXeicfiOai (f)7]aavTi Tol'9 /xrj Oea- 
(7a/ji€vov<; "EXXriva^ ^AXe^avBpov ev rw Aapelov 
6pov(p Ka6i][Jievov, dXX eiKOTCO^ av olfiai BaKpv- 

38 



AGESILAUS, XIV. 2-xv. 3 

in a p.'iltry cloak, and at one brief and laconic speech 
from him conforming themselves to his ways and 
changing their dress and mien, insomuch that many 
were moved to cite the words of Timotheus : — 

\^" Ares is Lord ; of gold Greece hath no fear." 1 

XV. Asia being now unsettled and in many 
quarters inclining to revolt, Agesilaiis set the cities 
there in order, and restored to their governments, 
without killing or banishing any one, the proper form. 
Then he determined to go farther afield, to transfer 
the war from the Greek sea, to fight for the person 
of the King and the wealth of Ecbatana and Susa, 
and above all things to rob that monarch of the 
power to sit at leisui'e on his throne, playing the 
umpire for the Greeks in their wars, and corrupting 
their popular leaders. But at this point Epicydidas 
the Spartan came to him with tidings that Sparta 
was involved in a great war with other Greeks, and 
that the ephors called upon him and ordered him to 
come to the aid of his countrymen. 

" O barbarous ills devised by Greeks ! " ^ 

How else can one speak of that jealousy which now 
leagued and arrayed the Greeks against one another ? 
They laid violent hands on Fortune in her lofty 
flight, and turned the weapons which threatened the 
Barbarians, and War, which had at last been banished 
from Greece, back again upon themselves. I certainly 
cannot agree with Demaratus the Corinthian, who 
said that those Greeks had missed a great pleasure 
who did not behold Alexander seated on the throne 
of Dareius, nay, I think that such might well have 

'1 Cf . Bergk, Pott. Lyr. Graeci, in.* p. 622. 
? Euripides, Troades, 766 (Kirchhoff). 

'7f^j 39 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

aai, avvvorj(javra<i on ravr ^AXe^dvhpw koI 
M^aKeBocriv aireknTov ol tots Tov<i rcov 'EXXt^i/wi^ 
(TTparr]yov<i irepl AevfCTpa koI K.opcoveiav Kol 
¥.6pivdov Kol ^ApKuBlav Karav)]\(i)(Tav. 

4 ^Ajrjcn'Kdfp /xeuTOi ovSev Kpelaaov q p.elt^6v eari 
T?}? di'ax(^pv(^€(t>^ €K€Lvrj<i SiajreTrpa'yfxevov, ovSe 
yeyove TrapdSeiy/xa rreiOap'x^ici^ xal SiKaioavvT]^ 
erepov KaWiov. ottov yap Avvi^a<i ijSr) KaKOi^ 
irpaTTCov Koi 'nepLw9ovp,ei'o<; e'/c Trjs 'IraXta? 
fidXa /ioXi? inrqKovae to?? iirt rov oXkol TroXepiov 
KoXovcnv, ^AXe^av8po<i Se kol TrpoaeTreaKcoylre 
7rv06jji€vo<i rrjv TTyoo? Ayiv Avrnrarpov pbd')(rjv, 
etTTcov " "EocKev, o) dvhpe^, ore Aapelov ?7/iet? 
h'lKMfiev einavda, €Ket Ti? iv ^Ap/caSla yey ovkvai 

5 p^vopia^ia'^^ ttw^ ovk tjv d^iovrrjv XTrdprrjv fiuKa- 
plaat T?}? ^Ayi]cn\dov Ti/nf]'; 7rpb<; tuvttjv koL 
TTpQ<i TOV<; v6fiov<i T?}9 euXafieiWi; 09 d/ia rat 
TTjV (TKVTdXrjv eXdelv €VTV')(^[av roaavrrjv kol 
hvvajJLiv irapovaav /cal njXiKavTa'i e'XTrtSa? v(f)7]- 
yov/xeva^ a^el? /cal tt poe p.evo<^ evdv<i direTTXevaev 
" aTeXevTijTW eVl epycp,^' iroXvv eavrov ttoOov 
Tol<i cru/i/iaT^ot? diroXiTrMV, Kal jJidXicrra hrj top 

'^Epaaiarpdrov tov i^acaKo^ eXiy^a^; Xoyov, etTZQy- 
ro<i &)<? elcrl hrjp^oaia piev AaKcSaipiovioi ^eXTLova, 

6 ISla Be AOi]valoi. ^acnXea yap eavrov Kal 
arparriyov dpicrrov e7riB€i^dp,epo^, ert, ^eXriova 
Kal TjBLova Tot9 ^/jfwyu-eyot? IBia (filXov Kal avvqOrj 
Trapea-^e. rov Be UepaiKov vopiia'p.aro^ 'x^dpayp.a 

^ At Megalopolis, in Arcadia, 331 B.C., Agis fell fighting, 
and the Spartan rebellion at once collapsed. Alexander 

40 



\ 



AGESILAUS, XV. 3-6 

shed tears when they reflected that tliis triumph was 
left for Alexander and Macedonians by those who now 
squandered the lives of Greek genei'als on tlie fields 
of Leuctra, Coroneiaj and Corinth, and in Arcadia. 

Agesilaiis, however, never performed a nobler or 
a greater deed than in returning home as he now ^ A^y^, 
did, nor was there ever a fairer example of righteous 
obedience to authority. For Hannibal, though he 
was already in an evil plight and on the point of 
being driven out of Italy, could with the greatest 
difficulty bring himself to obey his summons to the 
war at home ; and Alexander actually went so far as 
to jest when he heard of Antipater's battle with 
Agis,^ saying : " It would seem, my men, that while 
we were conquering Dareius here, there has been a 
battle of mice there in Arcadia." Why, then, should 
we not call Sparta happy in the honour paid to her 
by Agesilaiis, and in his deference to her laws ? No 
sooner had the dispatch-roll come to him than he 
renounced and abandoned the great good fortune 
and power already in his grasp, and the great hopes 
which beckoned him on, and at once sailed off, " with 
task all unfulfilled," ^ leaving behind a great yearning 
for him among his allies, and giving the strongest 
confutation to the saying of Erasistratus the son of 
Phaeax, who declared that the Lacedaemonians were 
better men in public life, but the Athenians in 
private. For while approving himself a most ex- 
cellent king and general, he shewed himself a still 
better and more agreeable friend and companion to 
those who enjoyed his intimacy. Persian coins were 
stamped with the figure of an archer, and Agesilaus 

had not the slightest thought of returning home to help 
Antipater. 

2 Iliad, iv, 175. 

41 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ro^orrjv €)(^ovto^, ava^euyvvcov e(f)7] fivploi^ to^o- 
Tat9 VTro ^aaiXeo)^ e^eXavveaOat t% 'Acrta?* 
ToaovroiV 'yap €l<; ^AOr]va<; koI @j;/9a9 KopnaOev- 
Ta>v Kal hiahoOevTcdv roi? Brj/xaycoyot';, i^eiroXe- 
fico6i]aav ol Srjfj,OL 7rpo<i tov<; ^TrapriaTa^;. 

XVI. 'n? Be Sta/3a9 rov 'KWijctttovtov e^d- 
8i^e Sia T?}<? ^paKr]<;, eherjOri fiev ovSevb<; rtov 
^ap^apwv, ire/uLTTCov Be Trpo? €Kd(TTOU<; eTTwOdveTO 
TTorepov CO? (})i\iav rj w? TToXe/mav BiairopevriTai 
TTjv '^(opav. ol p.ev ovv dWoi nrdpTe^ (f)i\tK(o<; 
iSexovTO Kul irape.TTep.'Trov, o)? €Kaaro<i hvi>dfjLew<i 
€T')(ev' ol he Ka\ovp.evoi TpdXXet<i, ol^i koI lz:,ep^ri^ 
eSco/cev, co? Xeyerai, 8o)pa, t/}? SioBov fiiaOov 
rjrovv rov ^Ayrjo-lXaov e/caTov dpyvplov rdXavra 

2 Kal ToaavTa<i <yvvalKa<;. 6 Be Kareipcovevcrdfievo'i 
avTovf Kal (f)i}cra<;' " Tt ovv ovk evdit^ 7]X6ov 
Xr]ylr6p.evoi;" irporjye, Kal crvpL^aXwv avrol<=; irapa- 
reTaypL€Voi<; irpe^jraTO Kal Bie(f)0€Lp€ iroXXovi. to 
8' avTO Kal Tw ^acnXel twv ^aKcBovcov epcoTrjfia 
Trpoaeireix-^e' cf)7]cravT0ii Be jBovXevaecrOai, " Bof- 
XeveaOco rolvvv eKelvo<^, " elirev, " ///uet? Be S?) 
TTopevo/xeda.^^ %avpdaa<i ovv rrjv roX/xav avTov 
Kal Belaa^ 6 /SacrtXeu? eKeXevaev o)? (f>LXov Trpod- 

3 yeiv. TMV Be SerraXcov roi'i TroXep.ioi'? avjxp-a- 
'X^ovvTcov eiropdei r-qv ')(^copav. ei? Be Adpiaaav 
€7rep.-\p-e "SevoKXea Kal 2,Kvdi]v Trepl (f)iXia<i' avX- 
Xr](f)devT(ov Be tovtwv Kal 7rapa(f)vXaaaop.evcov 
ol p,ev dXXot j3apeu)<i cf)epovTe<i coovro Betv top 
^AyrjalXaov TrepiarparoTreBevaavTa iroXiopKelv 

^ According to Xenophon (Hell. iii. 5, 1 ff.), Persian money 
was distributed in Thebes, Corinth, and Argos. "The 
Athenians, though thej' took no share of the gold, were none 
the less eager for war." 



4^ %' r^M^ 



AGESILAUS, XV. 6-xvi. 3 

said, as he was breaking camp, that the King was 
driving him out of Asia with ten thousand " archers " ; 

/ for so much money had been sent to Atliens and 
( Thebes and distributed among the popular leaders 
there, and as a coii^equence those peoples made war 
upon the Spartans:i» 

XVI. And when he had crossed the Hellespont 
and was marching through Thrace,^ he made no 
requests of any of the Barbarians, but sent envoys 
to each people asking whether he should traverse 
their country as a friend or as a foe. All the rest, 
accordingly, received him as a friend and assisted 
him on his way, as they were sevei'ally able ; but 
the people called Trallians, to whom even Xerxes 

^ gave gifts, as we are told, demanded of Agesilaiis as 
a price for his passage~a hundred talents of silver 
and as many women. But he answered them with 
scorn, asking why, then, they did not come at once 
to get their price ; and marched forward, and finding 
them drawn up for battle, engaged them, routed 
them, and slew many of them. He sent his usual 
enquiry forward to the king of the Macedonians also, 
who answered that he would deliberate upon it. 

^'"Let him deliberate, then," said Agesilaiis, "but we 
will march on." In amazement therefore at his 
boldness, and in fear, the Macedonian king gave 
orders to let him pass as a friend. Since the Thes- 
salians were in alliance with his enemies, he ravaged 
their country. But to the city of Larissa he sent 
Xenocles and Scythes, hoping to secure its friendship. 
His ambassadors, however, were arrested and kept 
in close custody, whereupon the rest of his command 
were indignant, and thought that Agesilaiis ought to 

== Agesilaiis followed " the very route taken by the Great 
King when he invaded Hellas" (Xenophon, Ildl. iv. 2, 8). 

43 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Tr]v Adpiaaav, 6 Se (^rjaa^ ovk av edeXi]aaL ©fcr- 
aaXlav 6\i]v Xa^eip a7ro\ecra? twv dvBpcov tov 

4 erepov, virocnTovhov^ avTOix; dtreka^e. Koi toOt* 
to"&)9 eV ^Ayr)(Ti\d(p davfxaarov ovk rjv, 09 ttvOo- 
fievo^ fMU'X^rjv fxeydXrjv 'ye-yovevai jrepl ls.6pLv9ov, 
Kol di'Bpa<i ^ TOiv Trdvv ivho^wv o)? evi /jidXiara 
al(f)VLBiov aTToXayXevai, Koi^ '^Trapriaroiv p,ev 
oXlyov^ TravTairaai reOvrjKevai, 7ra/i7roXXoy<? Se 
roiv TToXefiicov, ovk axpdrj 7r€pi-)(^apT]<; ovBe iirrip- 
fievo^, dWd Koi irdvv ^apv crrem^a?, " ^ev 
T?}? EWaSo?, €(f)ri, " Toaovrov^ dvBpa<i diroXo}- 
\€KVLa<; v(j> avTr}<i, oaoi ^o)i'Te<; ehvvavro vikclv 

5 ofxov avfj,7Tavra<iTov<i ^ap^dpov<; fxa-)(6fievoi." tcov 605 
^e ^apcraXicov TrpocrKeiixevoiv avrw kol kukovi'tcov 

TO arpuTevfia, irevraKoaLoi^ 'nnrevaLv cfi^aXelv 
KeXevcTa<i avv avjS) kol Tpe-^dixevo<i ecnr^ae rpo- 
iraiov VTTO tS> NapdaKLO). Kal ttjv vlktjv vTreprj- 
yaTTijaev iKeivrjv, on avcnrjadfievo'i nririKov avTo<i 
Bi" eavTOv TOVTtp /xovw TOv<i fj.eyicTTOi' e(f> iTnriKfj 
<f)povouvTa<i eKparrjaev. 

XVII. ^FiVTUvda Accf)pLBa<i o'lKodev e(^opo'i tov 
dirrjvTijaev avrw KeXevcov evOv<; ifx/SaXeiv ei? rriv 
BoicoTLav. 6 Be, KaiTrep diro pieil^ovoq 7rapacrK€V)]<i 
iiarepov rovro jroujcrai Biavoou/xevo';, ovBev coero 
BeiP direideip rot? dp-)(^ovaiv, dXXd TOt<? re fied 
iavrov Trpoelirev eyjv^ elvai ttjv i]/xepav i(f) fjv e^ 
'Acrta? ■i]KovaL, Kal Bvo p.6pa<i fieTe-TrefiyfraTo tmv 
2 TTepl K.6pivOov ar paTevop^evcov . ol Be ev rfj rroXei 
AuKeBaifMoviot Ti/xcovT€<i avTov eKi]pv^av tmv 
vecov d7Toypd(f)eadac tov ^ovXofievov tm /SaatXet 

^ &v5pas . . . Kol rejected by Sintenis and Bekker, and 
questioned by Coraes, after Schaefer ; the words are wanting 
in Apophth. Lacon. 45 {Morals, p. 211 e). 

44 



AGESILAUS, XVI. 3-xvii. 2 

, encamp about Larissa and lay siege to it. But he 
-V" declared that the capture of all Thessaly would not 
compensate him for the loss of either one of his men, 
and made terms with the enemy in order to get them 
back. And perhaps we need not wonder at such 
conduct in Agesilaiis, since when he learned that a 
great battle had been fought near Corinth,' and that 
men of the highest repute had suddenly been taken 
off, and that although few Spartans altogether had 
been killed, the loss of their enemies was very heavy, 
he was not seen to be rejoiced or elated, but fetched 
y a deep groan and said : " Alas for Hellas, which has 
'' by her own hands destroyed so many brave men ! 
Had they lived, they could have conquered in battle 
all the Barbarians in the world." However, when 
the Pharsalians annoyed him and harassed his army, 
he ordered five hundred horsemen which he led in 
person to attack them, routed them, and set up a 
trophy at the foot of mount Narthacium. This 
victory gave him special pleasure, because with 
horsemen of his own mustering and training, and 
with no other force, he had conquered those whose 
chief pride was placed in their cavalry. ^ 

XVH. Here Diphridas, an ephor from Sparta, met 
him, with orders to invade Boeotia immediately. 
Therefore, although he was purposing to do this 
later with a larger armament, he thought it did not 
behoove him to disobey the magistrates, but said to 
those who were with him that the day was near for 
which they had come from Asia. He also sent for 
two divisions of the army at Corinth. Then the 
Lacedaemonians at liome, wishing to do him honour, 
made proclamation that any young man who wished 



1 394 B.C. Cf. Xenophon, Hdl. iv. 2, 18—3, 1 f. 
V 2 Cf. Xenophon, Hell. iv. 3, 9. 



45 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

^oyjOeiv. ajroypaylrafxevcov Be "jravTcov 7rpo6v/j,co<f, 
oi ap-^ovT6<; 7r€VT7]KovTa to 1/9 aKfiaiOTarovi koX 
pw/xaXecoTaTov^ €KXi^avT€<; airecTTeikav. 

'O he ^AyrjijiXao'; etaco Ili/Xwt' rrapeXOoiv kclI 
BioSevaa^; rrjv ^coKiSa c^iXrjv ovaav, eirel ri]^ 
BoLcoTia<i irpwrov eTre/Sy] koX irepl ry-jv ^atpooveiav 
KarecTTpaTOireBevaev, afxa fiev tov tjXcov e/cXet- 
TTOvra Kol yivofievov firjvoeiBr] Karelhev, a/xa 8e 
yjKovae redvavai Tleicravhpov rjTTyj/Lieuov vau/xa'^ia 
Trepl KvlBov vtto ^apva^d^ov kol ^ovo)vo<i. 

3 'q'^deaOrj fxev ovv, to? eiKo^;, iirl TovTOL<i koX Blcl 
rov avBpa Kal Bta ttjv iroXiv, OTrco'i Be firj T049 
(TrpaTi(OTai<i iirl /xd-^^rjv ^aBi^ovcnv dOvfiLa Kal 
(f)6^o<; e/XTrecrr], Tavavjia Xeyeiv eKeXevae rov<i 
diTO OaXiiTTT]^ ')]KOVTa<;, on viKMcrt rfj vav fia')(ia' 
KoX irpoeXOoov avro'i icne<^avu>iJbevo<i eOvaev evay- 
yeXia Kal BieTre/xTre fiepiBa^ TOi? (f)iXoi<i dirb twv 
TeOufievcov. 

XVIII. 'ETret Be irpoloov Kal y€v6/iievo<; ev 
YLopwvela KarelBe rov^ TroXe/itou? Kal KarwcfiOy], 
Traperd^uTo Bov<i 'Op^o/jLevLoi^; to evcovu/xov Kepa<i, 
auTo? Be TO Be^iov eirfjyev. oi Be ®y]l3aioi ro fiev 
Be^iov el')(^ov avroi, to Be evcovv/xoiM ^Apyeloc. 
Xeyei Be rrjv /j.d)(^rjv o 'B,evo(f)(ov eKeiviiv oiav ovk 
dXXyjV Tcot' TTMTTOTe yeveadar Kal iraprjv avr6<i 
TO) ^AyrjaiXdo) avvaywvi^ofxevo^, e^ 'Acrta? Bia^e- 

2 07)K(o<;. 1] /xev ovv Trpcorr) avppa^i^ ovk ea^^v 
(t)dia/j,ov ovBe dyoiva ttoXvv, aXXa oi re Sy]/3aloc 



^ August, 394 B.C. 
^ * The soldiers of Agesilaiis were conseqaentl}' victorious in 
a skirmish with the enemy, according to Xenophon {Hell. 
iv. 3, 14). , , 

46 '^ *^ 



AGESILAUS, xvii. 2-xviii. 2 

might enlist in aid of the king. All enlisted eagerly, 
and the magisti'ates chose out the most mature and 
vigorous of them to the number of fifty, and sent 
them off. 

Agesilaiis now marched through the pass of 
Thermopylae, traversed Phocis, which was friendly 
to Sparta, entered Boeotia, and encamped near 
Chaeroneia. Here a pai'tial eclipse of the sun oc- 
curred, and at the same time ^ news came to him ot 
the death of Peisander, who was defeated in a naval 
battle off Cnidus by Pharnabazus and Conon. Agesi- 
laiis was naturally much distressed at these tidings, 
both because of the man thus lost, and of the city 
which had lost him ; but nevertheless, that his 
soldiers might not be visited with dejection and fear 
as they were going into battle, he ordered the 
messengers from the sea to reverse their tidings 
and say that the Spartans were victorious in the 
naval battle. He himself also came forth publicly 
with a garland on his head, offered sacrifices for glad 
tidings, and sent portions of the sacrificial victims to 
his friends.2 

XVIII. After advancing as far as Coi'oneia and 
coming within sight of the enemy, he drew up his 
army in battle array, giving the left wing to the 
Orchomenians, while he himself led forward the right. 
On the other side, the Thebans held the right wing 
i/^ themselves, and the Argives the left. Xenophon 
I says that this battle was unlike any ever fought,^ 
and he was present himself and fought on the side 
of Agesilaiis, having crossed over with him from 
Asia.* The first impact, it is true, did not meet with 
much resistance, nor was it long contested, but the 

^ * Cf. Xenophon's Anabasis, v. 3, 6. 

47 



\ 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Tax^J T0U9 'Opxo/u,6Viov<i irpe^jravTO koI tou? 
A/jyeiou? ^ Ay r](Tl\ao<i' eVel 8e aKovaavre'; 
dfjL(f)6TepoL TO, eixovvfia Trie^eaOat kuc (fievyeiv 
aveaTpe^av, iinavda tt)? vLKrj^ aKLvhvvov rrap- 
ovari<i, el rr}<i Kara arofia fiaxVi vcpecrdat rot? 
^rj^aiOL^ TjOeK-rjae Kol iraUiv e7r6jj,6vo<; TrapaXkd- 
^avTu^, VTTO dufiov KoX <f)LK,oi'eiKta'i ivavTio<i 
e^oopec TOi? dvBpdaiv, axraadai Kara Kpdro^; 

3 /3ov\ofj,€vo<i. OL 8e ovx '^ttov eppwp.evu)<i iSe- 
^avro, Kol /Mdyr) yiverai 8t o\ov fxev laxypa tov 
orpaT€v/u.aTO<i, laxvpoTuTT] Be Kar eKelvov avTOv 
ev T0i9 7revT7]KovTa reTay/xevov, d)v el<i Kaipov 
eoiKev rj (piXoTi/xia tw ^acnXel yeveaQai xal 
aa)Ti']pio<i. dycovi^opevot yap eK6vp,u><i Kal irpo- 
Kivhvvevovre^ drpcorov fiev avTOV ovk ehvvr]drjaav 
(f)v\a^ai, 7roX\a<i 8e Eia tmv ottXcov Se^dfievov et? 
TO (XMfxa ifX.rjyd'i Sopacri Kal ^L(f)eai /j,6\l<; dv>']p- 
Traaav ^(ovra, Kal (Tv/LL(f)pd^avTe<i irpo auruv 

4 TToWou? fiev dvrjpovv, ttoWoI he eTTLinov. ct)? 
he fieya epyov r)v waaaOai irpoTpoirdhi^v rov<; 
&i]^aLov<;, rjvayKdadi]aav oirep e^ ^PX^l'* ^^'^ 
e/3ov\ovTO TToiijaat.. 8ie(7Tt]crav yap avTol<i rr]v 
(pdXayya Kal hiecrxpv, elra draKTorepov i^hrj 
TTopevofievovf;, &>? Bie^eTreaov, aKo\oudovvTe<; Kal 
7rapa9eovTe<i Ik TT\ayi(ov erraiov. ov fxi-jv irpe- 
yjraPTo ye, aW' aTre^copT^crai' ol &7)/3aloL 7rpo<i rov 
'EiXtKcova, fxeya rj} fiaxj] (j)povovuTe<i, 009 d7jTTijT0t 
Kaff" avTov<i yeyovoje^i. 

48 



AGESILAUS, xviii. 2-4 

Thebans speedily routed the Orchomenians, as Agesi- 
laiis did the Argives. Both parties, however, on 
hearing that their left wings were overwhelmed and 
in flight, turned back. Then, altliough the victory 
might have been his without peril if he had been 
willing to refrain from attacking the Thebans in front 
and to smite them in the rear after they had passed 
by, Agesilaiis was carried away by passion and the 
ardour of battle and advanced directly upon them, 
wishing to bear them down by sheer force. But they 
received him with a vigour that matched his own, 
and a battle ensued which was fierce at all points 
in the line, but fiercest where the king himself 
stood surrounded by his fifty volunteers,^ whose 
opportune and emulous valour seems to have saved 
his life. For they fought with the utmost fury and 
exposed their lives in his behalf, and though they 
were not able to keep him from being wounded, but 
many blows of spears and swords pierced his armour 
and reached his person, they did succeed in dragging 
him off alive, and standing in close array in front of 
him, they slew many foes, while many of their own 
number fell. But since it proved too hard a task to 
break the Theban front, they were forced to do what 
at the outset tliey w'ere loth to do. They opened 
their ranks and let the enemy pass through, and then, 
when these had got clear, and were already marching 
in looser array, the Spartans followed on the run and 
smote them on the flanks. They could not, however, 
put them to i*out, but the Thebans withdrew to 
Mount Helicon,- greatly elated over the battle, in 
which, as they reasoned, their own contingent had 
been undefeated. 

' Cf. chapter xvii. 2. They are not mentioned by Xenophon. 
^ From the slopes of which they had advanced to the battle. 

49 



^ In 447 B. c. ; cf . the Pericles, xviii. 2 f . 
^ Cf the Nicia-s, vi. 5. 



50 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XTX. *A'yr]ai\ao<; Be, KaiTrep vtto Tpavfxdrcov 601 
iroWcov KaKO)<i to cTM/ia BiaK€i/jL€vo<;, ov irporepov 
iirl aKT]vr]V aTrrjkdev rj (f)0pd8r}v eve)(drjvaL irpo^ 
TTjV (pdXayya koI roixi ve/fpov<; ISeiv eVro? tmv 
orrXwv crvyKe/co/jiia/jLevov^. ocroi piivTOi rcot' TroXe- 
fii'cov eh TO lepov Karec^vyov, 7rdvTa<; i/ceXeuaev 
d(f)€6i]vai. TrXTjalov yap o v€(o<; ianv t% 
^lT(ovta<; ^A0rjvd<;, Kal irpo auTov rpoTratov ecnrj- 
K€v, o TrdXai Boicorol ^iTdpT(i>vo<; aTpaT7]yovvTO<; 
ivravOa viKi]aavT€^ A6r]vaiOV<i Kal ToX/xiS-qv 
dTroKTeivavTe<i earrjaav. dfia 8' rjfiepa ^ovXo- 
fievo'i i^eXey^ai rov<i Srj^aiov; 6 ^Ayr]aiXao(;, el 
Sia/xaxovvrai, arecfiavouadai. p.ev eKeXevae tol"? 
arpaTiooTa^, avXelv Be tou9 auXr)Td<i, lardvai 
Be KoX Koafxelv rpowaiov o)? veviKTjKora^;. &)? Be 
eTrefiyjrav 01 TroXe/xioi veKpwv dvalpecriv aiTovvref;, 
eaireicTaro, Kal rrjv vlkijv ovtco^ eK^e^aicoadfievo^ 
el<i AeX(pov<; dTreKOfiladr], llvOlcov dyopievwv, kui 
TTjV re TTOfnrrjv eireTeXei rS> 6e& Kal rrjv BeKdrrjv 
direOue roiv €k Tri<i *A(x[a<; Xacpvpwv eKarov 
raXdvTQiv yevopievrjv. 

'ETrel Be dTrevoaTtjcrev oiKuBe, 7rpoa(f)iXrj<i fiev 
rjv evdv<i TOi? TroXlrat^ Kal Tre pi, /3XeTrT0<; drro tov 
^lov Kal T^9 Bialrrjii' ov yap, axnrep ol irXelcnoL 
rcop aTparrjycbv, Kaivo<; eiravriXdev d-rro tt)? ^evrj^ 
Kal KeKi.vrjjjievo<; vir dXXoTpiwv edo)v, Kal BvaKO- 
Xaivwv wpo<; rd oI'kol Kal ^uyop.a)(^(t)v, dXXd 
o/xotft)9 Tot9 ixT^BeTTcoirore tov ^vpooTav Bia^e- 
firjKoai, TO, irapovTa ti/hmv Kal aTepycov ov Belirvov 



AGESILAUS, XIX. 1-4 

XIX. But Agesilaiis, although he was weakened 
by many wounds, would not retire to his tent until 
he had first been carried to his troops and seen that 
the dead were collected within the encampment. 
Moreover, he ordered that all of the enemy who 
had taken refuge in the sanctuary should be dis- 
missed. For the temple of Atliena Itonia was near 
at hand, and a trophy stood in fi'ont of it, which 
the Boeotians had long ago erected, when, under 
the command of Sparto, they had defeated the 
Athenians there and slain Tolmides their general.^ 
Early next morning, Agesilaiis, wishing to try the 
Thebans and see whether they would give him 
battle, ordered his soldiers to wreath their heads 
and his pipers to play their pipes, while a trophy was 
set up and adorned in token of their victory. And 
when the enemy sent to him and asked permission 
to take up their dead, he made a truce with them, 
and having thus assured to himself the victory,'- pro- 
ceeded to Delphi,^ where the Pythian games were 
in progress. There he celebrated the customary 
procession in honour of the god, and offered up the 
tenth of the spoils which he had brought from Asia, 
amounting to a hundred talents. 

Then he went back home, where his life and 
conduct brought him at once the affection and ad- 
miration of his fellow-citizens. For, unlike most of 
their generals, he came back from foreign parts un- 
changed and unaffected by alien customs ; he showed 
no dislike towards home fashions, nor was he restive 
under them, but honoured and loved what lie found 
there just as much as those did who had never 
crossed the Eurotas ; he made no change in his 

3 Leaving the army in command of Gylis the polemarch 
(Xenophon, Hell. iv. 3, 21). 

5» 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

5 fjWa^ev, ou XovTpov, ou depaireiav <yvvaiK6<i, ou^^ 
ottXcov Kocr/xov, ovk ocKia<; KaracTKevi^v, aWa koI 
ra? 6vpa<; a(f)r]Kev ovT(o<i ovaa^ a(f)68pa TraXaia?, 
ft)? hoKeiv elvai, ravTa<; eK€iva<; a? eTrW-qKev 
*Api(7T6Sr]fj,o<;. Kol TO Kcivvad pov ^rjcriv 6 Sevo- 
(j)0)v ovhev ri ae/xvoTepov elvai t/}? eKeivov duja- 
rpof rj rcov dWcov. Kcivvadpa he KaXovaiv eliScoXa 
ypvTTMv ^uXiva kol TpajeXdcfxov ev ol<; Ko/xi^ovcrc 

6 ra<i 7rat8a<; ev Tal<; TTop.Tral^. o fiev ovv Hero^wr 
ovopa T/}? Ay)]aiXdou 6v<yarpo<; ov yeypacjie, koI o 
Ai.Kaiap)(^o<; eTTtiyavaKTrjaev co? /i'^re ti]v 'Ayrjai- 
Xdou dvjarepa pLrjTe rijv F^Tra/iivcovSov pLrjTepa 
'yLvcocTKovTCOV r}/ji(Ji)i>' rjfxei^i Se evpo/xev ev rait; 
AaK(oviKai<i dvaypa(f)at<; ovopa^o/mevrjv yvvacKa 
fiev ' Ayi](TiXdov HXeopav, 0uyarepa<; Se EiVTraXiav 
KoX Yipoavyav.^ eari he Kal Xoy^V^ Ihecv avTou 
Keip,€vr]V d-^pt vvv ev AaKehaipLovi, fiijhev tmv 
d\X(ov hia(})epova-av. 

XX. Ou p.r]v dXXd opoiv eviov^ rwv ttoXltwv 
diTO iTT7roTpo(f)ia<; hoKOuvTa<; elvai riva<i Kal fieya ^ 
(f>povovvra'i, erreLae rrjv dheX(p7]v l^vviaKav dpp,a 
KaOelaav 'OXv/xiriaaiv dycovlaaadai, /3ovX6pevo<; 
evhei^aadai rol<; "KXXrjcriv co? ovhepLd<; eariv 
dperri<;, dXXd itXovtov Kal hairdvy)^ rj vlkt}. 
2 B,evo(f)(t)vra he rov aoipov e-)(^oi>v peO' eavrou 
airovha^opievov eKeXeve tou? Tralha^ ev Aa«e- 
haipovi rpe<f)eiv peTarrep.'^dpievov, w? pbaO-qao- 
p,evov<i TOiv p-adripuTOiv to KdXXiaTov, apyeadai 
KoX dpyeiv. tov he Avadvhpou TeTeXevTrjKOTO^ 
evpoov eTaipeiav ttoXXtjv avvecTTMaav, r)v eKelvo<i 

* Upoavyav a reading mentioned by Stephanus, and now 
found in S : XXpoKvrav. 

^ fiiya Cobet, van Herwerden, with F* : fj.eyd\a. 

52 



AGESILAUS, XIX. 5-xx. 2 

table, or his baths, or the attendance on his wife, or 

the decoration of his armour, or the furniture of his 

house, nay, he actually let its doors remain althougli 

\ they were very old, — one might say they were the 

 very doors which Aristodemus ^ had set up. His 

daughter's " kannathron," as Xenophon ^ tells us, 

was no more elaborate than that of any other maid 

I ("kannathra" is the name they give to the wooden 

\/ figures of griffins or goat-stags in which their young 

girls are carried at the sacred processions). ^ Xeno- 

phon, it is true, has not recorded the name of the 

>, daughter of Agesilaiis, and Dicaearchus expressed 

ereat indijination that neither her name nor that ot 

the mother of Epaminondas was known to us ; but 

1 we have found in the Lacedaemonian records that 

•- the wife of Agesilaiis was named Cleora, and his 

I daughters Eupolia and Proauga. And one can see 

\ his spear also, which is still preserved at Sparta, and 

which is not at all different from that of other men. 

XX. However, on seeing that some of the citizens 
esteemed themselves highly and were greatly lifted 
up because they bred racing horses, he persuaded 
his sister Cynisca to enter a chariot in the contests 
at Olympia, wishing to shew the Greeks that the 
victory there was not a mark of any great excellence, 
but simply of wealth and hivish outlay. Also, having 
Xenophon the philosopher in his following, and 
making much of him, he ordered him to send for his 
sons and rear them at Sparta, that they might learn 
that fairest of all lessons, how to obey and how to 
command. Again, finding after Lysander's death 
that a large society was in existence, which that 

1 The great-great-grandson of Heracles ; cf. Xenophon, 
,^ Agtfiilaus, viii. 7. 

y' 2 These figures of animals were on wheels, and served as 
carriages (cf. Athenaeus, p. 139 f.). 

53 
VOL. V C 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

€vdv<; eiravekOoov airo r7]<; 'Acrta? avvecrTrjaev enl 
TOP ^Aj)]ai\aov, Mp/jLy]cr€v avTov e^eXiy^eiv oio<i 

3 ^v ^cov -TroXiTrj^' Kol Xoyov avayvov<i iv ^i^Xlo) 
aTroXeXeijjL/jiivov, ov eypayjre fieu KXecov o 'AXt- 
Kapvaaaeix;, e/xeXXe Be Xeyeiv dvaXa/Soov 6 Avcrav- 
Spo<{ iv To3 8}]p,a> Trepl Trpayp-druiv kuivcov koI 
fieracTTdaeco^; roO TroXiTeu/xaTO^, rjdeXi^aev el<i 
fxiaov i^eveyKelv. eVel he ri^ tcov jepovrcov top 
Xoyov dvayvov^ teal (f)o^')]6el<; ttjv hetvorr^ra avve- 

'^P^Tm ^ovXevae /jltj top Avcravhpov dvopvTTeiv, dXXa i 
Tov Xoyov fxdXXov avTw avyKaropvTTecv, eTreLcrOr} ' 

4 Kul KaOyjau^a^e. toi)? 8e vTrevavriov/xevou^ avru) 
<f)avepc!)<; fiev ovk e^Xairre, Sia7rpaTr6p.€vo<} Se 
7ri/x7T€crdai TLva<i del aTparriyov^ koI dp'X^ovTa^ 
i^ avroiv, eireheLKwe yevofievovi iv Tai<i i^ovaLai<; 607 
TTOvrjpov'i Koi irXeoveKTa^, elra Kpi,vofi€voi,<i irdXiv j 
av ^orjOwv Kal avvayoyvi^ofievo^, otKelov^ e'/c 
8ia(f}6pcov iiroLelro koi fiediaTTj 7Tpo<i avTov, Mcrre 
firjdeva avTciraXov eivai. 

5 'O yap erepo^ ^acriXev^i ^ AyriaiTToXi<i, are Brj 
TraTpo<i fiev cov (fiuyd8o<;, rjXiKia he iriVTaTracri 
fieipdKiov, ^vcre'. he iTpdo<i Kal Koafiio^;, ov TroXXd 
TOiv TToXiTiKcov eTTpaTTev. ov firjv dXXd Kal 
rovTOV CTTOietTO ')(eiporj9ri. avcranovai yap oi 
^acnXel<i ei? to avro (f)oiTcovT€<; (f>thLTtov, orav 

6 i7rihi]p(ocnv. elhu><; ovv evo)(^ov ovra toc<; ipo)- 
TiKol<i TOV ^ Ay rjaliroXiv, coaTrep rjv avTo'i, dei Tivo<i 

"^ ^ Cf. the Ly Sander, chapter xxx. 
54 ^f>TN- i/>^^»Mtf 



AGESILAUS, XX. 2-6 

commander, immediately after returning from Asia, 
had formed against him, Agesihiiis set out to prove 
what manner of citizen Lysander had been while 
alive. So, after reading a speech which Lysander 
had left behind him in book form, — a speech which 
Cleon of Halicarnassus had composed, but which 
Lysander had intended to adopt and pronounce 
before the people in advocacy of a revolution and 
change in the form of government, — Agesilaiis 
wished to publish it. But one of the senators, who 
had read the speech and feared its ability and power, 
advised the king not to dig Lysander up again, but 
rather to bury the speech with him, to which advice 
Agesilaiis listened and held his peace.^ And as for 
those who were in opposition to him, he would do 
them no open injury, but would exert himself to send 
some of them away from time to time as generals and 
commanders, and would shew them up if they proved 
base azid grasping in their exercise of authority ; 
then, contrariwise, when they were brought to trial, 
he would come to their aid and exert himself in their 
behalf, and so would make them friends instead of 
enemies, and bring them over to his side, so that no 
one was left to oppose him. 

For Agesipolis, the other king, since he was the 
son of an exile," in years a mere stripling, and by 
nature gentle and quiet, took little part in affairs of 
state. And yet he too was brought under the sway 
of Agesilaus. For tlie Spartan kings eat together in 
the same "phiditium," or public mess,^ whenever 
they are at home. Accordingly, knowing that Agesi- 
polis was prone to love affairs, just as he was himself, 

2 Pausanias, who was impeached in 395 B.C., went into 
voluntary exile, and was condemned to death. 
^ Cf. the Lycurgus, xii. 1 f. 

55 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

VTTijpx^ \6yov Trepl rcov iv wpa- koI irpoijye rov 
veaviaKov €l<; ravro koI avvyjpa kcu avveTTparre, 
TOiV AaKcoviKcov ipooTcov ovSev alaxpov, alSoi) he 
TToWrjv Kal (f>i\oTifj,Lav Kul ^rfKov dpeTr]<i eyov- 
Tcov, ft)? ip T0i9 Trepl AvKOvpyov ykypairrai. 

XXI. ^\eyiGTOv ovv Bvvd/j,€vo<; iv rfj woXei 8ta- 
TrpciTTeTai TeXevriav top 6p.opi]Tpi,ov dhe\<^ov eVt 
rov vavriKOv yei'iaOai. koI aTparevadpevo<i el<i 
K.opii'6ov auTO? /j,€v ^pet Kara yrjv rd /xaKpa 

rei-)(r], raZ^ he vavalv 6 TeXevrlaii ^ ^Ap- 

yeiwv he rrjv }L6pLvdov ex,opru)V rare Kal rd 
"laBfj-ia arvvreXovvTcov, eTTL(^avel<i eKeivov<i pev 
e^rjkaaev dpri rep dew redvKora<i, rijv irapa- 

2 (TKevrjv diracrav d7roXi7r6vra<;' eVet he rwv Kopiv- 
Oicov 6<T0L <^vydhe<; erv^ov 7rap6vre<; ehei]6riaav 
avrov rov dyoiva hiaOeivac, rovro p,ev ovk eVot*;- 
(T€v, avrwv he eKeivtov hiariOevrcov Kal avvreXovv- 
T(i)v rrapep-etve Kal Trapea^ev dacfidXeiav. varepov 
he dtreXdovro'i avrov irdXiv utt' ^Apyeiwv ijX^V 
ra "ladpia, Kat rive<; fiev ivLKrjaav irdXtv, elal he 
o'l veviK7]K6re<; irporepov, rjrrrjp.evoi he varepov, 

3 dveypdcpTjcrav. eVt rovrw he ttoXXtjv d7re(f)7]ve 
heiXiav Kari^yopeiv eavrwv rov<i ^Apyelov; 6 
* Ay t]aLXao<;, el aep,vov ovrco Kal peya rrjv 

^ The lacuna after this name may be filled from the words 
Kara. 6a.\a-rrav ras vavs koX to viihpia p^iTj/ce, in Xenophon, 
Hdl. iv. 4, 19. 

^ Chapters xvii. 1 ; xviii. 4. 
56 



AGESILAUS, XX. 6-xxi. 3 

Agesilaiis would always introduce some discourse 
about the boys who were of an age to love. He 
would even lead the young king's fancy toward the 
object of his own affections, and share with him in 
wooing and loving, these Spartan loves having nothing 
shameful in them, but being attended rather with 
great modesty, high ambition, and an ai'dent desire 
for excellence, as I have written in my life of 
Lycurgus.^ 

XXI. Having thus obtained very great influence 
in the city, he effected the appointment of Teleutias, 
his half-brother on his mother's side, as admiral. 
Then he led an army to Corinth, and himself, by 
land, captured the long walls, while Teleutias, with 
his fleet, seized the enemy's ships and dockyards. 
Then coming suddenly upon the Argives,^ who at 
that time held Corinth, and were celebrating the 
Isthmian games, he drove them away just as they 
had sacrificed to the god, and made them abandon 
all their equipment for the festival. At this, the 
exiles from Corinth who were in his army begged 
him to hold the games. This, however, he would 
not do, but remained at hand while they held the 
games from beginning to end, and afforded them 
security. Afterwards, when he had departed, the 
Isthmian games were held afresh by the Argives, and 
some contestants won their victories a second time, 
while some were entered in the lists as victors in the 
first contests, but as vanquished in the second. In 
this matter Agesilaiis declared that the Argives had 
brought down upon themselves the charge of great 
cowardice, since they regarded the conduct of the 

-^ * Phitarch confuses the expedition of 39.3 B.C. (Xenophon, 
Hdl. iv. 4. 19) with that of 390 B.C. (Xenoplion, Hdl. iv. 
5, 1 fif.). 

57 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ayojvodealav rjiyovfievoi fid'^eaOai Trepl avrrjii 
OVK iroKiirjaav. avro^ he TTpo<i ravTa iravra 
fi€Tplo)<; o)€To Belv ex^i-v, koI toi)? p,ev olkoi yopov<; 
Kol dy(ji)va<i eireKoo-fieL koX av/nTrapTjv del (f)t- 
\orL[XLa<i Kol cnrovhrj^; ^ecrro? o)v koI ovre iraihcov 
ovre Trapdevcov ayxtXX?^? diroXeirrofievo^, a Be tov<; 
aXXov^ icopa 6av/jid^ouTa<i iBoKec firjSe yivcocTKeiv. 

4 Kai TTore KaXXtTTTr/ST/? 6 tmv rpaj(phi(Ji)v vtto- 
Kpni]<;, ovofxa koI ho^av e^wv iv toI<^ "EWrjcn 
Kol cr7rovSa^ofJL€vo<i vtto iravrcov, irpoiTOv fiev 
dTnjVTrjoeu avT(p koI TrpoaeiTrev, eireiTa crojSapco'? 
€19 rov<; crv/ui7repi7raTovvTa<; €fi0a\u>v eavrov 
eTTeSeiKwro vofMi^wv iKeivov dp^eiv ti,vo<; <^iXo- 
(f)pocrvvr]<i, reXo? 8e elirev' " Ovk eTn.yivuxTKei'i fie, 
o) ^aatXev; " KdKeivo^ d'TTO^\e'\\ra<; 7rpo<; avrov 
eliTev' "'AX,Xa ov auye eaal KaWiTnrlSa'i 6 
BeiKr]\iKTas ;" ov'^co he AaKehaifiovioi toi"? /zi/xou9 

5 Kokovai. 'napaKoXovpLevo^ he irdXiv dKovcrai 
Tov rrjv diihova pLipLOvp,ei'OV, 7rapijTT]aaT0 <p7]aa<i, 
" Aura? aKouKa. ' tov he larpov M.€V€KpdTOU<i, 
eVet KaTaTV)(u)v ev tlctiv direyvcocr pLevai<; OepaTret- 
ai<i Zev<; eireKXyjO)], (popTiKw^ tuvtt] '^(^pwp.evov rf] 
TTpoawvvp-ia koI hr] Kol 7rpo<i eKelvov eTnaTelXat 
To\p,i](ravTO<i ouTco<i' " M.eveKpdTi]<; Zeu? ^aaiXei 
*Ayr]cn\d(p ■x^alpetv," dvTeypayjre- " Ba.criXei'9 
^AyT]ai\ao<; ^leve/cpaTet vyiati^ew." 

XXII. AcaTpi/3ovTO<i he Trepl rrjv Kopu>0L(ov 
avrov KoX to 'lipalov elXrjcporo'i kuI to, al-)(^fxd- 
X&)Ta Toi'9 arpaTi(ora<i d'-/ovra<i koI cf)epovTa<i 
e7Ti/3\iTTOVTO<i, df^LKOVTO TTpea^ei^ e'/c &i]^(ov Trepl 

58 



AGESILAUS, XXI. 3-xxn. i 

games as so great and august a privilege, and yet 
had not the courage to fight for it. He himself 
thought that moderation ought to be observed in all 
these matters, and sought to impi'ove the local choirs 
and games. These he always attended, full of 
ambitious ardour, and was absent from no contest in 
which either boys or girls competed. Those things, 
however, for which he saw the rest of the world 
tilled with admiration, he appeared not even to 
recognize. Once upon a time Calli])ides the tragic 
actor, who had a name and fame among the Greeks and 

' was eagerly courted by all, first met him and addressed 
him, then pompously thrust himself into his company 
of attendants, showing plainly that he expected the 
king to make him some friendly overtures, and finally 
said : " Dost thou not recognize me, O King ? " The 

^ king fixed his eyes upon him and said : " Yea, art thou 

not Callipides the buffoon ? " For this is how the 

Lacedaemonians describe actors. And again, when 

he was invited to hear the man who imitated the 

,. nightingale, he declined, saying : " I have heard the 

-1 U,ii'd herself."^ Again, Menecrates the physician, 
^ho, for his success in certain desperate cases, had 

I received the surname of Zeus, and had the bad taste 

to employ the appellation, actually dared to write the 

king a letter beginning thus : " Menecrates Zeus, to 

King Agesilaiis, greeting." To this Agesilaiis replied: 

" King Agesilaiis, to Menecrates, health and sanity." 

XXII. While he was lingering in the territory of 

Corinth, he seized the Heraeum,^ and as he was 

watching his soldiers carry off the prisoners and 

booty, messengers came from Thebes to treat for 

y y '*-' 

^ Cf. the Lycurqw^, xx. 5. 

2 The refugees in the Heraeum came out and surrendered 
of their own accord (Xenophon, Hell. iv. 5, 5). - 5^ / ^' 

^' 59 



^^/fOu^^^^Jt /-Vr^-irr^^rMj 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

(f)i\iaf;. Be /nicrMV fiev ael Trjv ttoXiv, ol6[xevo<i 
he Tore koX av^icfiepeLv evv^p'iaai, TrpocrerroLeLTO 
fiy'jTe opav avTOv<; firJTe axoveiv evrvy^avovTcov. 

2 eirade he irpdj/xa ve/xearjTov outto) <yap uTnjWay- 
fievcov TMv ^tj^aioov rJKov Tiv€<; dirayyeWovre^ 
avru) TTjv popav vtto ^l(f)iKpdTov<; KaraKeKocfidai. 
Kol 7ra^o<? TovTO /xeja Bid iroXkov ')(p6vov avvi- 
ireaev avTol<i' 7roXXov<i <ydp dv8pa<i dyaOou<; aire- 
^aXov KparrjdevTa'i vtto re TreXraaTcbv 67rXtTa9 
Kal pi(T6o(f>6p(ov AaKeSaifxoviov<;. 

3 ^ Ave7n]Br]a€ p-ev ovv evdv<i 6 AyrjalXao'; o)? 60 
^o-qdrjcroov eireX Be eypo) BiaireTrpaypbevov^, av6i<i 
et9 TO 'Hpaiov rjKe, Kal tov<; Hokdtov^ Tore irpoa- 
ekOelv KeXevaa^, i'x^prjpaTi^ev. co? Be dvOv^pi- 
^ovTe<; eKelvoL rrj<; pev elprjvrj'i ovk ep,ep,v7]VT0, 
TrapeOrjvat, Be tj^lovv et9 K.6pivdov, opytaOelf; o 
'A77/crtXao? elTrev "Wtye ^ovXecrde tou? (f)iXov<i 
iipboiv IBelv p,€ya (}}povovvTa<; i<f>' oh evTvxovatv, 

4 avpiov da(f>aX(b'i vpZv tovto VTrdp^ei.' kol Tvapa- 
Xa^cov avTov<; rfj vcrrepaia rrjv re 'X^copav twv 
K^opivdioiv eKOTTTe Kal tt^o? ttjv ttoXiv avrrjv 
TrpoarjXdev. ovtco Be tou? K.opLv6Lov<i e^eXey^a<; 
dpvveadai p,r) ToXp,o)VTa<i, dc^r)Ke ttjv irpea^elav. 
auTO? Be Tous irepiXeXeip^pevov'; dvBpa<i eK Ty]<i 
p,6pa<; dvaXa^wv dTrrjyev eh AaKeBaip-ova, irpo 
r)p.epa^ 7roiovp,evo<; Td<; dva^ev^cfi Kal irdXiv 
(TKoraiovi; Td<i KaTaXvaei<;, ottw? ol pi(TovvT€<i Kal 
^aaKa'LvovTe<i rtbv ^ApKdBcov p,r] eTTiy^alpdyaiv. 

6o 



\ 



AGESILAUS, XXII. 1-4 

peace. But he had always hated that city, and 
thinking this an advantageous time also for insulting 
it, pretended neither to see nor hear its ambassadors 
when they presented themselves. But his pride 
soon had a fall ; for the Thebans had not yet de- 
parted when messengers came to him with tidings 
that the Spartan division had been cut to pieces by 
Iphicrates.^ This was the greatest disaster that 
had happened to the Spartans in a long time ; for 
they lost many brave men, and those men were over- 
whelmed bytargeteers and mercenaries, though they 
were men-at-arms and Lacedaemonians. 

At once, then, Agesilaiis sprang up to go to their 
assistance, but when he learned that it was all over 
with them,2 he came back again to the Heraeum, and 
ordering the Boeotians then to come before him, 
gave them an audience. But they returned his 
insolence by making no mention of peace, but simply 
asking safe conduct into Corinth. Agesilaiis was 
wroth at this, and_§ai^ : " If you wish to see your 
friends when they are elated at their successes, you 
can do so to-morrow in all safety." And taking them 
along with him on the next day, he ravaged the 
territory of the Corinthians, and advanced to the 
very gates of the city. After he had thus proved 
that the Corinthians did not dare to resist him, he 
dismissed the embassy. Then he himself, picking up 
the survivors of the division that had been cut to 
pieces, led them back to Sparta, always breaking 
camp before it was day, and pitching the next camp 
after it was dark, in order that the hateful and 
malicious Arcadians might not exult over them. 

1 At Lechaeum, the port of Corinth on the Corinthian 
gulf, in 390 B.C. (Xenophoii, Hell. iv. 5, 11-18). .^ / ' 

^ He had marched till he was "well within the plateau of 
Lechaeum" (Xenophon, Hell. iv. 5, 8). 

61 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

5 'E/c Tovrov ')(api^6fievo<i rol'i 'A;!^atot9 hie^aivev 
eh ^AKapvavlav crTpaTia fxer avro)v, koX ttoWtjv 
fiev rjXdaaTO Xetav, fid^rj Se toi"? *AKapvdva<i 
ivLKrjcre. Seo/iivcov 8e tmv A'^aiMV otto)? top 
')^ei/x(x)va 7rapa/j,€lva<; d(^e\r]Tat rov airopov tmv 
iroXe/jLicov, Touvavrlov ecfirj rrou^aeiv fidWov <ydp 
^o^7)di']crea6ai rov TroXe/xov avrov<;, iav iairap- 
fievrjv TTjv yi]v et? copa? €-)(^(oaiv' o kol avve/Sr], 
7rapayyeX.Xo/xevr]<} jap avda iir avTOv<; arpaT€la<; 
StTjWd'yrjaav rot? 'A^aio??. 

XXIII. 'ETret Be Hovcov koI ^apvdj3a^o<i t5> 
^acriXeco'i vauriKw 6a\arTOKparovvTe<i eiropdovv 
ra irapdXia t/}? AaKQ}ViKrj<;, eTei^Ladi] Be Kal to 
aaTV TMV ^Adrjvalcov ^apva^d^ov ')(^pi]/j.aTa 86vto<;, 
eho^e Tot9 AaKe8ai/j,ovioi<; elp7]vr]v TroielaOat Trp6<; 
^aaCXea' Kal Trefnrovaiv ^ AvTaXKihav 7rpo<; Tipl- 
^a^ov, ata')(^LaTa Kal TrapavopiooTaTa TOv<i Trjv 
^Aaiav KaToiKovvTa<; "FjXXrjva<;, virep mv eiroXe- 

2 pLTjaev ^AjrjaiXaoi;, /SaaiXet 7rapa8i86vTe<;. odev 
fjKLtJTa (Tvve^t] Tr}? KaKoho^ia^ TavTrji; ^AyijaiXdco 
pLeTa(T')(eiv. 6 yap 'AvTaX,«tSa9 e')(j9po^ rjv avTM, 
Kal TTjv elpi'ivriv ef diravTOf; eTrpaTTev cl)? tov 
TToXepLOV TOV 'AyijaiXaov av^ovTo<i Kal ttoiovvto^; 
evBo^oTaTov Kal fieyiaTOv. ov firjv dXXa Kal 
7r/309 TOV eliTovTa tov<; AaKeBaip^oviov^ fiTjBi^eiv 
6 ^AyrjaiXac; aTreKplvaTO p,dXXov tov<; M.i]Sov<i 

3 XaKcovL^eiv. Toh Be yu,?; /SouXo/xevoi^ Be-^ecr6ai 
Ti]V elpijvrjv aTretXcov Kal KaTayyeXXwv iroXefiov 
rjvdyKaaev ep-/xeveiv arravTU^ ot? o Tlepar]^ 
iBiKataxre, pudXiaTa Bid tov<; ^rj^aiovs, 07r&)9 



/3-7 



1 In 390-389 B.C. (Xenophon, Hell. iv. 6, 3—7, 1). 

^ 2 in 393 B.C. (Xenophon, Hell. iv. 8, 10). 

^ The Great King's satrap in Western Asia. 

62 



AGESILAUS, XXII. 5-xxiii. 3 

After this, to gratify the Achaeans, he crossed 
over with them on an expedition into Acamania,i 
where he drove away much booty and conquered the 
Acarnanians in battle. But when the Achaeans 
asked him to spend the winter there in order to 
prevent the enemy from sowing their fields, he said 
he would do the opposite of this ; for the enemy 
would dread the war more if their land was sown 
when summer came. And this proved true ; for 
when a second expedition against them was an- 
nounced, they came to terms with the Achaeans. 

XXIII. When Conon and Pharnabazus with the 
Gi'eat King's fleet were masters of the sea and were 
ravaging the coasts of Laconia, and after the walls of 
Athens had been rebuilt with the money which 
Pharnabazus furnished,'- the Lacedaemonians decided 
to make peace with the king of Persia. To that end, 
they sent Antalcidas to Tiribazus,^ and in the most 
shameful and lawless fashion handed over to the King 
the Greeks resident in Asia, in whose behalf Agesilaiis 
had waged war. Agesilaiis, therefore, could have had 
no part at all in this infamy. For Antalcidas was his 
enemy, and put forth all his efforts to make the peace 
because he saw that the war enhanced to the utmost 
the reputation and power of Agesilaiis. Notwith- 
standing this, to one who remarked that the Lace- 
daemonians were favouring the Medes, Agesilaiis 
replied that the Medes were the rather favouring 
the Lacedaemonians. Moreover, by threatening with 
war the Greeks who were unwilling to accept the 
peace, he forced them all to abide by the terms 
which the Persian dictated,* more especially on 
account of the Thebans, his object being to make 

* The peace of Antalcidas was ratified by all the Greek 
states except Thebes in 387 B.C. (Xenophon, Hell. v. 1, 29 ff.). 

•' y 63 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

avTovofiov TTjv BoicoTiav d(f)€VTe^ acrdeveaTepot 
yevcovTai. SfjXov 8e rovro toZ? varepov eVou/crei'. 
iirel yap ^oi^l8a<i epyov elpydaaro Seivov ev 
a-'JTovhal'i Kol elprjvrj ttjv K.aB/j.€iav KaraXa^oiV, 
KaX 7rdvT€<; fiev ^yavaKTOvv ol "^WT)ve<;, y^aXeircofi 

4 he ecpepov ol ZTTapriaTai, Koi /ndXtaTa ol Sca(j)€- 
pofievot, TO) ^ Ay )]ai\dM iier opyrj'^ iirwddvovro 
rov ^oi^lSou rivo<i ravra KeXevaavTO^ eirpa^ev, 
eh eKelvov rr]v virovoiav rpeirovTe^;, ovk oiKv-qae 
T(p ^OL^iha /3oj]0(x)u Xeyeiv dva<^avhov on hel ttjv 
Trpd^iv avTTjv, el ri ')(^pi]cn/j,ov e'xe/, a-Koirelv ra 
yap (TVfX(j)€povTa rfj KaKehal/Jiovt, KoKoi^ ^'x^'*' 

5 auTOfiarl^ecrdat, Kav yu-T^Sei? KeXevarj. KaiTOL ra> 
\6ya> iravrayov rijv hLKaioavvrjv dtrec^awe irpco- 
reveiv rwv dpeTcov dvSpela^ /xev yap ovSev 6(f)€\o<; 
elvat, ^rj TTapova')]<i hiKaLoauvrj'^, el he Blkoioi, 
7rdvTe<; yevotvro, /j^rjSev dvhpeia^ herjaecrGai.. nrpo'i 
he TOV<i \eyovTa<i oti ravra hoKel tS> fieydXo) 
/SaaiXet, " Tt S' eKelvov efiov," elire, " jxel^wv, a 
firj KuX hiKai,oTepo<i;^^ 6pd(b<i Kol KaX(o<i olofievo^i 
helv T(p hiKaup KaOdirep fierpo) j3aatXtKu> fieTpel- 

6 crdai TTjv virepoxv^ tou fiel^ovo^. i]v he t?}? 
€lpr]vr]<; yevofievrj^; eTTefi^ev avru) Trepl ^evLa<; kuI 609 
<f)iXia<; eiTiaToXrjv 6 j3aaiXev<;, ovk eXa^ev, eliroiv 
e^apKelv rrjv kolvtjv (f>cXlav, kuI [xrjhev lhia<i 
he7]aecr6ac fievovarj^ eKeivrj^. ev he roi<; epyoL<; 
ovKeri TavTTjv hia(f)vXdrTQ)v rrjv ho^av, dXXd ttj 
(f)iXoTifila Kal rfj (piXoveLKLa iroXXa^^^ov avveK- 

7 <pep6/j.evo<;, Kal /idXiara rfj 7rpo<; ©yj^alov;, ov 
fjLOVOv eaaxre rov ^oi^ihav, dXXa Kal ttjv ttoXlv 

64 



AGESILAUS, xxiii. 3-7 

them weaker by leaving Boeotia independent of 
Thebes. This he made clear by his subsequent 
behaviour. For when Phoebidas committed the foul 
deed of seizing the Cadmeia ^ in a time of perfect 
peace, and all the Greeks were indignant and the 
Spartans displeased at the act, and when especially 
those who were at variance with Agesilaiis angrily 
asked Phoebidas by whose command he had done 
this thing, thereby turning suspicion upon Agesilaiis, 
Jie did not scruple to come to the help of Phoebidas, 
and tiLsa^openly that they must consider whether 
the act itself was serviceable or not ; for that which 
was advantageous to Sparta might well be done in- 
dependently, even if no one ordered it. And yet in 
his discourse he was always- de^lftring that justice 
was the first of the virtues ; for valour was of no use 
unless justice attended it, and if all men should be 
just, there would be no need of valour. And to 
those who said, " This is the pleasure of the Great 
King," he would say, " How is he greater than I 
unless he is also more just?", rightly and nobly 
thinking that justice must be the royal measure 
wherewith relative greatness is measured. And 
when, after the peace was concluded, the Great King 
sent him a letter proposing guest-friendship, he 
would not accept it, saying that the public friendship 
was enough, and that while that lasted there would 
be no need of a private one. Yet in his acts he no 
longer observed these opinions, but was often carried 
away by ambition and contentiousness, and par- 
ticularly in his treatment of the Thebans. For he 
not only rescued Phoebidas from punishment, but 

^ Tlie citadel of Thebes. It was seized by Phoebidas in 
383 B.C. (Xenophon, Hell. v. 2, 26 ff.). 

65 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

eireiaev eh aurrjv ai'aSe^aaOai to aSiKij/xa fcal 
Kare-^eiv rr]v HaSfiecav Si' eavrri<^, rwv he irpa'y- 
/jbdrcov Kal t?}9 iroXireia^ ^Ap'ylav kuI AeovjiSav 
airohel^ai Kvpiov;, 8t oiv 6 ^oi^l8a<; elar]\9e Kal 
KureXa/Se rrjv a/cpoTToXiv. 

XXIV. 'Hi^ fiev ovv evdix; €k tovtcdv virovoia 
^oi^iBov fj,€v epyov elvai, ^ovXevp^a he ^Ayijcri- 
\aov TO TreTrpayfievov ai he varepov Trpd^ei'i 
oixoXoyovpLevrjv CTroujcrav rrjv alriav. to? yap 
e^e^aXov ol ^rj^aloi t7]v ^povpav koX ttjv ttoXlv 
rfXevdepwaav, iyKoXoiv avroh on. tov 'Ap^tay 
Kal TOV AeovTihav direKTOvecrav, epyw fiev tv- 
pdvuov<i, X07&) he 7ro\€/jLdp-^ov<i oWa?, e^tjvejKe 

2 TToXefiov TT/Oo? auTou?. Kal KXeo/x^poTO^ y^hri 
^aatXevcov ' AyrjanroXiha TedvjjKOTO'i, eh Bofco- 
TLav eTref^pOr] pcTa huvdfiefo^;' 6 yap 'AyrjalXao^;, 
&)9 €Trj TecraapdKovTa yeyovwi d(f> t^/St;? Kal 
aTpaTela^ e')(o)v d(f)ecrLV vtto tmv vopcov, ecpvye ttjv 
(TTpaTrjyiav ^ eKCLvyjv, alcrxwo/neva el (t>\ia(TL0L<i 
oiXiyov efiTrpocrdev vrrep (pvydhcov TreTToXefirjKOti^, 
avdi<i ocpd/jcreTat @ri^aiov<i KaKco<; ttoicov hia tov<; 
Tvpdvvov<i. 

3 ^Yiv he Ti<i AdKwv %^ohp[a<i €k t?}? v7revavTLa<i 
aTdaew^ tu> ^AyrjaiXday TeTayfieva ev (f^eaTriah 
dpfioaTrj<iy ovK UToXfio^ p,ev ovS" d(jii\oTi/xo^ dvi'jp, 
del 8' iXTTihcov fidXXov rj (ppevwv dyaOoiv /xetrro?. 
ovTO<; eTnOvjiodv ovopaTo^ fieydXov, Kai tov Oot- 
^ihav vop,L^(ov evho^ov yeyovevai Kal Trepi^orjTOv 
aTTo TOV irepl ©T/ySa? To\p7]paTo<i, eTTelaOrj ttoXv 
KdXXiov elvai Kal \ap7rp0Tep0v el tov Vlecpaid 
KaTaXd^oc 8i' eavTov Kal tmv AdijvaLoiv d(f>e- 

* arpar-qylay with Stephanas, Coraes, and S : arpaTtiav. 
66 



AGESILAUS, XXIII. 7-xxiv. 3 

actually persuaded Spai-ta to assume responsibility 
for his iniquity and occupy the Cadmeia on its own 
account, besides putting the administration of Thebes 
into the hands of Archias and Leontidas, by whose 
aid Phoebidas had entered and seized the acropolis. 

XXIV. Of course this gave rise at once to a 
suspicion that while Phoebidas had done the deed, 
Agesilaiis had counselled it ; and his subsequent acts 
brought the charge into general belief. For when 
the Thebans expelled the Spartan garrison and 
liberated their city,^ he charged them with the 
murder of Archias and Leontidas, who were really 
tyrants, though polemarchs in name, and levied war 
upon them. And Cleombrotus, who was king now 
that Agesipolis was dead, was sent into Boeotia with 
an army ; for Agesilaus, who had now borne arms for 
forty years, and was therefore exempt by law from 
military service, declined this command. He was / <^ 
ashamed, after having recently made war upon the ' 
Phliasians in behalf of their exiles,^ to be seen now 
harrying the Thebans in the interests of their 
tyrants.-* 

Now, there was a certain Lacedaemonian named 
Sphodrias, of the party opposed to Agesilaiis, who 
had been appointed harmost at Thespiae. He lacked 
neither boldness nor ambition, but always abv»unded 
in hopes rather than in good judgement. This man, 
coveting a great name, and considering that Phoe- 
bidas had made himself famous far and near by his 
bold deed at Thebes, was persuaded that it would 
be a far more honourable and brilliant exploit for him 
to seize the Peiraeus on his own account and rob the 

^ In 379 B.C., with the help of the Athenians (Xenophon, 
y^flell. V. 4, 2-1'J). Cf. the Felopidas, ix.-xiii. 
?' 2 In 380-379 B.C. (Xenophon, Hell. v. 3, 13-25). 
V ^ Cf. Xenophon, Hell. v. 4, 13. 

67 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Xono rrjv dakacraav, €k 7^9 a.TrpocrhoKrjro)'; 

4 eTTekOoov. Xeyovmi Se tovto firj-^dvrjiia 'yevecrOai 
TOiv TTcpi UeXoTTiSav Kal MeXwi'a ^oi(OTap)(^ci)v. 
vTreirepi'^av 'yap av6p(OTT0v<i XaKcovi^eiv irpocr- 
TToiovfievov^;, o'i rov ^(poSpiav iiraivovvTe'i Kal 
fi6'ya\vvovre<i co? epyou rvjXiKovrov fiovov a^iov, 
iirrjpav kuI Trapcopfirjaev aveXeadai irpa^LV clStKov 
jxev o/j,oiu)<{ eKclvr] Kal irapdvofiov, ToX/tr;? ^e Kal 

5 rv)(rj(i ivSed yevo/xevrjv. rj/xepa yap ainov iv ru) 
%pLaai(p TreStft) KareXa^e Kal KariXafiyp-ev iX- 
-TTLcravTa vvkto^ Trpoafii^eiv rw Tieipaiel' Kal (f)(o<; 
d(}) lepcov Tivcov ^EXevaivodev lS6vTa<; XeyciXLcn 
<f)pi^ai Kal 7repK/)o/3of ? yeveadai tov<; arparLcoTa^. 
auT09 Be rov 6pdaou<; e^eireaev, &)? ovKert XaOelv 
riv, Kal Tcva ^pa)(€lav dpirayrjv Oepievo^; accy)(^pco<; 

6 dve^f^pv^^ '^^'' ah6^o><i el<; Ta<; Se(nnd<i. €k 8e 
TOVTOv KaTijyopoi fiev eTre/xcpdrjaav ei? 'S.irdpTijv i^ 
^Adrjvcov, eupov 8e KaTqyopLa<i^ fxrjSev eirl top 
1,(j)ohpLav Seo/xevov; rou^ dpxopra'i, dXXd Oavdrov 
KpicTLV avTw TTpoeipi]KOTa<;, rjv eKelvo<i VTro/neveiv 
aTriyvci), (po^ov/xevo'i ttjv opyrjv rcov iroXiTOiv 
alax^vopLevuiv tou? ^ AOrjvaiovi Kal jSovXo/jLevcov 
avvaZiKtladaL SoKelv, 1'va fit] avvahiKelv SoKcocriv. 

XXV. Et^et' ovv vlov 6 %(^ohpia'i KXecovv/xov, 
ov 7rat,Bo<; oVto? en Kal KaXov tt]V oyfriv 'Ap^t- 
Bafio<; 6 WyrjaiXdov tov ^aai,Xe(i}<i f/09 ypa. Kal 
Tore (TvvrjycovLa fiev &)? et«o? avrco - KivSuvevovTl 



^ KUTvyopias with S : KarvySp'-^v. 

* ws (inhs avT^ with S ; other MSS. aij uKhs ■^v : avrf. 



68 



AGESILAUS, XXIV. 3-xxv. i 

Athenians of access to the sea, attacking them un- 
expectedly by land. lt_ia__said, too, that the scheme 
was devised by Pelopidas and Melo, chief magistrates 
at Thebes.^ They privily sent men to him who • /"^^, 
pretended to be Spartan sympathizers, and they, by ' ^. , 
praising and exalting Sphodrias as the only man 
worthy to undertake so great a task, urged and 
incited him into an act which was no less lawless and 
unjust than the seizure of the Cadmeia, though it , 
was essayed without courage or good fortune. For 
full daylight overtook him while he was yet in the 
Thriasian plain, although he had hoped to attack the 
Peiraeus by night. It is sa[d also that his soldiers 
saw a light streami^igTrom certain sanctuaries at 
Eleusis, and were filled with shuddering fear. Their 
commander himself lost all his courage, since con- 
cealment was no longer possible, and after ravaging 
the country a little, retired disgracefully and in- 
gloi-iously to Thespiae. Hereupon men were sent 
from Athens to Sj>arta to denounce Sphodrias. They 
found, however, that the magistrates there had no 
need of their denunciation, but had already indicted 
Sphodrias on a capital charge. This charge he de- 
termined not to meet, fearing the wrath of his 
countrymen, who were ashamed in the presence of 
the Athenians, and wished to be thought wronged 
with them, that they might not be thought wrong- 
doers with Sphodrias. 

XXV. Now Sphodrias had a son, Cleonymus, who 
was still a boy and fair to look upon, and of whom 
Archidamus, the son of King Agesilaus, was en- 
amoured. In this crisis Archidamus naturally sym- 
pathized with his favourite because of the peril in 

""■^ 1 Their object was to embroil Athens and Sparta (Xeno- 
phon, HdL V. 4, 20-24). 

69 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

irepl Tov Trar/oo?, (TV/xTrpuTTeiv Se (^avepo)<i /cal 
^oi-jOelv ovK eix^v rjv yap 6 S^oS/oia? e'/c tmv 

2 8ia(f)6pa)v TOV ^AyrjaiXdou. tov 8e i^Xecovv/jLOv 
7rpoae\66vTO<; uvtm koI /xeTa Serjaeco'i Koi SaKpvoov 
ivTV^6vT0<;, OTTCi)? TOV ^Ayi^a [Xaov evvovv irapd- GIO 
^XV' p'CiK.iaTa yap eKelvov avTOi<i (f)o^epov elvai, 
Tp6l<i /xev r) Teaaapa^; '>)/jL€pa<; alhovfievo<; tov 
iraTepa kuI SeSico^ crLcoTrfj iraprjKoXovder reA-o? 
8e T^9 Kpiaeu)^ iyyv<} ovar]<i eToXfirjcrev elirelv 
Trpo^ TOV ^ AyijalXaov oti K.\e(t)Vv/j,o<i avToO 

3 herjOelii irepX tov TTaTp6<i. o he ^AyrjaiXao^ eiSco? 
ipMVTa TOV *Ap^cSa/jiov ovk kiravaev rjv yap o 
KX€<JOvvfio<; €vdv<i €K TraiSwv e7riSo^o9, el Tt<i Kal 
aXXo<i, dvrjp eaecrdaL cn7ovhalo<;. ov /xrjv eviScoKe 
Ti t6t€ 'y^prjcTTov rj (f)iXdvO pcoirov iXTrlaai SeofievM 
Tw 7rai8[, aKiyjreaOat 8e <^rjaa<i o ti KaXci)^ ^X^^ 

4 Kal TrpeirovTO)^, dirriXOev. alSovfievo^ ovv 6 
^Ap)(LSa/io<; e^eXeiire to irpoaievaL tu) KXecovv/xai, 
Kaiirep elcoOto^ iroXXaKL^ tovto t>}? '^fiepa'i Troielv 
irpoTepov. €K Se tovtov KaKelvoi Ta KUTa tov 
'S,(f)o8pLav fj.dXXov direyvcoaav, ci'x^pi ov tmv 
^ Ay TjcnXdov (fiiXcov 'Erf/zo/tA,?}? ev tivi KoivoXoyla 
Trpb'i avTov<; UTreyvfivcoae tyjv yvM/xrjv tov Ayrjac- 
Xdov TO [xkv yap epyov co? evi fxdXiaTa yjreyeiv 
avTov, dXX(i)<i ye firjv dvhpa tov %cf)o8pLav dyaOov 
rjyeiadai Kal ttjv ttoXiv opdv tolovtwv aTpa- 

5 TicoTMV heoixevrjv. tovtov<; yap 6 ^Ayr](TiXao<; 
eKaaTOTS Tov<i Xoyov<; eTTOteiTO rrepl ti)^- StKrjf;, tw 
iraihl '^apll^ecrdai ^ovX6/Ji€vo<i, MaTe Kal tov 
KXecovvfiov €v6u<; alaOdvecrOai ttjv airovhi-jv tov 
^ Ap)(^ihdpL0V Kal tov<; (piXovi TOv<i tov 'h.<po8p{,ov 
6appovvTa<i '}]8'rj ^orjOelv. rjV Be Kal (f)LXoTeKVO<i 
6 'Ayr]aiXao<i Bia(})6p6vTQ}<;' Kal irepl eKelvov to 

70 



AGESILAUS, x.w. 1-5 

which his father stood, but he was unable to aid and 
assist him openly, since Sphodrias was one of the 
opponents of Agesilaiis. But when Cleonymus came 
to him in tears and begged him to mollify Agesilaiis, 
from whom he and his father had most to fear, 
for three or four days he was restrained by awe and 
fear from saying anything to Agesilaiis as he followed 
him about ; but finally, when the trial was near at 
hand, he plucked up courage to tell him that Cleony- 
mus had begged him to intercede for his father. 
Now Agesilaiis, although he knew of the love of 
Archidamus, had not put a stop to it, since Cleonymus, 
from his early boyhood, had given special promise 
of becoming an earnest and worthy man. At this 
time, however, he did not permit his son to expect 
any advantage or kindness in answer to his prayer ; 
he merely said, as he went away, that he would l\ v 
consider what was the honourable and fitting course 
in the matter. Archidamus was therefore mortified, 
and ceased to visit Cleonymus, although before this 
he had done so many times a day. As a consequence, I ^^Ji^ 
the friends of Sphodrias also were more in despair of ' /,. 
his case, until Etymocles, one of the friends ot 
Agesilaiis, conferred with them and disclosed the 
mind of the king, namely, that he blamed to the 
utmost what Sphodrias had done, but yet thought y^_ ^ 
him a brave man, and saw that the city needed just <J 

such soldiers. For this was the way in which Agesi- 
laiis always spoke about the trial, in his desire to 
gratify his son, so that Cleonymus was at once aware 
of the zealous efforts of Archidamus in his behalf, 
and the friends of Sphodrias had courage at last 
to come to his help. It is a fact also that Agesilaiis 
was excessively fond of his children, and a story^s 
told of his joining in their childish play. Once, 

71 



Y^ PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

\ T-?}? 7rat8ia<; Xir^vcriv, on, /xLKpoi'i TOt<i TrafStot? 
ov(Ti KaXa/jLOv 7r€pi^€/37)K(i)<i wairep lttttov olkoi 
crvveTraii^ev, ocjidel^; Se viro rivo^ tmv <^iXo)v nrap- 
CKaXet iirjhevX ^pdaat, irplv av koI avTo<i irarrip 
iraihwv jevrjTai. 

XXVI. ^A7ro\v6evTo<; 8e rov X(f)o8p[ou, koi 
Tcbv A6r]vai(ov, co? iirvdovTo, 7rp6<; iroXe/xov rpa- 
TTo/ievcov, a(f)6Bpa KaK(o<i 6 Ayr)aiXao<; ijKovae, 
8i eTTiOuixiav droTTOv koI TraiSaptcoSy] Bokcov 
ifiiroScdv yeyovevat Kpiaet hcKaia, koI Trjv ttoXlv 
TrapaiTLOV direipydadai TrapavofirjfMaToyv rrjXi- 

2 Kovrcov ei9 TOv<i "EXXr}va<;. eVet Be rov KXe- 
ofM^poTOV ov^ ecopa trpodvfxov ovra TroXe/zeZf roli^ 
Sr]/3aioi<i, ovTCd hrj '^aipeiv rov vopuov idaa^ m 
irpoaOev exp>]TO Trepl t/}? arpareLw;, auro^ et? 
BotfUTtat' evejSaXev rjhrj koI KaKw<i eiroLei tov<} 
Sr]^aL0V<i KOI TrdXiv dvTeTra<T)(ev, wcrre koI rpco- 
6evT0<i avrov ttotc tov 'AvTaXKcSav elirelv 
"'H KaXd rd BiSacrKdXia irapd @'>]/3aL0)v utto- 
XapL^dveL<i, fir] ^ovXofj,evov^ /jt-rjBe iircaTa/xevovf; 

3 fid-)(^ea6aL SiBd^w;." tS> yap ovri St^Balovi 
avTOV'i eavTcov 7roX€fii,K(i)TaTOV<i Tore yeveaOat, 
(ftaai, Tal<i iroXXalf; aTparelai^ rcov AuKeSai- 
fjLOvlcov eV avrov<i wairep eyyvixvaaafxevov^i. Bio 
KaX AvKovpyo<i 6 7raXat,o<i iv Tai'i KaXovfievaiif 
rpicrl pijrpai'i aTretTre fir) ttoXXuki^; cttI tou? 
avT0v<i arpaTeveiP, oircty^ fir] iroXep-elv fxavOd- 

V(0(TIV. 

'Hy Be Koi jol'i aufx/j,d)^oi<i jdv AaKeBaipi^ovioiv 



72 



AGESILAUS, XXV. 5-xxvi. 3 

when they were very small, he bestrode a stick, and 
was playing horse with them in the house, and when 
he was spied doing this by one of his friends, he 
entreated him not to tell any one, until he himself 
should be a father of children. 

XXVI. But after Sphodrias was acquitted,^ and the 
Athenians, on learning of it, were inclined to go to war, 
Agesilaiis was very harshly criticized. It was thought 
that, to gx'atify an absurd and childish desire, he had 
opposed the course of justice in a trial, and made the 
city accessory to great crimes against the Greeks. 
Besides, when he saw that his colleague Cleombrotus 
was little inclined to make war upon the Thebans, 
he waived the exemption by law which he had 
formerly claimed in the matter of the expedition, 
and presently led an incursion into Boeotia himself,'^ 
where he inflicted damage upon the Thebans, and in 
his turn met with reverses, so that one day when he 
. was wounded, Antalcidas. said to hhn : " Indeed, this 
is a fine tuition-fee which thou art getting from the 
Thebans, for teaching them how to fight when they 
did not wish to do it, and did not even know how." 
F'or the Thebans are said to have been really more war- 
like at this time'' than ever before, owing to the many 
expeditions which the Lacedaemonians made against 
them, by which they were virtually schooled in arms. 
And Lycurgus of old, in one of his three so-called 
" rhetras," forbade his people to make frequent 
expeditions against the same foes, in order that those 
foes might not learn how to make war.^ 

Moreover, the allies of the Lacedaemonians were 

L * Cf. Xenophon, Hell. v. 4, 2t-34. 

^ 2 According to Xenophon (Hell. v. 4, 35), he was asked to 
do so by the Lacedaemonians, who preferred him to Cleom- 
brotus as a leader. This was in 378 B.C. 
3 Cf. the Lycurgus, xiii. 6. 

73 



^ 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

i7ra)(^dT]<; 6 ^Ayrjcri\ao<;, &)<> St ovSev eyKXrj/xa 
hiifiocriov, aWa OvfiM tlvi koI ^iXoveiKia rovf 

4 Sr]/3aiov^ airoXeaai ^ijtcov. ovSev ovv eXeyov 
heojjievoi ^OeipeaOai hevpo KciKelae Kaff' eKacTTOV 
evtavTOV, oXlyoa ToaovroL ovvaKo\ov9ovvTe<i. 
ev9a he Brj Xeyerai rov ^ Ayr^aiXaov, e^eXey^ai 
^ovXofievov avTMV to ttXtjOo^, Tohe fir})(^av}]ora- 
adai. 7rdvTa<i eKeXevae KaOlaat TOv<i av/j./xd')^ov<i 
fier dXXi'jXwv dvaixefxtyixevov^, ISla 8e tov<; Aa/ce- 

5 haiixoviovi €<p' eauTcov. elra eKi]pvrTe TOv<i Kepa- 
yttei? dvicnacrOai irpoiTov o)? he dvearrjcrav ovroi, 
hevrepov eK>jpVTTe rov<; '^aXKei'i, elra TeKTOva<; 
€(f)e^P]'i Kal olKo86fiou<i koI tmv dXXcov re')(i>wv 
eKaGTrjV. Trdvre^ ovv oXiyov Selv dvecTTrjaav ol 
<jvjJip.a")(oi, ro)v he AaKehai pLoviwv ovhei^' d-nei- 611 
pi^TO yap avrol<; re)(^vT]v epyd^eaOac Kal ixavOdveiv 
^dvavcrov. ovtco hrj yeXdaa'i o Ayy]cn\ao'i, 
" 'Opare," elirev, " S) dvhpe<i, ocrw ■wXelova'^ v/noiv 
(TTpaTidiTa<; eK7refi7ro/xev 7)fiel<i. 

XXVII. 'Ei^ he Meydpoi'i, ore rip arpaTidv 
dirriyev ex &ri/3(ov, dva^aivovTO'i avrov Trpo? to 
dp^eiov el<i rijv aKpoTToXiv, (nraap.a Kai irovov 
la'^vpov eXa/Se to vyie<; cr/ceXo?* e'/c he tovtov 
hioyKwOev fxecTTov alfxajo'^ eho^e yeyovevai, Kal 
2 (j}Xey/jLOVt]v inrepffdXXovaav ■Kapel)(ev. larpov he 
Tivo'i ^vpaKovalov ttjv vtto tw a(f>vpa) (f)Xe/3a 
a")(^d(Tavro<i, at fiev dXyyjhove'i eXif^av, ai/j.aTo<i 
he TToXXov (j)epop.€vov Kal 'peovro<; dveiTLa'X^eTco'i 
XiTTO^vx^ia TToXXri Kal Kivhvvo'i o^u? avr' auTrj^ 
7Tepi€<TT7] Tov ^ Ay r) a iXaov . ov /nrjv dXXa rare ye 
TTjV (f)opdv TOV a'lfjbaro^i cTvavae' Kal Kop^taOel^ et? 

^ Cf. the Lycurgus, xxiv. 2. 
74 



AGESILAUS, XXVI. 3-xxvii. 2 

offended at Agesilaiis, because, as they said, it was 
not upon any public ground of complaint, but by 
reason of some passionate resentment of his own, 
that he sought to destroy the Thebans. Accordingly, 
thej said they had no wish to be dragged hither and 
thither to destruction every yeai*, they themselves so 
many, and the Lacedaemonians, with whom they 
followed, so few. It was at this time, we are told, 
that Agesilaiis, wishing to refute their argument from 
numbers, devised the following scheme. He ordered 
all the allies to sit down by themselves promiscuously, 
and the Lacedaemonians apart by themselves. Then 
his herald called upon the potters to stand up first, 
and after them the smiths, next, the carpenters in 
their turn, and the builders, and so on through all the 
handicrafts. In response, almost all the allies rose 
up, but not a man of the Lacedaemonians ; for they 
were foi-bidden to learn or practise a manual art.^ 
Then Agesilaiis said with a laugh : " You see, O men, 
how many more soldiers than you we are sending 
out." 

XXVII. But in Megara, when he was leading his 
army back from Thebes,^ as he was going up to the 
senate-house in the acropolis, he was seized with a 
cramp and violent pain in his sound leg, which then 
swelled up, appeared to be congested, and showed 
signs of excessive inflammation. As soon as a certain 
Syracusan physician had opened a vein below the 
ankle, the pains relaxed, but much blood flowed and 
could not be checked, so that Agesilaiis was very 
faint from its loss, and in dire peril of his life. At 
last, however, the flow of blood was stopped, and 
Agesilaus was carried to Sparta, where he remained 

* From a second incursion into Boeotia, made in 377 B,c. 
(Xenophon, Hell. v. 4, 47-55 ; 58). 

75 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

AaKeSalfiova ttoXvi/ y^povov eayev app(O(7TC0<i Ka\ 
TTyoo? Ta? arpareta^; dBwdrco^. 

3 Kv Be To5 y^povw TovTw TToWd crvv€^7] Trraicr- 
fiara rotf ^■napridTai'i koX Kara jyv Koi Kara 
ddXarrav (bv rjv to irepl Tejupa^i fiejiaTOV, oirov 
irpcorov €k irapaTd^eoi^ KpaTr]devTe<; vtto ©>/- 
^aiwv yTT7]$r]aav. eSo^ev ovv irdai Oeadai Trpo? 
7rdvTa<; elpi'jmjv kol avvrfkOov dirb rrj<i 'EXXaSo? 
7rpea^ei<; eZ? AaKeSai/xova TroiTjaofiej'oi ra? Bta- 

4 Xuc76i9. (ov el? ?}''' ^ Ej7ra/ji,€ii'oov8a<i , dvtjp evBo^o^ 
irrl Tvaiheia kol ^i\oao(f)ia, crrpari^yia^ he irelpav 
ouTTW 8eS(i)Kco^. ovTO'i opSiv Tov<i dWov^; diravTa<i 
v7roKaTaK\ivo/j.evov<; tm ^AyrjcriXda), fiovo^ ^XP^'l' 
aaro (ppovij/nari Trappi-jaiav e^^^ovri, koi Bie^riXOf 
Xojov, ov'^ virep @rj^aiO)v, dWd virep rf]^ 
'EXXaSo9 6/jLov kolvov, top fxev iroXefiov diroSei- 
Kvvcov av^ovTa jrjv 'S,7Tdprt]v e^ ojv aTravra ol 
XoiTTol fcaKco<; Trdcr^ovai, n)v Be elprjvrjv IcrorijTi 
Koi tS> BiKaiw KrdaOai KeXevcov ovrco yap avTtjv 
Sta/iievetv, taoiv dirdvToyv <yevop,evoiv. 

XXVIII. Opcbv ovv 6 'Ay7](Tc\ao<; virep^voi'; 
dyafiivov^ fcal Trpoae')(ovTa<; avrw Tov<;"FA\i]va'i, 
T^pcorrjaev el vofit^ei BiKaiov elvau koL laou av- 
Tovofieladac rrjv lioKorcav. dvT€pcor7]aavTO<; Be 
Tov ^EirafieLvcovBou ra')(y Kal TeOapp)]K6Tco<; el 
KuKelva olerai Blkoiov avTovofxelaOaL ti]v Aav&)- 
viKrjv, dva7n]B7]aa<; 6 ^AyrjaiXaos fier 6pyfj<i exe- 
Xevae Xeyecv crac^co? avrov el ti]v J^OLcoriav dcf)l'r)- 
2 aiv avrovo/xov. to Be avrb tovto irdXiv tov 
^ ETrafxeivcovBov (})'>]cravTo<;, el ttjv Aukmvcktjv d(f)[7]- 

^ This battle, fought in 375 B.C., is not mentioned by 
Xeuophon, but is described by Plutarch in the Pelopidas, 

76 



\ 



VAGESILAUS, XXVII. 2-xxviii. 2 

for a long time in a weak condition and unable to 
take the field. 

During this time the Spartans met with many 
reverses both by land and sea, the greatest of which 
was at Tegyra, where for the first time they were 
overpowered by the Thebans in a pitched battle. ^ 
There was, accordingly, a general sentiment in favour 
of a general peace, and ambassadors from all Hellas 
came togetlier at Sparta to settle its terms.^ One 
of these ambassadors was Epaminondas, a man of re- 
pute for culture and philosophy, although he had 
not yet given proof of capacity as a general. This 
man, seeing the rest all cringing before Agesilaiis, 
alone had the courage of his convictions, and made 
^ a speech, not in behalf of Thebes, his native city, 
', but of all Greece in common, declaring that war 
made Sparta great at the expense of the sufferings of 
all the other states, and urging that peace be made 
on terms of equality and justice, for it would endure 
only when all parties to it were made equal. 

XXVIIl. Agesilaiis, accordingly, seeing that the 
Greeks all listened to Epaminondas with the greatest 
attention and admiration, asked him whether he 
considered it justice and equality that the cities of 
Boeotia should be independent of Thebes. Tlien 
when Epaminondas promptly and boldly asked him 
in reply whether he too thought it justice for the 
cities of Laconia to be independent of Sparta, Agesi- 
laiis sprang from liis seat and wrathfully bade him 
say plainly whether he intended to make the cities 
of Boeotia independent. And when Epaminondas 
answered again in the same way by asking whether 

chapters xvi. and xvii., doubtless on the authority of Ephorus 
(cf. Diodorus, xv. 81, 2). / 

a In 371 B.C. (Xenophon, Hell. vi. 3, 3-20). ^, / 7- aa> 

77 



\5 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

<7cv avrovofiov, ovtm Tpa^€co<; ea-y^ev 6 ^AyrjalXao^ 
Kal Trjv 'irp6(f)a(TLv rjydTrrjaev 009 €v6u<; e^aXel-^at 
TO TMV ©rj^aLcov ovofia rrj^; elprjvri<i kuI Trpoenrelv 
TToXe/xov avTot<i' tou? Be aX\ou<; "KWrjva'i SiaX- 
\ay€VTa<; CKeXevaev amei'ai, ra /xev d/cecrTa t/}? 
€lpr]vrj<;, to, Be dv/]K€aTa rov rrokepiov 7roiovVTa<i. 
epyov yap rjv Trdaa^ e/CKaOdpai koX BiaXvcrai ra? 
dfx(f)i\oyia<;. 

"Eru^e Be kut eKelvov rov ')(^p6vov iv ^coKevaiv 
MV 6 KXeo/u.yS/30T09 fierd Bvvd/jLeo)<;. evOv^ ovv 
eTTe/xTTOv 01 e(f)opoc K€\evovTe<; avrov eirl Stj- 
^alov<; dyeiv to arpdrevfjia' koI rov<; avfip.d'xpv^ 
Tre/JiTre/xTTOi'Te? rjdpoi^ov, drrpodv[xov<; /xev ovtw? 
Kal /3apvvo/jL6Vou<; tov rcoXepiov, outto) Be Oap- 
povvTa'i avTikeyetv ovBe aTretOeiv toi<; AaKeBai- 
/MOvlot<i. TToWwv Be crrjfieloiv fio')(drjpo)v yei'O- 
fxevwv, «w<> ev rS) Trepl ^FjirapeivcovBov yeypairrai, 
Kal Upodoov TOV AdK(ovo<; evavriov/xevov rrrpo^ 
TTjv (jrpaTeiav, ovk dvrjKev 6 ^AyrjaiXao^, dXX 
e^eirpa^e tov TroXe/j-ov, eXirli^wv avToc<; fxev tt}? 
'KXXdBo<i 6Xrj<i virapy^ovarj^;, eKcrirovBcdv Be twv 
&r]/3alo)V yevo/iievcov, Kaipov elvai BIktjv XajBelv 
Trap avTOiv. BrjXoi Be to avv opyfj /jloXXov rj 
Xoyia/XM yeveadaL ttjv aTpareiav eKeivifv Kai- 
po<i. TTf yap TerpdBi iirl BeKa tov 'StKtpocfiO- 
pcMVoii fj,r)vo<; eTroirjaavro Td<; airovBd'; ev AaKe- 612 
Bal/jLovi, Tfj Be Tre/jLTTTr} tov EKaTOjji/3aL(i)vo<i r;TT?;- 
Oijaav ev AevKTpoi<; rj/nepcov ecKoai Biayevo/juevcov. 
ufredavov Be x^Xioi AaKeBatfioviwv Kal KXeofi- 
/8/30T09 6 ^aaiXev^ Kal nrepl avTov 01 KpdricrTOi 

^ According to Xenophon {loc. ri(.), who makes no mention 
of Epaminondas, the Thebans had signed as Thebans, but on 

78 



AGESILAUS, XXVIII. 2-5 

he intended to make the cities of Laconia inde- 
pendent, Agesilaiis became violent and was glad of 
the pretext for at once erasing the name of the 
Thebans from the treaty of peace and declaring war 
upon them.^ The rest of the Greeks, however, he 
ordered to depart, now that they were reconciled 
with each other, leaving differences which could be 
healed to the terms of peace, and those which could 
not, to war, since it was a hard task to settle and 
remove all their disputes. 

At this time Cleombrotus was in Phocis with an 
army. The ephors therefore immediately sent him 
orders to lead his forces against Thebes. They also 
sent round a summons for an assembly of their 
allies, who were without zeal for the war and thought 
it a great burden, but were not yet bold enough to 
oppose or disobey the Lacedaemonians. And although 
many baleful signs appeared, as I have written in my 
Life of Epaminondas,"^ and though Prothoiis the 
Laconian made opposition to the expedition, Agesilaiis 
would not give in, but brought the war to pass. He 
thought that since all Hellas was on their side, and the 
Thebans had been excluded from the treaty, it was 
a favourable time for the Spartans to take vengeance 
on them. But the time chosen for it proves that 
this expedition was made trom anger more than from 
careful calculation. For the treaty of peace was 
made at Lacedaemon on the fourteenth of the month 
Scirophorion, and on the fifth of Hecatombaeon the 
Lacedaemonians were defeated at Leuctra, — an inter- 
val of twenty days. In that battle a thousand Lace- 
daemonians fell, besides Cleombrotus the king, and 

the next day wished to substitute Boeotians for Thebans. 
This Agesilaiis refused to permit. It would have recognized 
the supremacy of Thebes in Boeotia. ^ Not extant. 

79 



^-^ 






PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

6 TMV ^TTapriaTcov. iv ol^ kuI KXecovv/jiov ipaac 
Tov ^(fioSpiov rbv KoK-ov rpU ireaovra irpo rou 
^aai\e(o<i koX TO(TavrdKi<i i^avaardvTa koI p-ciXo- 
p.evov Tot9 ^T}/3aL0is diroOavelv. 

XXIX. Zvp.^dvro'i Se rot? re AaKe8atp,ovLoi<; 
irraLap^aro's dirpoaSoKyTou KoX rot? ©rj/Saioa 
irapa ho^av evTV')(i']piaTO^ olov ov yeyovev dXXoi'i 
"EAXrjai TT po<;" KWtjva'i dya)viaap,€voi<;, ovSev dv 
Tt9 rjTTOV ei^y'fKcoae t?}? dperi)^ koI jjydaOjj rrjv 

2 T]TTi]p.ep7]v "ttoXlv i) T7]i> viKwaav. 6 fiev yap 
'B<evo(f)0)V (f)rjai twv dyaOwv dvhpoiv e')(€iv rt, Kal 
Ta9 eV ol'v(p Kal Traihid ^covd'i koI 8caTpi^d<i 
d^iop.vr]p,6vevToi', 6pOo)(; Xe7&)y eart Se ov')(^ tjt- 
Tov, dWd Kal p.dXXov d^Lov Karavoeiv Kal ded- 
aOat, roiv dyaOojv a nrapd ra? ru^i^a? Trpdrrovcri 
Kal \eyovai 8ievo-)(rj/iiovovvT€<;. eVu^e fiev yap i) 
TToXt? eoprrjv dyovaa Kal ^evcov ovcra fieany 
yvpvoTTaihiat yap rjaav dycovi^ofievcov '^opMv iv 
TU) dedrpu)' iraprjaav 8' diro AeuKxpcov ol jrjv 

3 (rvp.(f)opdv aTrayyeXXovre'?. ol Se €(f)opot, Kanrep 
evdv<i 6vT0<i Karaxpavou^ on Siecpdaprai rd irpdy- 
fiaTa Kal rrjv dp'^ijv aTToXcoXeKaaiv, ovre -^^opou 
i^eXOeiv etaaav ovt€ to cr;^>}/za tt}? eoprrj<; p,era- 
^aXelv rrjv ttoXlv, dXXd kut olKtav tmv reSved)- 
rwv T0t9 7rpoa/]KOuai ra ovo/xara irepb^avTef;, 
avrol ra Trepl rrjv Oeav Kai tov dywva twv yopoiv 

4 €7rpaTT0v. djxa he i)fxepa (pavepcov i'jSy] yeyovoTwv 
Trdcri TO)v re aw^ofievcov Kal tcov reOvediTwv, ol 
fMev Twv Tedved)7U)v Trare/oe? Kal KrjSecrral Kal 
OLKeloi KaTa^aiT0VT6<; eh ayopdv dXXi]Xou<; iSe- 
^lovvTo Xiirapol ra TrpoacoTra, (ppopri/xaTCi piecnol 
Kal yi'jdov;, ol Be tmv aco^o/xevcov, coairep iirl 



8o 



4 ,o,AGESILAUS, XXVIII. 6-xxix. 4 

around him the mightiest of the Spartans. Among 
these, t hey .a&y, was Cleonymus, the beautiful son ot 
SphodriaSji who was thrice struck down in front of 
liis king, as many times rose again to his feet, and 
died there, fighting the Thebans. 

XXIX. Now that the Lacedaemonians had met 
with an unexpected reverse, and the Thebans with 
an unlooked-for success surpassing that of any other 
Hellenes at strife with Hellenes, the high conduct 
of the defeated city was no less to be envied and 
( admired than that of the victorious city. Xenophon 
^says 2 that in the case of noble men, there is much 
ithat is worth recording even in what they say and 
(do at their wine and in their sports, and he is right ; 
land it is no less, but even more, worth while to 
\ observe carefully the decorum with which noble men 
I speak and act in the midst of adversity. The city 
was holding a festival and was full of strangers ; for 
the " gymnopaediae " were in progress and choirs of 
boys were competing with one another in the theatre ; 
then came the messengers of calamity from Leuctra. 
But the ephors, although it was at once apparent 
that their cause was ruined and their supremacy lost, 
would not allow a choral performance to be omitted, 
nor the fashion of the festival to be changed by the 
city, but after sending the names of the slain warriors 
to the homes of their kindred, they themselves con- 
ducted the spectacle and the choral contests to a 
close. On the next morning also, now that every- 
one knew who had survived the battle and who had 
been slain, the fathers and kindred and friends of the 
slain went down into the market-place and greeted 
one another witli bright faces, full of pride and 
exultation ; while the friends of the survivors, as if 

1 Cf. chapter xxv. 1. ^ Symposium, i. 1. 

81 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

irevdei, jxera rcov jvvaiKMV o'lkoc Sierpi^ov, €l Be 
ri,<i i/tt' uvajKi]^ nrpoeKdot, Kol a')(^7]/xaTt Kol (ftcovfj 
Koi ^Xe/jifiari raTreti'o? i^alvero kol avvecnak- 
6 jxevo^. GTL Se fiaXkov twv jvvaiKcov ISelv 7]V Kai 
TTvdecrOai ttjv fxev ^wvra TrpoaSexofievrjv v'lov airo 
rr)<i fid')(rj<; KaTi](f)'f] kol (Ti(07rr]X7]v, ra? Se tmv 
ireTTTWKevai Xejo/xevcov ev re toI<; lepotf ev6v<i 
dvacTTpe^op^ei'a'i, koi tt/do? aWifS-a^; IXapco'i koI 
(ftiXoTLiu.co'i ^a8L^ovaa<i. 

XXX. Ov p^rjv aWa rol^ ttoWoZ?, o)? a<pi,- 
aravTO pcev ol avpupiayoi, TrpoaeSoKaro Be veviKr}- 
/ccb<? ^ E7rapeiv(i)vBa<; koi fxeyaXocjipovcov efi^aXeiv 
et? TleXoTTovvrjcrov, ei'vota twv ')(^pr]ap,o)v eve-neae 
Tore, Trpo'i rrp '^^coXoTTjra rov 'A<y7]cnXdov, koX 
Bvadvpia ttoXX)] kol Trrola Trpo'i to Oelov, &)<? 
Bia TOVTO '7rpaTT0V(Ti]<i KaKw<; Tr}<i 7ro\e<w9, otl 
Tov dpTLTToBa T?}? ^aacXeia<; eKJBaXovTe^ eXXovro 
-y^coXbv KOL TreTTt] pcofievov o Travro^ /xdXXov av- 
rou<i iBtBaa/ce (ppd^eaOac Kol (f)vXdTTeadai to 

2 Baip-oviov. Bid Be rrjv dXXr]v Bvva/xiv auTov koi 
dp€Tr)v Koi Bo^av ov fiovop e)(^poyvTO /SaacXel koX 
(TTparrj'yq) tmv Kara TroXe/xov, dXXa Kol tmv ttoXi- 
riKcop diropLOiv larpS) kuI BiairrjTfj, rot? ev rfj 
H'^'-XV KaTaBeCXidaaaiv, oO? avrol rpeaavra^ 
6vop,d^ovaiv, 6kvovvt€<; Ta9 eV tmv vopiwv drLp.La<i 
Trpoadyeiv, 7roXXoi<i ovat koL Bvvarol^, (jyo^ov- 

3 /jLevoc veo)Tepi(Tfiov avr' avrwv. ov <ydp /xovov 
dp'X^tj'i dTrelpyovrai 7rao">;9, dXXd kol Bovvai tlvl 
Tovrcov yvval/ca koX Xa^elv dBo^ov earr Traiei 
Be 6 fiovX6ixevo<; avTOu<i tcov evTV'y')(av6vT(jiv. ol 

82 



AGESILAUS, XXIX. 4-xxx. 3 

in mourning, tarried at liome with the women, and 
if one of them was obliged to appear in public, his 
garb and speech and looks betokened his humiliation 
and abasement.^ And a still greater difference was 
to be seen (or heard about) in the women ; she who 
expected her son back from the battle alive was 
dejected and silent, but the mothers of those re- 
ported to have fallen immediately frequented the 
temples, and visited one another with an air of 
gladness and pride. 

XXX. The greater number, however, when their 
allies were falling away from them and it was ex- 
pected that Epaminondas, in all the pride of a 
conqueror, would invade Peloponnesus, fell to 
thinking of the oracles,^ in view of the lameness of 
Agesilaiis, and were full of dejection and con- 
sternation in respect to the divine powers, believing 
that their city was in an evil plight because they had 
dethroned the sound-footed king and chosen instead 
a lame and halting one, — the very thing which the 
deity was trying to teach them carefully to avoid. 
And yet otherwise he had such power and valour and 
fame that they not only continued to employ him as 
king and general in matters pertaining to war, but 
also as j)hysician and arbiter in their civil perplexities. 
For instance, upon those who had shewn cowardice 
in the battle, whom they themselves call " tresantes," 
or run-aways, they hesitated to inflict the disabilities 
required by the laws, since the men v/ere numerous 
and powerful, for fear that they might stir up a 
revolution. For such men are not only debarred 
from every office, but intermarriage with any of them 
is a disgrace, and any one who meets them may 
strike them if he pleases. Moreover, they are 

1 Cf. Xenophon, Hdl vi. 4, 16. ^ Cf. chapter iii. 4 f. 

83 



^, ^-troafoJ^-J ^ -^ 



^3) 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES I 

Bk Kaprepovcrt, 7r€pu6vT€<i av-)(/xripol koL TaTretvoL, 
TpL/3o}vd<; re Trpoaeppa/x/jievovi ^(pco/iiaToii /SaTrrov 
(popoucri, KUL ^vpMvrai fxepo'i rrj^ v7njiJr)<i, fxepo^ he 

4 Tpe(povcn. Seipov ovv rjv tolovtov; iv rfj iroXei 
irepiopdv ttoWou? ovk oXljcov heojievr] aTpaTico- 
TU)v. KUi vop-oOerrjv alpovvrai rov ^AyrjcriKaov. 
6 he pLTjTe TrpoaOel^ tc /Mijre d(f)e\o)v [xi'jTe fxera- 
ypd'^a'i elarjXOev eh to ttXt/^o? rcov AaKehai- 
juLOVLwv KoX (})r]cra<; on toi"? v6jbLov<i Bet ai^jxepov 613 
iav KaOevheiv, ck he T7]<i atjfxepop i)p.epa<i KupLov<i 
eivai TTpo'i TO \onrov, d/na rovf tc vop,ov<; rfj 

5 TToXei KoX Tou? avhpa<{ e7rirl/xov<; ecpvXa^e. ^ov- 
\6/^evo<; he rrjv irapovaav d6v[xiav kul Karr']- 
(})eiav d(f)e\elv tmu vecov eve^aXev el<; ^ApKahiav, 
Kal ixd^^rjv fiev tV^^fyOw? ecpvXd^aro avvd-yjrat TOt? 
evavTiOi<;, kXoov he 7roXi')(yi-iv rivd tmv Mavrivecov 
Kal rrjv ')(^ciopav einhpafiuiv, eXa(f)poTepav eTroirjae 
Tat9 eXiriaL Kal rjhio) ttjv ttoXlv, u><i ov iravTa- 
TracTLV dTreyvcoa-p.evtjv. 

XXXI, 'E« he TOVTOv Trapfjv et? rrjv AaKco- 
viKTjv 6 ^K7rafi€ivd)vha<; fierd tmv (rvfifid^cov, ovk 
iXdrrova^ e)(^oov TerpaKia/xvpicov ottXitcov. ttoX- 
Xol he Kal -ylriXol Kal dvoirXoi, Trpo? dpirajyjv 
avvr]KoXov0ovv, ware fivpidha^ eirra tov avp.- 
iravTO't 6)(Xov auveicr/SaXeiv et? Trjv AaK0)viK7]v. 

2 rjv fiev hrj '^povo'i ovk eXdrrtov eTcov e^aKoatcov 
d(f)^ ov KarwKovv ttjv AaKehaifiova Ao)piei<i- ev he 
TOVTO) TravTi Tore irpcoTov iocf)$7}aav ev rfj ;\;&>pa 
TToXefxtoi, Trporepov he ovhel<i eT6Xp,')]aev dXXcL 
dhrjWTOV Kal ciOiktov ovaav ep./3aX6vT€^ iirvp- 
iroXovv Kal hir]p7ra^ov ci^pi tov TroTapov Kal t?}? 

3 TToXeci)?, fxr]hevb<i eTre^iovro^. 6 yap 'Ayi](TiXao<; 



84 



AGESILAUS, XXX. 3-xxxi. 3 

obliged to go about unkempt and squalid, wearing 
cloaks that are patched with dyed stuffs, half ol 
their beards shaven, and half left to grow. It was a 
sei-ious matter, therefore, to allow many such men 
in the city, when she lacked not a few soldiers. So 
they chose Agesilaiis as a law-giver for the occasion. 
And he, without adding to or subtracting ft-om or 
changing the laws in any way, came into the assembly 
of the Lacedaemonians and said- that the laws must 
be allowed to sleep for that day, but from that day 
on must be in sovereign force. By this means he at 
once saved the laws for the city and the men from 
infamy. Then, wishing to remove the discourage- 
ment and dejection which prevailed among the young 
men, he made an incursion into Arcadia,^ and though 
he studiously avoided joining battle with the 
enemy, he took a small town of the Mantineans 
and overran their territory, and thus lightened and 
gladdened the expectations of his city, which felt 
that its case was not wholly desperate. 

XXXI. After this,^ Epaminondas entered Laconia 
with his allies, having no fewer than forty thousand 
men-at-arms. Many light armed and unarmed troops 
also followed him for the sake of plunder, so that a 
horde of seventy thousand, all told, made this in- 
cursion into Laconia. For a period of no less than 
six hundred years the Dorians had been living in 
Lacedaemon, and this was the first time in all that 
period that enemies had been seen in the country ; 
before this, none had ventured there. But now 
they burst into an unravaged and inviolate land, and 
burned and plundered as far as the river and the city, 
and no one came out against them. For Agesilaiis 

1 In 370 B.C. (Xenophon, Hell. vi. 5, 10^21). 
^ In the same year, after Agesilaiis had returned and 
disbanded his forces. 

8S 

VOL. V D 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ovK ela 7rpo<; Toaovrov, w? ^rfat ®e67rofjb7ro<i, 
" peufia Kot K\vhu)va TroXefiov^ ixd')(^ea0aL TOv<i 
^aKeSaifiovLov;, dWa rf]^; TroXeo)^ to. fieaa koX 
KvpidOTara tol<; oTrXtraf? irepiecrTreipafievo^i e/cap- 
repei ra<i aTreiXa? koI to.? /xeyaXav^ta^ rwv 
©ij^alcov, TTpoKaXov/iievcov eKelvov ovofiaarl koI 
Bia/J.cf)(^€adat, irepl tt}? ')((i)pa<i KeXevovrcov, 69 tmv 

4 KaKMv aiTio^ iartv eKKavcrwi rov iroXe/xov. ou)(^ 
r)TTov Se rovTtJdv eXvirovv rov A.'y')]ai\aov ol Kara 
rrjv TToXtv 06pu/3ot koI Kpavyal teal SiaSpo/xal 
T(ov re irpea-^vTepwv 8vaavaa')f^€TovvT(ov ra yivo- 
fjLeva Kal tmv jwuikoov ov Svva/xivwv rj(TV)(^d^€iv, 
dXXd rravraTraaiv eK^povwv ovacov Trpo? re rrjv 

5 Kpav<yj]v koI to irvp twv TToXefiicov. rjvia he /cal 
TO T7/9 ho^rj^i avrov, OTt ttjv ttoXiv /jLeylaTrjv 
irapaXa^cov Kal SvvarcoTdrrjv, edopa crvveaTaX- 
fxevov avTTJ^ to d^KOfia Kal to av'^ytfia k€koXov- 
fxevov, w Kal avTO<i i'X^pyjaaTo iroXXdKi'i, elirmv 
OTt yvvrj AdKatva Kairrbv ov-y^ ecopaKe TroXefiiov. 
XeyeraL Se Kal 'A^TaX/crtSa?, ^ABrjvacov Tiiw<i 
d/ji(f)ta^i]rovvTO<; virep dvBp€ia<; 7r/909 avTov Kal 
eiTTOVToq, "'HyLiet? jxevTOL TToXXaKLf; u/xa? diro tov 
Ki](f)tcrou €8id)^ap,€v" vTrorvyeiv " 'AW' rjixel^; 

6 ye ovdeirore ufid'i diro tov ^vpcoTa. ' irapa- 
irXi-jaioi^ he Kal TTpo<i tov ^ Apyeiov direKpivaTO tmv 
dar] p^ore pwv ti<; ^irapTiarMV fiev yap elire' 
" UoXXol vfjioiv ev Tji ApyoXihi Kelvrai, he 
dirrjVTriaev' " 'T/xmu he ye ovhel<; ev rfj Aa- 

K(0VIK7J. 

XXXII. Tore fieproi tov WvTaXKihav cjiacrlv 
ecfyopov ovTa rov<; 7Talha<i eh K.vOr]pa vireKOeaOai, 
•nepicpojSov yevofxevov, 6 he AyrjaiXao^, em- 



86 



AGESILAUS, XXXI. 3-xxxii. i 

would not suffer the Lacedaemonians to fight against 
such a " billowy torrent of war/' to use the words of 
Theopompus, but surrounded the central and most 
commanding parts of the city with his men-at-arms, 
while he endured the boastful threats of the Thebans, 
who called upon him by name and bade him come 
out and fight for his country, since he had caused 
lier misfortunes by lighting up the flames of war. 
But this was not the worst. Agesilaiis was still more 
harassed by the tumults and shrieks and running 
about throughout the city, where the elder men 
were enraged at the state of affairs, and the women 
were unable to keep quiet, but were utterly beside 
themselves when they heard the shouts and saw the 
fires of the enemy.^ He was also disti*essed at the 
thought of what his fame would be, because he had 
taken command of the city when she was greatest 
and most powerful, and now saw her reputation 
lowered, and her proud boast made empty, which 
boast he himself also had often made, s»yiilgjhat no 
Spartan woman had ever seen the smoke of an 
enemy's fires. It is said also that Antalcidas, when 
an Athenian Avas~disputing with him over the valour 
of the two peoples and said, " Yet we have often 
driven you away from the Cephisus," replied : " But 
we have never driven you away from the Eurotas." 
And a similar retort was made by a Spartan of lesser 
note to the Argive who said, " Many of you lie buried 
in the lands of Argos " ; the Spartan answered : " But 
not a man of you in the lands of Laconia." 

XXXII. Now, however, they say that Antalcidas, 
who was an ephor, secretly sent his children away to 
Cythera, so full of fear was he. But Agesilaiis, when 

1 "The women could not endure even the sight of the 
smoke, since they had never set eyes upon an enemy" 
(Xenoplion, lltU. vi. 5, 28). „ 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

^(eipoiwraiv Sia/Salvetv tov TTora/J,ov roiv TroXe/nicov 
Kol /3id^€(xdai Trpo? ttjv woXiv, eKXiTroov ra Xolttcl 

2 Traperd^aro irpo twv p^eawv koX vy^yfK,SiV. eppvi] 
he 7r\€i(XT0<i eavrov koI p,6ytaT0<; tot6 o }Lvp(o- 
ra?, ^^covMV yevo/xevcov, koI to pev/xa p.aWov vtto 
ylrvxp6T>]T0<; rj Tpa'^vrrjTO'i eyevero aKXypov Kal 
■^aXcTTov TOt<; ^rj^aloL^;. iropevop.evov he irpcoTOv 
T?79 (f)d\ayyo'i tov 'KirapeLvoovhav ehecKwadv Ttve^ 
Tw ^Ay)]ai\d(p' KaKecvo'i, w? XeyeTai, iroXvv 
y^pdvov ep-l3Xeylra<i avTW Kal aup,7rapa7re/x-\jra^ Trjv 
6\friv ovhev i) ToaovTov /xovov el-nev " 'Vl tov 

3 fieyaXorrpdyfiovo^ dpOpooTTOV. ' eirel he (f)iXoTi- 
fxovp,evo<i 6 ^EiTTapeivciivha^ iv ttj ttoXc/ p.d)(rjv 
crvvdylrai Kal crTPjauL TpoTraLov ovk Xa^vaev 
e^ayayelv ovhe rrpoKaXeaaadai tov ^AyTjaiXaov, 
eKelvo<i p.ev dva^ev^a<; irdXiv eiropdei ttjv ■)(d)pav, 
ev he AaKehai/jLovL tcov irdXat, T/z'es- vttovXow koI 
'Trov7]po)v CO? hiaKoaioi avcrTpa(f)evTe<i KaTeXd/3ovTo 
no ^l(T(Tcopiov, ov to t% ^ KpTepLtho^ lepov icfTiv, 614 

4 evepKTj Kal hvaeK^iaaTOv tottov. ecfi' oi)? /3ouXo- 
pbevcov ev6v<; wOeia-Oai tcov \aKehaip,ov'iwv, (f)o^y]- 
6el<; TOV vecoTepcapiov o Ayi](riXao<i eKeXevae tov<; 
fxev aXXov<i riav')(iav dyetv, avTO<i he ev ip.aTiq) 
Kal fieO^ €vo<i oLKeTov irpoaijei, /3ooov dXX(o<; 
aKi-jKoevai tov 7TpocrTdy/xaTO<; avTov<^- ov yap 
evTavOa KeXevcrai avveXOelv ovhe irdvTa^, dXXd 
TOU9 jJbev eK€i (hei^a<; cTepov tottov), tou? he 

5 aXXa'X^uo-e t?}? TToXea)?. ol he dKovaavTe<i rjadr}- 
aav olofievoi Xavddveiv, Kal hiaaTdvTe^ eirl 
TOv<; TOTTOU? ov<; eKeLV0<; eKeXevaev aTrexoopovv. 
6 he TO fiev ^laaoopiov evdv<i p,eTa7rep,^dfievo<i 
eTepov<i KaTea')(e, tcov he avaTavTcov eKtivcov Trepl 



88 



AGESILAUS, XXXII. 1-5 

/ the enemy tried to cross the Eurotas and force their 
/ way to the city, abandoned tlie rest of it and drew 
f up his forces in front of its central and lofty precincts. 
Now, the Eurotas at this time was flowing at its 
fullest and deepest, since snows had fallen, and its 
current, even more from its coldness than its violence, 
was very troublesome to the Thebans. As Epam- 
inondas was fording it at the head of his phalanx, 
j I certain ones pointed him out to Agesilaiis, and he, 
rP we are told, after fixing his gaze upon him and 
^ watching him for a long time, said but these words : 
" O adventurous man ! " Epaminondas was ambitious 
to join battle in the city and set up a trophy of 
victory there, but since he could neither force nor 
tempt Agesilaiis out of his positions, he withdrew 
and began to ravage the country. Meanwhile, about 
two hundred of the Lacedaemonians who had long- 
been disaffected and mutinous banded together and 
seized the Issorium, where the temple of Artemis 
stands, a well-walled and inaccessible spot. The 
Lacedaemonians wished to make a dash upon them 
at once, but Agesilaiis, fearing their insurrection, 
ordered the rest to keep quiet, while he himself, 
wearing his cloak and attended by a single servant, 
went towards them, crying out that they had mis- 
understood his orders ; for he had not commanded 
them to assemble in that place, nor in a body, but 
some yonder (pointing to another spot), and some in 
another part of the city. They were delighted to 
hear this, supposing that their design was undis- 
covered, and, breaking up, went off to the places 
which he ordered them to occupy. Then Agesilaiis 
at once summoned other troops and took possession 
of the Issorium, after which he arrested about fif- 
teen of the conspirators who had been gathered there, 

89 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TTevreKaiheKci riva^ a-vWa^cov vvkt6<; aireKTeivev. 

6 aWt] Se fxe'il^wv ifirjvvd^] avvwfMoa-ia koX avvoho<i 
uvhpwv "^TTapTiaTOiv eirl Trpdyfiaa-i vecoTepoa et? 
oiKiav Kpvc^a auvep)(^ofJLevcjov, 01)9 Kal Kpiveiv 
aiTopov Tjv iv Tapaxii Toaavrr] kol irepLopav 
i7n^ou\€uoi'Ta<;. aireKreLvev ovv kuI Tovrov<i 
fiera tmv e(f)6pcov /3ov\euad/jLevo<i 'Ayr'j(TLXao<i 
dKp(,Tov<;, ouBevo<i St;>^a ^1/079 redavaTcofiepov 

7 irporepov "ZTrapTiaTcov. eVei 8e ttoWoI twv crvv- 
Terayp^evcov ^ el<i tu oVXa irepiOiKwv Kal elXcoTcov 
direhihpaaKov ck rfj^ 7roXefo)9 7rpo<i tou9 TTo\efiiov<i, 
Kal rovTO TrXebCTTrjv dOv/xlav irapel'xev, ehiha^e 
TOV<i vTTTjpeTa^ nrepl opdpov iiricfiOiTdv Tat9 
(TTi^dai Kal TO, ottA/i twv diTOKe)(^u>pr]K6T(ov 
Xafx^dveiv Kal aTroKpvTneiv, 07ra)9 dyvor^rat to 
7rA.r}(9o?. 

8 'Avaxd^PW^'' ^^ Toy9 ^rj^alovi eV T779 Aa/co)- 
viKi]<i ol p.ev aXXoL \eyovcn ')(eip.aiva)V yei'0/.Levcov 
Kal Tcov ^ApKciScov dp^afxevcov aTrievat Kal hiappelv 
aTa«TC09, ol he rp6l<i pii)va<i efjbfjLefxevrjKOTa^; o\ov<i 
Kal jd irXelaTa Trj<i ')(oiipa<i ZiaireTropOy^Kora'^' 
SeoirofXTTO^ 8e (prjaiv, ijSri tmv ^OKorap'X^Siv eyvw- 
KOTODV diralpeiv, d(f)CKiaOai Trpo'i avTov<; ^pl^ov, 
dvSpa 'S,7TapTidT7)v, irapd AyrjaiXdov heKa 
rdXavra KOfxt^ovTa rrj^ dvay^oipi^aeoy^; /xiadov, 
Sxrre rd ttoXul SeSoyfieva Trpdrrovaiv avTol<; 
iifioSiov irapd roiv 7ro\€fxicov irpoaTrepiyeveadai. 

XXXIII. Tovro fxev ovv ovk olha ottw^ rjyvo- 
rjcrav ol dXXoi, ix6vo<i he Seo7ro/j,7ro^ rjadero. rov 
he aw6r]vai rrjv 'StirdprJ^v rore Trayre? acriov 
6/xo\oyovcn yeveaOac rov ^ AyrjaiXaov, oti tmv 

^ avvTijay^ivwv with S : rtrayfxivuv, 
90 



A 



AGESILAUS, XXXII. 5-xxxiii. i 

and put them to death in the night. He was also in- 
formed of another and a larger conspiracy of Spartans, 
who met secretly in a house and there plotted 
revolution. It was impracticable either to bring 
these men to trial in a time of so much confusion, or 
to overlook their plots. Accordingly, Agesilaiis con- 
ferred with the ephors, and then put these men also 
to death without process of law, although no Spartan 
had ever before met with such a death. At this 
time, also, many of the provincials and Helots who 
had been enrolled in the army ran away from the 
city and joined the enemy, and this caused very 
deep discouragement. Agesilaiis therefore instructed 
his servants to go every morning before it was light 
to the barracks and take the arms of the deserters 
and hide them, that their numbers might not be 
known. 

As for the reason why the Thebans withdrew from 
Laconia, most writers say that it was because winter 
storms came oil" and tTie Arcadians began to melt 
away and disband ; others, because they had remained 
there three entire months and thorouglily ravaged 
most of the country ; ^ but Tlieopompus says that 
when the Theban chief magistrates had already de- 
\ termined to take their army back, Phrixus, a 
Spartan, came to them, bringing ten talents from 
Agesilaiis to pay for their withdrawal, so that they 
were only doing what they had long ago decided to 
do, and had their expenses paid by their enemies 
besides. 

XXXIII. This story may be true, although I know 
not how all other writers could be ignorant of it, 
while Theopompus alone Ijeard it; but, at any rate, 
all agree that the salvation of Sparta at this time was 

^ All three reasons are given by Xenophon (Hell. vi. 5. 50). 
*^^ t'k<-t^ 91 



;■ 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

efj,(f)VTu>v avTU) ttuOmp, (f)iXoveiKia<i kuI (f)i'\oTi/u,La<f, 
aTToara^;, e^pijcraTO toI<; Trpay/xaaiv da<^ako)<^ . 

2 ov fievroL ti]v ye hvvajxiv kcu ti]v So^av e8vv>]6rf 
tT;? TToXeax; dvaXn (Selv ifc rov TrraicryuaTO?, dXX" 
oiatrep ao)/j,aro'i vyieivov, Xiav he (iKpi/Sel koX 
KaT')](TKTjpev7] Kexpv/^^^ov SiaLTTj TTapa iravTa rou 
')(p6voi', dpiapria pia Kal poTrt] rrjv Trdcrav CKkLvev 
evTv^iav T/}? TToXeco?* ovk dX6yco<;. TTpo<; yap 
elpi]vt]v Koi aperrjv Kal op,6voLav dpiara crvv- 
Teray/j,evu> TToXLTevpari irpoaayayovre^ dp)(^d<i 
Kal hvvaareia<i jSiaiov^, o)v ovBevb^ rjyelro SelaOac 
TToXiv 6v8aifMovco<i ^icoao/juevijv o AvKovpyo^, eacfid- 
Xrjcrav. 

3 Auto? fxev ovv o Kyr]ai\ao'^ 7]Br] irpo^ ra? 
cnpaTe'ia<i d7reipr]K€t 8id to yrjpa<i, ^ Ap-^lhapo<i he 
6 vio<i avTou, rrjv e/c XiK€'\.ia<; rjKOvaav irapd rov 
Tvpdvvov ^oijOeiap e^oyp, evLfcyaev ApKdha<; ryv 
XeyofMejnp dhaKpvv pdy7]v ovh€l<i yap eireae tmv 
fxer avrov, au)(^pov<i he tmv evavTiwv dvetXev. 
avTT] fidXiara rrjv daOeveiav i'jXey^ev i) viKrj rrj<i 

4 TToXect)?. Trporepov p.ev yap ovtco avvrj6e<i r]yovvTO 
Kal 7rpoaP]Kov epyov avrols elvat to viKav rov<; tto- 
Xepi.ov<;, coare pn'^Te Oveiv roL<; deol<i ttXtjv dXeKT- 
pvova viKrjTrjpiov ev rfj TroXei, pii]Te [xeyaXi^yopelv 
TOu<i dycoviaafievov^, pLyjre V7rep\aipeiv Tov<i ttvv- 
Oavofxevov<;, dXXd Kal Trjf ev Mavriveta pdyni<i 
yevopevTjs, rjv %ouKvhih7]<i yey pa(f)e, t&j Trpcorcp 
(f)pdcravTi ttjv vlktjv ol dp')(0VTe<; eK (pchtTLOu Kpea<i 615 

5 eTrefjbyJrav evayyeXiov, dXXo he ovhev rore he r^ 
fid^r)(; dyyeXOelaT]^ Kal rov 'Ap'X^ihdfxov irpocr- 



' Dionysius the Elder. 

'^ In 3G8 B.C. (Xenophon, Hdl. vii. 1, 28-32). 



92 



Jl 



AGESILAUS, x.xxiii. 1-5 

due to Agesilaiis, because he renounced his inherent 
passions of contentiousness and ambition, and adopted 
a policy of safety. He could not, however, restore 
'the power and rejDutation of his city after its fall, for 
it was like a human body that is sound, indeed, but 
has followed all the while too strict and severe a 
regimen ; a single error turned the scale and 
brought down the entire prosperity of the city. Nor 
was this strange. For to a civil polity best arranged 
for peace and virtue and unanimity they had attached 
empires and sovereignties won by force, not one of 
which Lycurgus thought needful for a city that was 
to live in happiness ; and therefore they fell. 

Agesilaiis himself now declined military service on 
account of his years, but Archidamus his son, with 
assistance which came from the tyrant of Sicily,^ 
conquered the Arcadians in the so-called " tearless 
battle," where not one of his own men fell, and he 
slew great numbers of the enemy. ^ This victory, 
more than anything else, showed the weakness of 
the city. For up to this time they were wont to 
think theconquest of their enemies so customary and 
natural a thing for them to achieve, that no sacrifice 
for victory was offered in the city to the gods, beyond 
that of a cock, neither did the winners of the contest 
exult, nor those who heard of their victory show 
great joy. Nay, even after the battle at Mantinea,^ 
which Thucydides has described, the one who first 
announced the victory had no other reward for his 
glad tidings than a piece of meat sent by the magis- 
trates from the public mess. But now, at the news 
of the Arcadian victory and at the approach of 

^ In 418 B.C., when the Lacedaemonians defeated an allied 
force of Mantineana, Argivea, and Athenians (Thucydides, 
V. 64-75). 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

lovTO'i ofSet? eKapreprjaev, aWa Trpwro*? 6 
irarrip aTTrjvra SaKpvcov viro y^apa'^ Koi fxer 
exelvov ra dp^^ela, roiv he rrpea^vrepcov kuI roiv 
yvvaiKcov to 7r\fj9o<i eTrl rov noTafxov Karrjet, rd^ 
Te ')^eipa<i opeyovrwv Kai deoKX-vrovvrcdv, (oairep 
direwa pevii^ rd Trap" d^iav 6v€i?>r] t/}? — Trapr?;? 
Kal Xap^TTpov av9L<i e^ o,p-)(^rj<i to (J)m<; opdocni^' iirel 
rrpoTcpov ye cf)acnv ovBeTai'; yvvai^lv dvTC.dXerreiv 
TOv<i dvhpa<i alcT'x^vvoixevov^ ecf) ol? eTTTaiaav. 

XXXIV. OlKi^o/xevT]<; Be M.€a(T)]vrj<; vtto tcov 
nepl TOP ^EiTTafieivcovSav, Kal twv dp^alcov ttoXi- 
tS)V TravTaxodev et? avTtjv (TvpbTTopevop,evo)v, Sia- 
jjid-^eaOaL p.ev ovk eToXp^cov ovSe KcoXveiv eSv- 
vavTO, 'y^aXeirSi'i he Kal ^ap€(i><i 7rpo<i top 'AjrjcrL- 
\aov el^ov, oti '^(^(opai' ouTe TrXijOei r;"}? AaKODi'iK)j<: 
ekaTTOva Kal irpoiTevovaav dpsTp t?)9 'EWrjviKrj^ 
e^ovre? Kal KapTrovuevot 'y^povov ToaovTov iirl 

2 Trj<i eK€LV0V ^acrikeia^; diroXoyXeKaaL. Sio Kal 
7rpoT€n'op£vr]v viro twv ^rjjSaiwv Ty]v elp/]vi]v 6 
^ K.<yr}a iK.ao<; ovk ehe^aTo. /xj) ^ovXopevo^ he tw 
Xoycp Trpoecrdai rot? epyw KpaTovai t')]v ycopav, 
dWd (ptXoveiKMP, eKelvijv p.ev ovk dneXa^e, /xlk- 
pov he TTjv XirdpTTjv TrpoaaTre/BaXe KaTaaTpa- 

3 T'r]yT]6eL<;. eirel yap ol MavTivei<i avOc<; uireaTr}- 
aav Twv ^TjlBalcov Kal fieTerrepTrovTO toi)? AaKe- 
haipoviov^, aladofievo^y o R7rap,eivcov8a<i top 
^ Ayrjo iXaov i^eaTpaTevp-ivov p,eTd Trjs Svvdp,eco<i 
Kal irpoaiovTa, Xadoov tol/? MavTiv€L<i dve^ev^e 
vvKTO<; €K Teyea<i dycov eV avTijv ttjv AaKehai- 
jxava TO arpaTevpia, Kal fitKpbv eSeyjae irapaX- 

94 



AGESILAUS, xxxin. 5-xxxiv. 3 

Archidamus, no one could restrain himself, but first 
his father went to meet him, weeping for joy, and 
after him the chief magistrates, while the elderly 
men and the women went down in a throng to the 
river, lifting their hands to heaven and blessing the 
gods, as if Sparta had wiped away her unmerited 
disgraces and now saw the light shine bright again 
\, as of old ; for before this, we axe told, her men could 
not so much as look their wives in the face, out of 
shame at their disasters. 

XXXIV. But when Messene was built by Epami- 
nondas, and its former citizens flocked into it from 
all quarters,^ the Spartans had not the courage to 
contest the issue nor the ability to hinder it, but 
cherished the deepest resentment against Agesilaiis, 
because a country which was not of less extent than 
their own, which stood first among Hellenic lands 
for its fertility, the possession and fruits of which 
they had enjoyed for so long a time, had been lost 
by them during his reign. For this reason, too, 
Agesilaiis would not accept the peace which was 
proffered by the Thebans. He was not willing to 
give up to them formally the country which was 
actually in their power, and persisted in his oppo- 
sition. As a consequence, he not only did not re- 
cover Messenia, but almost lost Sparta besides, after 
being outgeneralled. For when the Mantineans 
changed their allegiance,^ revolted from Thebes, 
and called in the Lacedaemonians to help them, 
Epaminondas, learning that Agesilaiis had marched 
out from Sparta with his forces and was approach- 
ing, set out by night from Tegea, without the know- 
ledge of the Mantineans, and led his army against 
Sparta itself. He passed by Agesilaiis, and came 

1 lu 369 B.C. ^ In 362 B.C. 

95 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

\d^a<i Tov ^AyrjalXaoi' eprj/juov e^alcpp^-jq Kara- 

4 Xa^elv rrjv ttqXlv. ]Lv8vvov Se ^ecnnewi, co? 
K.aWLaOevT]'^ (p^]aiv, d)<i 8e Het'o^ooi', Kp^/ro? 
Tivo<^, e^ayjelXavro^ t5> ^AyijaiXdw, ra^v tt/oo- 
7refi'\}ra<i linrea toi<; ev rfj iroXei (^pdaovra, fxer 
ov TToXv Kal avTO^ traprjXOev et? T^f ^Trdpri]v. 
oXiycp 8e varepov ol Si]^aioi Ste^aivov tov Eli- 
pwrav Kal irpoae/SaXXov t^ iroXec, /idXa eppco- 
fievco^ TOV AyTjaiXdov Kal irap' rfXiKiav eTra/j-V' 

5 vovTo<i. ov ydp, d)<i TrpoTepov, da(f)aXeia<; eoopa 
TOV Kaipov ovTa Kal (pvXaKPjf, dXXd /ndXXov 
d'novoia<; Kal ToXfxrjq, oi? tov dXXov 'X^povov 
ovSeTTore TTcaTevaa<i ovSk 'X^pi]ad/ji€vo<;, t6t6 /llovol^ 
direcoaaTo tov klvSuvov, ck tmv y^eipoiv tov 'E7ra- 
fieivcovSov Trjv iroXiv e^apirdcra'^, Kal crTii]<Ta<i 
Tpoiraiov, Kal Tol^i Traial Kal rat? yvvai^iv iiri- 
8eL^a<i xa KaXXcaTa Tpocpela Trj TraTpiSi tou? 

6 AaKe8ai/jLOVi,ov<; aTroSiSovTa'i, ev 8e irpdjTOL^ tov 
^ Ap)(lihafiov dyo}VL^6/ii€VOV V7r€pr)(f)dvci)<; tt} t€ 
p(t)/.ir] Ty]<i '>\rv)(ri<i Kal Trj KOV(poTi]Ti tov acofiaTO^, 
6^€(o<; eirl to, dXi^ofxeva t?}? fid^t]^; SiadeovTu 
8id TMV (TTevcoTTOiv Kal TravTa^ov fieT oXiycov 
dvTtpeihovTa toI<; TroXefitoi^- 'latSav Be Sokm, 
TOV 'Pol^lSov v'lov, ov rots' ttoXltui^ fxovov, dXXd 
Kal Totf 7roXefi,ioi<i 6ea/xa (f)avfjvai Kaivov^ Kal 

7 dyacTTov. r^v fxev yap eKTrpeTrrj'; to elho^ Kal 
TO /xeyedo<; tov acofxaTO'i, wpav he ev y to ySi- 
(jTov dvBovcnv avdpwnoL irapiovTe^ et? dv8pa<i 
eK TraiBcov el')(e, yvjxvo'i he Kal ottXcoi' tcov aKeirov- 

^ Kaivhv with Amyut and S : KaAbv {noble). 
96 



A-v^ <^ •'^ //V'. >-v^ 

vl. AGESILAUS, XXXIV. 3-7 

within a little of suddenly seizing the city in a de- 
f^enceless state.^ But Euthynus, a Thespian, as 
^Callisthenes says, or, according to Xenophon,^ a 
certain Cretan, brought word to Agesilaiis, who 
quickly sent on a horseman to warn the people in 
Sparta, and not long after he himself also entered 
the city. Soon after his arrival the Thebans were 
crossing the Eurotas and attacking the city, while 
Agesilaiis defended it right vigorously and in a 
manner not to be expected of his years. For he 
did not think, as on a former occasion, that the crisis 
demanded safe and cautious measures, but rather 
deeds of desperate daring. In these he had never 
put confidence before, nor had he employed them, 
but then it was only by their aid that he repelled 
the danger, snatching the city out of the grasp of 
Epaminondas, erecting a trophy of victory, and 
showing their wives and children that the Lacedae- 
monians were making the fairest of all returns to 
their country for its rearing of them. Archidamus, 
fS^oo, fought among the foremost, conspicuous for his 
impetuous courage and for his agility, running swiftly 
through the narrow streets to the endangered points 
in the battle, and everywhere pressing hard upon the 
enemy with his few followers.^ But I think that 
Isidas, the son of Phoebidas, must have been a strange 
and marvellous sight, not only to his fellow-citizens, 
but also to his enemies. He was of conspicuous 
beauty and stature, and at an age when the human 
flower has the greatest charm, as the boy merges into 
the man. Naked as he was, without either defensive 

' " Like a nest of young birds utterl}' bereft of its natural 
defenders" (Xenophon, Hell. vii. 5, 10). 

2 Loc. cit. Cf. also Diodorus, xv, 82, 6. 

3 Cf. Xenophon, Hell. vii. 5, 12-14. _ /«y->^>V* '*^'' 



(V* 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Tfoy Kal IfiaTiwv, \L7ra '^pi(7d/iievo<i to aoy^a, kul 
TTj fiev e%&)y %etpt ^oyxV^> '^V ^^ ^t'^o?, e^ijXaro 
TJ}? olKLa<i, Koi Sta jxecrwv tmv fxa")(^oiJievwv onaa- 
/jb€i'o<; ev T049 7roXe/xto(9 avecrrpe^ero, iraioyv top 
8 'iTpoaTV')(^6vTa Kal Kaia^dWwv. eTpoyOrj he vtt 
ovSevo*;, etVe Oeov 8i dpeTrjv (f)v\dTTOvro<i avTov, 
6fTe [xel^ov ri Kal Kpetrrov dvOpcoTTov (paveh rot? 
evavTLoi<;. ivl tovtw he Xeyerai, tov<; ecpopovi 
aTe(pav(i)(TavTa<i avrbv elra ')(^l\'io)v hpa^P-^'^v eVf- 
fiaXelv ^T]p,i,av, on ')(^copl<; oirXcov hiaKtvhvvevecv 
eT6Xp,r](Tei'. 

XXXV. 'OX,i7af9 he vaTepov r}/j.€pat<i irepl rrjv 
^lavTivetav epa')(^eaavTO, Kal tov 'KirapeLvcophav 
i]h7] KparovvTa tmv Trpcorcov, en he eyKeipevov 616 
Kal KaracTTrevhovTa rr]v hiw^iv, AvTiKpdTrjs 
AaKcov uTTOCTTa? eTraiae hopan fxev, ox? AioaKov- 
pihi]^ laropriKe, AaKehaip.6vioL he Ma^afptcoi'a? 
en vvv Tom diroyovou^ tov ^AvTiKpdTOV<; koXov- 

2 (Jiv, ft)? pay^aipa jraTd^avTa. ovToi yap eOau- 
fiaaav koI vTreprudinjcTav avTov (po/3(p tov 
^^irapbeivwvhov ^mvto<;, wcrre xi/xa? pev eKeivw 
Kal hQ)ped<; ^<p^y(f)icraaOai, jevei h^ aTeXeiav, tjv en 
Kal KaO^ rjpci^ e')(et ^aXkiKpdT^-p;, el? twv ^Avti- 
KpdTov<i dTToyovwv. 

Mera he ttjv pd^V'^ '^^"^ "^ov OdvaTov ^ tov 
'FjTrapLeivcovhov yevopevrj'i elpi]vri<i toI<; "KkXi-jai 
TTyoo? auTOu?, diTrfKavvov at irepl tov Ayi^aiXaov 
TOV opKov TOi/9 Meaarjvlov;, co? ttoXlv ovk 'e')(ov- 

3 Ta<i. eirel he oi Xotirol rrdvTe^ ehe^ovTo Kal tov<; 

* rhv divmov wilh S : 66.va.Tov. 
98 



^^---^1^^^ , 



'/"^n 



AGESILAUS, XXXIV. y-xxxv. 3 

armour or clothing, — for he had just anointed his 
body with oil, — he took a spear in one hand, and a 
sword in the other, leaped forth from his house, and 
after pushing his way through the midst of the com- 
batants, ranged up and down among the enemy, 
smiting and laying low all who encountered him. 
And no man gave him a wound, whether it was that 
a god shielded him on account of his valour, or that 
the enemy thought him taller and mightier than a 
mere man could be. For this exploit it is said that 
the ephors put a garland on his head, and then fined 
him a thousand drachmas, because he had dared to 
hazard his life in battle without armour. 

XXXV. A few days afterwards a battle was fought 
near Mantinea, in which E])aminondas had already 
routed the van of the Lacedaemonians, and was still 
eagerly pressing on in pui'suit of them,^ when Anti- 
crates, a Spartan, faced him and smote him with a 
spear, as Dioscori des tells the story ; but the Lace- 
daemonians to this day call the descendants of Anti- 
crates " machaeriones," or swordsmen, because he used 
a sword for the blow. For the Lacedaemonians were 
filled with such admiring love for him because of the 
fear in which they held Epaminondas while living, 
that they voted honours and gifts to Anticrates him- 
self, and to his posterity exemption from taxes, an 
immunity which in my own day also is enjoyed by 
CalHcrates, one of the descendants of Anticrates. 

After the battle and the death of Epaminondas, 
when the Greeks concluded peace among them- 
selves, Agesilaiis and his partisans tried to exclude 
the Messenians from the oath of ratification, on the 
ground that they had no city. And when all the 
rest admitted the Messenians and accepted their 

V ^ Cf. Xenophon, Hell. vii. 5, 22-24. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

6pKov<i iXdfi^avov irap avTb)v, ciTrecrTTjcTav o't 
XaKeSaL/jLOVioi, kul /jLovois avroi^ 7r6\e/j.o<i rjv 
eKirl^ovaiv dvdXij'^eadai ti]i> yietjarjvlav. ^[aio<i 
ovv ihoKBL /cat uTevt]<; kuI TroXe/xwv d.TrXyaro'i 
6 'Aiy7;crtXao9 eivai,, ra<i fiev Koiva<i hia\vaet<; 
iravra rpoirov vTTopvTTcov xal dvajSdWwv, irdXiv 
he VTTO '^prj/jbdroyv dTroplwi dvajKa^opevo'; ivo\- 
\elv Tot<; Kara ttoKiv (f)i\oi^ koX havei^eaOai Kai 
4 avvepavL^eaOai, 8eov d7n]XXd')(^6ai kukmv els tovto 
TTepit'^KovTi, tS> Kaipu), Kol p^rj Ti]v diraaav dp')(i]v 
roaauTTjv 'yevop.evrjv d(^eiK07a kuI TToXei? kuI yi]v 
Kul OdXaTTav, inrep tmv iv ^letrcnjvr} Kryjpdrcov 
Kol irpoaohodv acpaSd^eiv. 

XXXVI. "Ert 8e pdXXov r}h6^^](Te Td\(p T(p 
AlyvTrriO) arpaTrjiyop eiriSovi eavrov, ov jap 
Tj^lovv dvhpa rrj'i 'KXXdho'i dpiarov KCKpipevov 
KoX So^rji; e/A7re7r\>//coTa rrjv otKOvpevrjv, diro- 
(Trdrr) /SaaiXeoyi, dvOpdnro) ^apj3dp(p, ^i(^py]aac to 
(Tcopa Kal Touvopa Kal ri-jv ho^av uTroSocrdai XPV' 
p,dr(ov, epya piaOo^opov koI ^evayov hbairpar- 

2 Topevov. Kel yap uTrep oySoijKOVTa yeyovw'i err) 
Kal irdv VTTO Tpavparoov to awpa KaraKeKop,- 
p,€vo<i eKeivrjv avOis dveSe^aro rrjv kuXtjv Kal 
TTepl^XerrTov rjyepoviav inrep t?}? tmv 'EXXijvwv 
eXevdepiai;, ov rrdpiTav dpepirrov elvai ti]V (})tXo- 
Tipnav Tov yap KaXov Kaipov ouKelov eivai Kal 
wpav, fxaXXov he 6Xco<i rd KaXa tmv ala^^^pcbv rw 

3 fieTplo) hiuijjepew. ov prjv i(f)p6vTi^e tovtcov 6 

'~^-' ' Cf. Diodorus, xv. 89, 1 f. 
TOO 



% 



t AGESILAUS, XXXV. 3-xxxvi. 3 

oaths, the Lacedaemonians held aloof from the peace, 
and they alone remained at war in the hope of re- 
covering Messenia.V Agesilaiis was therefore deemed 
a headstrong and stubborn man, and insatiable of 
war, since he did all in his power to undermine and 
postpone the general peace, and again since his lack 
of resources compelled him to lay burdens on his 
friends in the city and to take loans and contribu- 
tions from them. And yet it was his duty to put an 
end to their evils, now that opportunity offered, and W-. 

not, after having lost Sparta's whole empire, vast as 
it was, with its cities and its supremacy on land and 
sea, then to carry on a petty struggle for the goods 
and revenues of Messene. 

XXXVI. He lost still more reputation by offering 
to take a command under Tachos the Egyptian. For 
it was thought unworthy that a man who had been 
judged noblest and best in Hellas, and who had filled 
the world with his fame, should furnish a rebel 
against the Great King, a mere Barbarian, with his 
jierson, his name, and his fame, and take money for 
him, rendering the service of a hired captain of 
mercenaries.^ ) For even if, now that he was past 
eighty years' of age and his whole body was dis- 
figured with wounds, he had taken up again his 
noble and conspicuous leadership in behalf of the 
freedom of the Hellenes, his ambition would not 
have been altogether blameless, as men thought. 
For honourable action has its fitting time and season ; 
nay, rather, it is the observance of due bounds that 
constitutes an utter difference between honourable 
and base actions. Agesilaiis, however, paid no heed 

1 Xenophon {Agesilaiis, ii. 28-31) has Agesilaiis take this 
step in order to punish the Great King and liberate again 
the Greeks of Asia. 

lOI 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

'Ayrja-lXao'i, ouSe (pero Trap a^iav eivat Xet- 
TOvpyT]/J,a S')]/x6cnov ovhev, aWa /ndXXov dvci^iov 
eavTOV TO ^rjv airpaKTOv ev rfj iroXei kuI Kadi)- 
adac Trepi/xevovTU rov Odvarov. o9ev ddpoiaa<; ^ 
/jiicrdo(})6pov^ d(fi o)V Ta^^fu? avTW y^pripudTWV 
eTre/A-v/re, koi ifKola 'jfkripuxTa'i, dv7])(^6i], rpiuKovra 
avp^jBovKovi e%ft)v //e^' eavrov ^7rapTidra<i, 009 
Trporepoi', 

'Evrel Se KaretrXevaev el<i ttjv Aijvtttov, €vdv<; 
ot "npoiTOL TMV l3aai\iKcov rjje/xovcov koX SiotKrjrcov 
ejBdhiXov iirl vavv OepaTrevovref; av-rov. rjv Se 
Kal rcov a\Xa>v AlyvTrrtcov airovhi] re peydXr) 
Kol TrpocrSoKia Sid rovvopa Kal rijv ho^av rov 
^AyrjatXaov, Kal crvveTpox^a^ov diravre^ iirl rrjv 
dear, to? Se ecopoyv Xap.TrpoTrjTa fxev Kal Kara- 
(TKevipi ovBe/iiav, dvOpcoiTOv he 7rpefy/3vTr]v Kara- 
Kelpepov ev rivt iroa irapd Tr)v OdXaaaav, euTeXr] 
Kal piKpov TO (Twpa, Tpa')(ii Kal (f)avXov ipuTiov 
dp,Tre^6fi€vov, (TKMTTTeiv avTo2<i Kal jeXMTOTroLelv 
einjei, Kal Xeyeiv oti tovto rjv to pvOoXoyov- 
ixevov doSivetv 6po<;, elTa pvv drroTeKelv. ctl he 
fidXXov auTov ttjv dTOTriav eOavpaaav, 6t€ ^eviwv 
7rpocrKop,iadevT(ov Kal Trpoaox^evTwv dXevpa fxev 
Kal p.oa'X^ov'i Kal %>7Z'a? eXa/36, Tpay/jpara he 
Kal TreppuTa Kal pvpa hioiOelTo, Kal ^ta^opevwv 
\a8elv Kal XnrapovvTMv eKeXevae Tot<i eiXwai 
hihoi'ai Kop,li^ovTa<i. Trj pevTOi (TT e(j)av cot plhi 
j3v^Xa) (f)^]a^lv avTov i)aOei>Ta Heo(f}paaTo<i hia 617 
TJ/i' XiTOTTjTa Kal KadapiOTijTa twv cnecpdvwv 
aiT7jaa(T0ai Kal Xa^elv, ore drreTrXei, irapd tov 
^acnXeco<;. 

' aOpo'iffas with Coraes and S : fjOpoifff. 
T02 



AGESILAUS, XXXVI. 3-6 

to these considerations, nor did he think any public 
service beneath his dignity ; it was more unworthy 
of him, in his opinion, to Hve an idle life in the 
city, and to sit down and wait for death. Therefore 
he collected mercenaries with the money which 
Tachos sent him, embarked them on transports, and 
put to sea, accompanied by thirty Spartan counsellors, 
as formerly.^ 

As soon as he landed in Egypt, ^ the chief captains 
and governors of the king came down to meet him 
and pay him honour. There was great eagerness 
and expectation on the part of the other Egyptians 
also, owing to the name and fame of Agesilaiis, and 
all ran together to behold him. But when they saw 
no brilliant array whatever, but an old man lying 
in some grass by the sea, his body small and con- 
temptible, covered with a cloak that was coarse and 
mean, they were moved to laughter and jesting, 
saying that here was an illustration of the fable, " a 
mountain is in travail, and then a mouse is born."^ 
They were still more surprised, too, at his eccen- 
tricity. When all manner of hospitable gifts were 
brought to him, he accepted the flour, the calves, 
and the geese, but rejected the sweetmeats, the 
pastries, and the perfumes, and when he was urged 
and besought to take them, ordered them to be 
carried and given to his Helots. He was pleased, 
however, as Theophrastus tells us, with the papyrus 
used in chaplets, because the chaplets were so neat 
and simple, and when he left Egypt, asked and 
received some from the king. 

1 Cf. chapter vi. 2. » 361 b.c. 

— ^ 3 In Athenaeus, p. 616 d, it is Tacho-s himself who makes 
'this jest upon Agesilaiis, who replies in anger: "Some day 
you will think me a lion." 

103 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XXXVII. Tore Be au/j,/jLi^a<; tw Ta;i^w irapa- 
(TK€va^o/jL€V(p 7rp6<i TTju (TTpaTeiau, ov'X^, Mairep 
7]\7ri^€v, aTTciar]^ arparii'yo'^ a'iTeBei-)(jd'>'i rrji; Svvd- 
fX€Q}<;, dWa tmv p,iaOo(p6p(ov p,6vo)i', rov 8e vav- 
TiKOV \a/3pia<; 6 ^A6rjvaio<;- yye/xoDV Ee (Tvp,7rdv- 

2 T(ov auTo? ^]V 6 Trt^&)9. Kul TOVTO irpoyTov 
rjviaae rov W-yrjcnXaov eireiTa ttjv dWrjv d\a- 
t^oveiav Kal Kevo(f>poavvr)v rov AiyuTrriOu jSapvvo- 
pevo<; i)payKd^€TO (pepeiv Kal crvve^eTrXevaev eirl 
T0U9 ^0iviKa<; avrCp, irapd rrjv d^iav Trjv eavrov 
Kal rrjv (f)V(7iv inre'iKwv Kal Kaprepoiv, d')(^pL ov 
Kaipbv k\a/3e. 

3 ^eKTdpa(3i<i yap dv€-\{rio^ mv tov Ta;^o> Kal 
p^epo^ i^f^v V(ji eavTM t>}? Bvvd/Jb€a)<; dTrearrj- Kal 
^a(Ti\ev<i viro rcov Alyvmiwv dvayopevOel<i Bce- 
Tre/iTrero irpo^ rov Ay}]ai\aov d^iMV ainw /Sorj- 
Belv rd S' avrd Kal tov KafSpiav irapcKdXei, 

4 pb€yd\a<; v'irta')(yovpLevo<i dp^cfyore pot's 8o)ped<;, al- 
aOop,€vou Se ravra tov Ta^f» Kal rpaTTOfMCVov 
7rpo<? Seyjaiv avrcov, o p.ev ^a^pta'i eireipdro Kal 
TOV ^Ayrfaikaov iv Trj (l)i\La tov Ta';^&) TreiOcov 
Kal 7rapapiv0ovp,evo<; Karex^i-^', o he ' Ayi]aL\ao'i 
elTrev on " "Xol p.ev, &> ^a/SpLU, Kara creavTOv 
d(piyp-evcp ')(^pr]adai TOi? eavrov XoyicrpLol^ e^eariv, 
iyco 8e viro rrj^ 7rarpiBo<; eSoOi]v AlyvTrrloi^ 
arparriyo's. ovk ovv dv ^xoi p,oi KaX(t)<i ot? 
i7rep,(f)0r)v (Tvp,p,a)(^o<; iroXep-etv, edv p,r] rrdXiv ?} 

5 TrarpU KeXevarj." ravra Se elircov errepu-^ev et? 
"Eirdprijv dv8pa<;, ot rov p,ev Ta^o) KaTf]yopi](T€LV, 
eiraivecreaOai he rov ^eKrdvajStv epueXXov. eVe/x- 
y^av he KUKeivoi heopLevoi rwv AaKehaip^ovlwv, 
6 p,ev 609 irdkai avp.p.a)(^o<i yeyovoos fcal (f>iXo^, 



104 



AGESILAUS, XXXVII. 1-5 

XXXVII. But now, on joining Tachos, who was 
making preparations for his expedition, he was not, 
as he expected, appointed commander of all the 
forces, but only of the mercenaries, while Chabrias 
the Athenian liad charge of the fleet, and Tachos 
liimself was commander-in-chief ^ This was the first 
thing that vexed Agesilaiis ; then, though he was 
indignant at the vain pretensions of the king in other 
matters, he was compelled to endure them. He 
even sailed with him against the Phoenicians, forcing 
himself into a subservience which was beneath his 
dignity and contrary to his nature, until he found 
his opportunity. 

For Nectanabis, who was a cousin of Tachos and 
had a part of the forces under his command, revolted 
from him, and having been proclaimed king by the 
Egyptians, sent to Agesilaiis asking for his aid and 
assistance. He made the same appeal to Chabrias 
also, promising large gifts to both. When Tachos 
learned of this and resorted to entreaties for their 
allegiance, Chabrias tried to persuade and encourage 
Agesilaiis to continue with him in the friendship of 
Tachos. But Agesilaiis s_aid : " You, Chabrias, who 
came here on your own account, can decide your own 
case ; but I was given by my country to the Egyptians 
as a general. It would therefore be dishonourable 
for me to make war on those to whom I was sent as 
an ally, unless my country gives me a new command 
to do so." After these words, he sent men to 
Sparta who were to denounce Tachos, and commend 
Nectanabis. Tachos and Nectanabis also sent and 
besought the support of the Lacedaemonians, the 
former on the ground that he had long been their 
ally and friend, the latter on the plea that he would 

1 Cf. Diodorus, xv. 92, 2 f. 

105 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Se ft)? €vvov<; koI 7rpodv/u.oT€po<i vepl rrjv nroXiv 
eao/bLCJ'O'i. aKovcravTe<; ovv ol AaKeSai/jiovLOt tol^ 
fxev Al<yv7rTiot<; aireKpivavTo (fyavepoy^i 'AyrjaiXdoy 
irepl TovTcov fieXijaeiv, eKeivo) he eirea-reiXav opav 

K€X€VOVT€<i OTTW? TTpd^ei TO T7} ^TTCipTr] aV/U,(jiepOV. 

6 OVTO) Sr] XajSoov tou? /MiaOo(j)opou<i o 'AyijaiXao^ 
iiTTo Tou Ta^ft) /xeTecTTr) 77/309 tov NeKTava^iv, 
drorrov koX dWoKorov Trpdyfiaro<; TrapuKaXvpL- 
/xari Ta> avpbc^epovrt T7]<; irarplho^ ;)^/3>;cra/xei'09' 
eVet ravrrj^ 76 t/}? 7rpo(f>dcr€(o<; d(f)aLped€iar]<i to 
SiKaioTaTov ovojxa t^? irpd^eco'i rjv TrpoSoaia. 
AaKeBaifiovioL Se ttjv TrpMTtjv tou koXov puepiha 
TO) Tr}? TrarptSo? (rvpL(f)epovTt Si86vT€<i out€ fiavdd- 
vovcnv ovT€ eTrlaTavTat hiKaiov dXXo ifXrjv rrjv 
"STrdpTriv av^eiv vofxil^ovaiv. 

XXXVIIL 'O /xev ovv Ta^j^o)? eprjp.a)de\<i rwv 
p,ia6o(f)6p(t)V €(f)V'y6v, eK he ^\evhrjTO<i eVe/JO? eiravi- 
aTUTUL T&j ^€/cTavd/3ihi l3a(7iXev^ dva'yopevdei^' 
KoX crvvayaywv heKa pi,vpidha<i dvOpcoircov eirrjei. 
OapavvovTO'i he tov Ne/cram/SiSo? tov ^Ayyjcrl- 
Xaov, Koi XijovTO<; otl ttoXXoI fiiv elcriv ol iroXe- 
pLioi, pLiydhe^ he kuI ^dvavaoL koi hi dTreiplav 

2 euKUTacj) p6v7)T0t, " Kat pirjv ov to 7rXf]9o'i avTMvT 
6 ^AyTjalXaoi; elTrev, " dXXd ttjv aTreipiav (f)o/3ov- 
pai Koi Trjv dfiaOlav w? hvae^airdTijTOV. at yap 
dirdTai to irapdho^ov eirdyovai Toi<i Trpo? d/xvvav 
inrovoovai Kal irpoahoKcocn TpenropbevoL^i, 6 he pLrj 
TrpoahoKMV p,7]he vttovowv firjhev ov hlhwai tS> 

* Xenophon, who can see no fault in Agesilaiis, says 
[Agesilaiis, ii. 31) : " Accordingly, he chose between the two 

106 



AGESILAUS, XXXVII. 5-xxxviii. 2 

be well disposed to their city and more eager to 
promote her interests. The Lacedaemonians, accord- 
ingly, after hearing the messengers, made public 
answer to the Egyjitians that Agesilaiis would attend to 
these matters ; but to Agesilaiis they wrote privately 
bidding him see to it that the interests of Sparta 
should not suffer. So Agesilaiis took his mercenaries 
and went over from Tachos to Nectanabis, making 
the interests of his country serve as a veil for a 
strange and unnatural proceeding, since when this 
pretext was removed, the most fitting name for his 
act was treachery.^, , But the Lacedaemonians assign 
the chief place in their ideas of honour to the 
interests of their country, and neither learn nor 
understand any other justice than that which they 
think will enhance the glory of Sparta. 

XXXVIII. Tachos, accordingly, thus deserted by 
his mercenaries, took to flight. But in Mendes 
another rival rose up against Nectanabis and was 
proclaimed king, and after collecting a hundred 
thousand men advanced against him. Then Necta- 
nabis sought to encourage Agesilaiis by saying that 
although the enemy were numerous, they were a 
mixed rabble of artisans whose inexperience in war 
made them contemptible. " Indeed," said Agesilaiis, 
" it is not their numbers that I fear, but the in- 
experience and ignorance of which you speak, which 
it is hard to overcome by stratagems. For stratagems 
array unexpected difficulties against men who try to 
defend themselves against them, if they suspect and 
await them ; but he who does not await nor even 
suspect any stratagem gives no hold to the opponent 

that one who seemed to be the truer partisan of Hellas, and 
with him marched against the enemy of Hellas and conquered 
him in battle.' 

107 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TrapaXoji^ofiepo} \a^r]v, oiaiTep ovBe tco iraXai- 
ovri poTTTjv fir} Ktvovfxevo'i" eK tovtov kol o 

3 ^ievS^aiOi; eTrefiire TveipSyv top ^AyrjalXaov. eSei- 
aev ovv o ^eKTava(3i<i, koI Ke\.evovTO<i avTov 
SLapdxecrOat ri-jv Ta')(^LO"TV^' Koi /xy] -^pojxp iroXe- 
fielv Trpo'i avO pGiTTOVi airetpovi; a'yMvo<^,'n o\v)(^ei pta 
he TTepLeXdelv kol TreptTa<^pevaai kuI (pOdaac 
TToWd /cal TrpoXa^elv hvvap.evov<;, en p^dXkov iv 
VTro^jrla /cal (f)6^(p 'yepo/jievo'i 7rpo<i avrov dire- 
'^(^copiiaev et9 ttoXlv evepK)) kol p^eyav 6)(^ovaav 

4 Trepi/SoXov. 6 Se ^AyrjaiXao'i rjyavdKTei pev 618 
d-ni(7TOvpevo<i koI /Sapeco^; ecjyepev, ala')(^vv6p.€vo<i 

8e Kul irdXiv pe-Taarrjvai tt/jo? tov hepov koI 
TeXea)<; uTreXOelv aTrpaKTO^i, 7'jKoXovOr]ae koI (JVv- 
•LarjXOev eU to Tel^o'i. 

XXXIX. 'EiTTeXOovTMv Se rcov TToXepLdiv koI 
Treptra^pevovTOiv ttjv ttoXiv, av6t<^ av Vetera? rrjv 
TToXiopKLav 6 AljvTTTio^ e/3ov\eTO pd-)(€(T6ai KOl 
rov<; ' EXXriva<; pdXa crvpTrpoOvpovpevou^; el^ei'' 
ov yap rjv iv tw -^uipiw <TtT09. o he ^Kyi^criXao^ 
ovK ewv, d\Xd kcoXvwv ■t]Kov€ pev en p,dXXov 
Ka/CM'i y) irporepov vtto rwv \lyvmLO)i' Kat irpoSo- 
Tr;? uTreKaXeiTO tov ^aaiXeco<;, e(f)ept he Trpaorepov 
ijhr] ra? hia^oXd<i kuI 7rpoa€i)(€ tw Kaipcp tov 
aTpaT)]y7]p,aT0<i. 
2 'Hf he TOLovhe. Td(ppov e^coOev rjyov ol rroXe- 
aioi irepl to Telyo<i BaOelav &)<? TravTdTraaiv 
uTroKXeiaovTe^ avTov^. 009 ovv 677u<? y^aav at 
TeXevTal tov opvypaTO^ u7ravT(bvTo<i avTw Kat, 
TrepuovTO'i ev kvkXw ti]v ttoXiv, kairepav dvapei- 
va<i yeveaOai Kal /ceXevaa'i e^oirXL^eadai Tov<i 
"KXXi]va<i eXeyev eXOcov irpo^ tov AlyvTTTLov "'O 



108 



AGESILAUS, XXXVIII. 2-xxxix. 2 

who is trying to outwit him, just as, in a wrestling 
bout, he who does not stir gives no advantage to his 
antagonist." After this, the Mendesian also sent 
and tried to win over Agesilaiis. Nectanabis was 
therefore alarmed, and when Agesilaiis urged him to 
fight the issue out as speedily as possible, and not to 
wage a war of delays against men who were in- 
experienced in fighting, but were numerous enough 
to surround him and hedge him in and anticipate 
and get the start of him in many ways, he grew still 
more suspicious and fearful of him, and retired 
into a city which was well fortified and had a large 
compass. Agesilaiis was incensed at this lack of 
confidence, and full of indignation, but since he was 
ashamed to change sides again and finally go back 
home without accomplishing any thing, he accom- 
panied Nectanabis and entered the city with him. 

XXXIX. But when the enemy came up and began 
to surround the city with a trench, then the Egyptian 
changed his mind, grew fearful of the siege, and 
wished to give battle, for which the Greeks also were 
very eager, since there were no provisions in the 
]>lace. Agesilaiis, however, would not permit it, but 
opposed it, and was therefore maligned by the 
Egyptians even more bitterly than before, and 
called a betrayer of the king. But he bore their 
calumnies more patiently now, and sought to find 
the fitting moment for his stratagem. 

This was as follows. The enemy were digging a 
deep trench outside around the city, in order to shut 
its occupants up completely. Accordingly, when the 
trench had been carried almost around the city, and 
its ends were near one another, after waiting for 
evening to come and ordering the Greeks to arm 
themselves, Agesilaiis went to the Egyptian and said : 

109 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



■? 



ixev Ti;? aQ}T7)pia<=;, co veavia, Kaipo<; ovTO<i eajiv, 
ov ejoo BiacfiOelpaL (po/3ovfjL€PO<i ouk ecppal^ov irpiv 

3 eXOetv. eVel Se 7)/mIv ol iroXefMioi ttjv dacfxiXetav 
avTol Bia TMV '^f^eipcov TrapeaKevuKaai, Toaavrr^v 
opv^d/xevoi rdcfipov, ?}? to fiev e^eipyaa-fievov eVe/- 
foi? efiTToScov iarc rov TrXtjOovi, to Se SiaXeiTrov 
>)fjLiv SlScoaiv taw Koi hiKaico fiirpa) hi,afid')(^ecr6ai 
JTp6<; avTOV<;, (pepe vvv, "TrpoOvp-ridelfi dviip dyaOo'i 
yeveaOuL koI fxed^ ijficov i7na7r6/xevo<i 8p6fi(p aco^e 

4 aeavTov djxa kol ttjp aTparidp. i)ixd<; yap ol /xev 
Kara arofjua rcov TroXefilcov ovx vTTo/xevouaiv, ol Se 
dXXoL Bid rrjv rd^pov ov ^Xdyjrovaiv." iOav/naaev 
ovv 6 ^€KTdval3i<i Tov ^Ayy]atXdou Tr]v hewoniTa, 
Kal Sov'i eavrov eh fieaa rd tmv KXXi']va>v oirXa 
Kal TrpoaTrecrcov erpeyjraTO 'pahi(i)<; Toy? avriardv- 
ra<i. &)9 Be dira^ eXa^e TreiOo/xevov avrco tov 
ISeKTdva^tv 6 'AyijaiXao'i, avdis eirriye to avro 
aTpaTi']yr]/iia KaOdirep 7rdXaia/j.a Tol<i 7roX6fj.Loi<i. 

5 rd fiev ydp v7ro(f)€vyo)v Kal virdycov, ra Be uvri- 
rrepi'x^wpoiv, ifi^dXXec to TrXijOa avrwv ei9 rorrov 
exovra Sidopv^a /SaOelav e^ eKarepa<i rrXevpd'i 
irapappeovaav, wv to /xeaov ep,(ppd^a<i Kai Kara- 
Xa/3(oi> T(p jjLerdiTTU) rr}<i (f)dXayyo<; e^iacoae 7rpo9 
TOi/9 /juw^o/xevov^ roiv TroXefilcov ro 7rXr]6o<;, ovk 
e^oi'Ta? 7TepiBpo/u.r)V Kal kvkXuxtlv. 66ev ov 
TToXvv ■)(p6vov dvrLardvre^ irpdirovro' Kal ttoXXol 
fiev dvrjpedrjcrav, ol Be (pevyovre^; eaKeBdaBrjcrav 
Kal Bieppvrjcrav. 

XL. 'K« Be rovrov KaXto<i fiev elx^ '^^ rrpdy- 
fiara Kal ^e^aico^; tm Alyvirrlu) rrpo^ dacpdXeiav 
dyaiTthv Be Kal (piXo(ppovou/jL€vo'i eBelro /xeli ai Kal 
avvBia)(^ei/j^dcrai fier^ avrov tov ^AyrjalXaov- o Be 
(opfxriro Trpof rov oikoi TroXe/xov, etSo)? xprih'"-'^^^ 
no 



AGESILAUS, XXXIX. 2-xl. i 

" Now is the time, young man, for us to save our- 
selves, and I would not speak of it until it came, for 
fear of vitiating it. The enemy have now worked 
out our safety with their own hands. They have 
dug their trench so far that the part which is finished 
hinders them from attacking us in great numbers, 
and the space between the ends gives us room to 
fight them on fair and equal terms. Come, then, be 
eager to shew yourself a brave man ; follow with us 
as we charge, and save yourself and your army too. 
For the enemy in our front will not withstand us, 
and the rest will not harm us because of the trench." 
Nectanabis, then, was filled with admiration for the 
sagacity of Agesilaiis, and putting himself in the 
centre of the Greek array, ciiarged forwards and 
easily routed his opponents. And now that Agesilaiis 
had won back the confidence of Nectanabis, he 
brought the same stratagem to bear again upon the 
enemy, like a trick in wrestling. By sometimes 
pretending to retreat and fly, and sometimes attack- 
ing them on the flanks, he drove their whole multi- 
tude into a tract which had a deep canal full of water 
on either side. The space between these he occupied 
and stopped up with the head of his column, and so 
made his numbers equal to those of the enemy who 
could fight with him, since they were unable to 
surround and enclose him. Therefore after a short 
resistance they were routed ; many were slain, and 
the fugitives were dispersed and melted away.^ 

XL. After this, the Egyptian succeeded in estab- 
lishing himself firmly and securely in power, and 
showed his friendliness and affection by begging 
Agesilaiis to remain and spend the winter with him. 
But Agesilaiis was eager to return to the war at 

1 The account of tins Egj'ptian campaign in Diodorus, xv. 

93, difi'ers in many details. 

Ill 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

8€Ofj,ev7)v TTjv TToXiv Kal ^evorpocfyovcrav. irpov- 
Trefiyjrev ovv ainhv eVrt/iw? ical /u,€ya\o7rpe7ro)<i, 
aWa^ re XaBovra TLfxa<i Kal hwpea'i Kal 7rpo9 top 
TToXe/jiov dpyvplov hiaKoaia Kal TpiuKovTa rd- 

2 Xavra. ^et^wi^o? he ovto^ ■i]Sy] r/}? 7?}? ey^oixevo^:; 
rac'i vaval Kal irapd rrjp Ai/Buiju e/? y^oypiov 
eprjfxov KOfjiia06i<i, o KaXovat, MeveXdou Xi/jueva, 
OvrjaKei, ^icoaa<; fxev oySorjKovTa Kal recrcrapa 
err], /3acn\evaa<; 8e rrj<; %7rdprr](i evl roiv rea- 
aapdKovra wXiov, Kal rovrcov virep rpuiKovra 
iravrcov fieyiaro'i Kal Svvarooraro'i yev6p,€vo<i Kal 
cr^eBov oXrj^ tj)? 'EXXaSo? r)y6p.(ov Kal /3aac\ev>i 
vop,ia6el'i d'^pi rfj<i ev AeuKrpoi^ p,d)(^r]^. 

3 "E^ou? Be 6vro<i AaKcoviKov rcov fiev dWaiv eTrl 
^evy]^ drroOavovrcov avrou rd au>nara KijBeueiv 
Kal diroXelTTeiv, rd he roiv ^aaiXeoiv ocKahe KOfii- 
^etv, ol irapovre'i 'Eirapridrai K)]pov eTTcr/)^avre<i 
rS) veKpu), p.eXiro<i ov rrapovro^, dTrrjyov el<i AaK€- 
haifiova. rrjv he jBaaLXeiav Ap)(^ihap,o<; 6 fio? 619 
avrou rrapeXajSe, Kal hie/xeLve rut yevet jxe^pif; 

" Ay iho^, 01' eTTi^f^eipovvra rr/v irdrpiov dvaXa- 
j3elv TToXtrelav direKreive Aewviha^ Trefnrrov dir' 
' AyrjaiXdou yeyovora. 



112 



AGESILAUS, XL. 1-3 

home, knowing that his city needed money and was 
hiring mercenaries. He was therefore dismissed 
jj with great honour and ceremony, taking with him, 
besides other lionours and gifts, two lunidred and 
thirty talents of silver for the war at home. But 
since it was now winter, he kept close to shore with 
his ships, and was borne along the coast of Libya to 
an uninhabited spot called the Harbour of Menelaiis. 
Here he died, at the age of eighty-four years. He 
had been king of Sparta forty-one years, and for 
more than thirty of these he was the greatest and 
most influential of all Hellenes, having been looked 
upon as leader and king of almost all Hellas, down 
to the battle of Leuctra. 

It was Spartan custom, when men of ordinary rank 
died in a foreign country, to give their bodies funeral 
rites and burial there, but to carry the bodies of their 
kings home. So the Spartans who were with 
Agesilaiis enclosed his dead body in melted wax, 
since they had no honey, and carried it back to 
Lacedaemon. The kingdom devolved upon Archi- 
damus his son, and remained in his family down to 
Agis, who was slain by Leonidas ^ for attempting to 
restore the ancient constitution, being the fifth in 
descent from Agesilaiis. 

^ In 240 B.C. See tiie Agis, chapters xix., xx. 



"3 



POMPEY 



noMnHios 

I. IT/JO? Ilo/j,'rrt]iov eoiKS tovto iraOelv 6 'Pw- 
fMULOiv 877/^09 evBu^ 6^ dp'^tj'i, oirep Kla-)(yXov 
llpo/i'qdev^ Tf po<; rov 'WpaKXea aoydeh vir avTov 
Kol Xeywv 

^E-^dpov 7rarp6<i jjlol tovto c^iXTaTov t^kvov. 

ovT€ yap fuao<; ovT(o<i la-)(ypov Kat ayptov eire- 
he'i^avTo 'Ptofiaioc 77/30? eTcpov aTpaT'7]yoi> m^ top 
Ho/ji7n]Lov TTUTepa ^Tpdj3wva, ^covTo<i /j,ev avTov 
<jio8oup,€Voi Ti]v eV Tot? OTrXoi'i Svva/jicv {rjv yap 

2 au7]p 7ro\e/uiiKa)TaTo<;). eirel Be direOave Kepav- 
vwdeis, eKKO/.u^o/x€vov to aoyfia KaTacnrdaavTe^ 
di70 TOu Xe'^of? Kal Ka0u/3pL(TavT€<;, ovt€ fx,r)v 
evvoiav av TrdXtv cr(po8poTepav i) Odaaov dp^a/xe- 
in-jv rj fxdWov euTuy^ovvTi avvoK/xdaaaav rj irTai- 
cravTi 7rapa/jL6ivaaav ^efSaioTepov aX\.o<; €(T)(^e 

3 'Pco/jLuicov 7; Yiofnrr]io<i. atTta Be tov /xev puiaovi 
€KeiV(p fila, ')^p't]/j.dTa>v dTrXvaTc; eTridv/xLa, tovtm 
Be TToWal TOV dyairdadai, aox^poavvrj irepl 
BiaiTav, d<TK7]ai'i ev oirXoiSy 7n9ai>oTT]<i Xoyov, 
7rt(TTt? I'jdovi, evap/xoaTta Trpo'i evTev^iv, 0)9 firj- 

^ A fragment of the Prometheus Loosed (Nauck, Ti-ag. 
Graec. Frag.* p. 08). Prometheus was fastened to a cliff' in 

116 



POMPEY 

I. Towards Pompey the Roman people must have 
hadj from the very beginning, the feeling which the 
Prometheus of Aeschylus has towards Heracles, 
when, having been saved by him, he says : — 

" I hate the sire, but dearly love this child of his." ^ 

For never have the Romans manifested so sti-ong 
and fierce a hatred towai'ds a general as they did to- 
wards Strabo, the father of Pompey ; while he lived, 
indeed, they feared his talent as a soldier, for he was 
a very warlike man, but when he was killed by a 
thunderbolt,^ and his body was on its way to the 
funeral pyre, they dragged it from its bier and 
heaped insults upon it. On the other hand, no 
Roman ever enjoyed a heartier goodwill on the part 
of his countrymen, or one which began sooner, or 
reached a greater height in his prosperity, or re- 
mained more constant in his adversity, than Pompey 
did. And whereas there was one sole reason for the 
hatred felt towards Strabo, namely, his insatiable 
desire for money, there were many reasons for the 
love bestowed on Pompey ; his modest and temperate 
way of living, his training in the arts of war, his 
persuasive speech, his trustworthy character, and his 
tact in meeting people, so that no man asked a 

Scythia by Zeus, whose eagle preyed upon the prisoner. 
Heracles slew the eagle and released the sufferer. 
» In 87 B.C. 

117 
VOL. V E 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

S€v6<; aXuTTorepoi' herjdrjvai fxrjhe ijStov virovpyrjaai 
Seo/xevcp. irpoarjv yap avrov Tal<i 'X^dpKTi Kal to 
ai^evra^^e? 8tB6vTO<; Kal to (refxvov Xa/ji^dvovTO<;. 

II. 'Ey dpxfl Se K^fii' T^y 6y\rLv ea^cv ov fterptw? 
avvhrjpLayoyyovaav Kal 7rpoevTvy)^di'ovaav avrov 
Tr;? (f)cov7]^. TO yap epdapLLOv d^KOfxariKOV i]V 
(j>i\av6pco7ro}^, Kal ev tw veapw Kal dvOovvn 
^L€(paivev €vOv<; 7) uK/xr] to yepapov Kal to ^aai- 
'\lkov tov i]Oov<i. rjv Se tl<; Kal dvaaToXr) t>}? 
KO/jLTj^i drpefjia Kal tmv irepl to, o/j,/xaTa pv9/jL0)v 
vyporr^ii rov TrpoaciiTrov, rroLovaa jxaWov \eyo- 
fiivrii/ rj (}}aivojj.€P7]v oyu-OiOT7;Ta Trpo? Ta? 'AXe^ai/- 

2 bpov TOV ^acTiXewi €LK6va<i. fj Kal Tovvofjia ttoX- 
Xoiv ev dp')(^fj avveirKpepovTcov ovk e^evyev Tlop.- 
TTTjlof;, oicxTe Kal 'yXevd^ovTU'i avTOV evlovi ijSr] 
KaXelv ^ AXe^avSpov. 816 Kal Aeu/cto? <t'iXt7r7ro9, 
dvr)p viraTiKO^, avviiyopoiv avrw, ixrjhev €(f>T] iroielv 
•napdXoyov el ^iXiTnrof; o)v ^iXaXe^avBpo'; eaTLV. 

<t>X(iopai> 8e Tr}i> eralpav e(paaav r^hrj Trpecr- 
^VTepav ovaav eirieiKO)^ del pbvrjfxoveveiv Tr/9 
yevop,evr]<i avTrj 7rp6<i YlofX7rr]iov o/it/\.ta?, Xe- 
yovcav co? ovk rjv eKeivo) (TvvavaTravaafxevrjv 

3 aSj;«T&)9 aTreXOeiv. Trpo? Se ToiiTot9 SirjyeLaOai 
Tr)v ^Xcopau e'7ri6vix7]aai riva tmv Ylofi7rr]iov 
(Tvvrjduiv avrrj^ Te/jilviov, Kal Trpdy/xara iroXXa 
Trape^eif TreipcovTa' auT?}? Be (pap-ivys' ovk av 
eOeXijaat 8id Uo/jL7ri]LOV, eKecvu) tov Ve/xivLov 
hiaXeyeaOar tov ovv Ylop-TTrjiov eTTiTpeyj/ac /j,ev 
TW TefiiVLO), fi7]KeTt Be avTov d\\raaOai to irapd- 
rrav iirjBe evTV)(elv avTrj, Kaiirep epdv BoKovvTa' 
T18 



POMPEY, I. 3-11. 3 

favour with less offence, or bestowed one with a 
better mien. For, in addition to his other graces, 
he had the art of giving without arrogance, and of 
receiving without loss of dignity. 

II. At the outset, too, he had a countenance which 
helped him in no small degree to win the favour of 
the people, and which pleaded for him before he 
spoke. For even his boyish loveliness had a gentle 
dignity about it, and in the prime and flower of his 
youthful beauty there was at once manifest the 
majesty and kingliness of his nature. His hair was 
inclined to lift itself slightly from his forehead, 
and this, with a graceful contour of face about the 
eyes, produced a resemblance, more talked about 
than actually apparent, to the portrait statues of 
King Alexander. Wherefore, since many also 
applied the name to him in his earlier years, Pompey 
did not decline it, so that presently some called him 
Alexander in derision. Hence, too, Lucius Philippus, 
a man of consular rank, when pleading in his behalf, 
said that he was doing nothing strange if, being 
Philip, he loved Alexander. 

We are told that Flora the courtesan, when she 
was now quite old, always took delight in telling 
about her former intimacy with Pompey, saying that 
she never left his embraces without bearing the 
marks of his teeth. Furthermore, Hera would tell 
how Geminius, one of Pompey's companions, fell in 
love with her and annoyed her greatly by his at- 
tentions ; and when she declared that she could not 
consent to his wishes because of Pompey, Geminius 
laid the matter before Pompey. Pompey, accordingly, 
turned her over to Geminius, but never afterwards 
had any thing at all to do with her himself, although 
he was thought to be enamoured of her ; and she 

119 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES || 

Tovro Se ainriv ovx e'TCiipiKcb'i iveyKelv, aWa 
iroXiiv inro Xutt*?? Kai ttoOov -y^povov voarjcraL. 

4 KULTOt rrjv ^Xwpav ovrco Xeyovaiv dvdrjoai Kai 
jeveaOai irept/Soijrov ware KeKiXiov MereWov 
avhpcdai Koi ypa(f)a'i<^ Koa/xovvra tov veoov TOiV 
AioaKovpcov, Kdiceivri<i eiKova ypa-yjrdfxevov ava- 
Oelvai Bid TO KdXXo'i. Oo/xTTJ/to? Se Kai Ttj 620 
Ar}/j.y^Tpiov TOV direXevdepov yvvaiKt, TrXelarov 
io')(voavTO<s Trap' aiirw Kai tct paKKX^^iXicop ra- 
Xdvr(ov d-noXLTTOVTo^ ouaiav, exP^i~o -rrapd tov 
avTov TpoTTOv ovK €7neiKco<; ov8e iXevdepiw<i, <f)o- 
^TjOel^ rrjv evfiop(f)Lau avTi]<; dfxa-yov riva Kai 
TTepi/SorjTov ovaav, o)? p-rj cfyaveCr] K6KpaTriixevo<i. 

5 OVTO) Be TTavv nroppoidev evXa/3r]<; cov Trpo? rd 
roiavra Kai 7re(j)vXayp,evo<;, ofico<; ov Biecpvye rcov 
€')(6pMv TOV eVt TOUT ft) y^oyov, dXX iirl tuI^ 
yafMeTal<; iavKo<^avTeLTO TroXXd twv kolvwv Trap- 
iSetv Kai irpoeadai ^(api^ofxevo^ eK€Lvai<;. 

Tt}? Be irepl ti-jv BlaiTav evKoXia^ Kai Xito- 
TTjTO? Kai dTTopvrj/jLovevfjia XeycTat toiovtov. 

6 laTpo? avTfi) voaovvTt Kai KaKOi<; exovTt 7rpo<i ra 
aiTLa Ki'xXr}v irpoaeTa^e Xa^elv. 6i^ Be ^r)TovvTe<i 
ovx ^^pov MViov (jjv yap irap a>pav), €(f)yj Be rt? 
evpeO')](TeaOac rrapd AevKoXXw Bt eTOv; Tpe<po[j,e- 
va<i, " EtTa," elirev, "el p,r] AevKoXXo<; eTpv(pa, 
Jl.op.'7T7]io<; OVK av e^ijae; " Kai xo-t'P^i'^ idaa<; tov 
laTpov eXa^i rt tmv eiiTToplaTcov. Tavra fief 
ovv ixTTepov. 

III. "Et* Be p^eipaKiov mv TravraTraat Kai rm 
iraTpl ava-TpaTev6ixevo<i avTiTeTay/jieva) tt/oo? Klv- 

I20 



POMPEY, 11. 3-III. I 

herself did not take this treatment as a mere 
courtesan would, but was sick for a long time with 
grief and longmg And yet Flora is said to have 
flowered into such beauty, and to have been so 
famous for it, that when Caecilius Metellus was 
decorating the temple of Castor and Pollux with 
paintings and statues, he gave her portrait also a 
place among his dedications. Moreover, Pompey 
also treated the wife of Demetrius his freedman 
(who had the greatest influence with him and left an 
estate of four thousand talents) with a lack of courtesy 
and generosity unusual in him, fearing lest men 
should think him conquered by her beauty, which 
was irresistible and far-famed. But though he was 
so extremely cautious in such matters and on his 
guard, still he could not escape the censures of his 
enemies on this head, but was accused of illicit 
relations with married women, to gratify whom, it 
was said, he neglected and betrayed many public 
interests. 

As regards his simplicity and indifference in 
matters pertaining to the table, a story is told as 
follows. Once when he was sick and loathed his 
food, a physician prescribed a thrush for him. But 
when, on enquiry, his servants could not find one for 
sale (for it was past the season for them), and some- 
one said they could be found at Lucullus's, where 
they were kept the year round, " What then," said 
he, " if Lucullus were not luxurious must Pompey 
have died ? " and paying no regard to the physician 
he took something that could easily be procured.^ 
This, however, was at a later time. 

III. While he was still quite a stripling and was on 
a campaign with his father, who was arrayed against 

^ Cf. tlie Lucullus, xl. 2. 

121 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

vav, AevKiov riva Tepevriov €l')(ev eralpov Kal 
avaK7]Pov. 0UT09 vtto K.ivva •neKrOel'; 'x^prjfxaaiv 
avTOf; fiev efxeWe TIofiTri^iov diroKTeveiv, erepot Se 

2 Trjv aKi]vi]V epurpi'jaeiv rod aTpaTrjyov. /J,T)vvcr€0)<; 
5e TW HofMUTjiw irepl helirvov ovri irpoa'necrovaii';, 
ovSev SiaTapa)(^9ei<;, dWa /cal ttloov TrpodujioTepov 
Kal (fii\o(f)pov)]adpevo<i top Tepevnov, d/xa tw 
rpaireaOaL rrpo^ avdiravcnv vireKpvel'; t?}? aKi-j- 
vf]<i e\aOe, Kal to) irarpl (^povpdv irepicm^Ga^ 
i)(TV)(^at,ev. 6 hi TepevTio^;, to? evo/attle Kaipov 
elvai, airaadpevo'i ro ^L(po<i dvearrj Kal rrj crrt/BdSi 
Tov VLo pbirrjiov tt poa e\0 (Jov &)<> KaraKeipevov iroX- 

3 \d<; ii'€(f>6peL 7r'\,'>]'yd<; T049 arpdipaaiv. 6k Se 
rovTov yLverai /xeya Kivr)p,a plaei tov crrpaTii'yov, 
Kal 7rpo<; dTrocTTaaiv opui] rwv ar part, cor o)v, ra? 
T6 aKr]vd<; dvacnrwvrwv Kal rd oirXa \ap,/3av6v- 
Tcov. 6 fiev ovv arpaT7)yo<; ov irporjei SeSiQ)<; tov 
Oopv^ov, 8e noyu.7r?;(09 ev p.e(Toi<; dvacrTp€(f)6- 
p,€vo<; Kal SaKpvcov iKeTeue, reXo? 8e plyjra^ kavTov 

inl (TTO/Xa TTyOO T^9 TTuXlJii TOV ^dpaKo^ i/jUTToScbV 

6KeiTo KXaicov Kai iraTelv KeXevwv tov<; €^i6vTa<i, 
oi(TT6 eKaarov dva^apelv utt' alSov<i Kal rravTas 
ovTw 7r\7]v oKTaKOdLcov peTa^aXeadai Kal BtaX- 
XayfjvaL 7rpo<i tov (TTpartjyov. 

IV. "AyLta Se tS) TeXevTijcrat tov ^Tpd^cova, 
Slktjv KXoTri]<; ecr^ev inrep avTOv hrjpoaUov XPV' 
fidTcov 6 H piTr 7] io'i. Kal Ta p.€v rrXelaTa (f)(opd- 
aa<i eva tmv direXeuOepoiv Tiojj.Tn'fio^ vevoa(f)ia- 
fiivov 'AXe^avSpov, drreheL^e Tot'i dp^ovcrcv, ai^ro? 
Se Xiva diipariKa Kal /Bi^Xia tcov ev "Acr/cX«w 
Xr](f)6evrcov e^^^v KciriiyopetTo. TavTa 8e eXa^e 
fiev Trapd tov TTarpo'i eXovro^ to "ActkXov, dird)- 



122 



POMPEY, HI. i-iv. I 

Cinna,^ he had a certain Lucius Terentius as tentmate 
and companion. This man was bribed by Cinna, and 
was himself to kill Pompey, while others were to set 
fire to the tent of the commander. But Pompey got 
information of tlie plot while he was at sujiper." He 
was not at all disturbed, but after drinking more 
freely even than usual and treating Terentius with 
kindness, as soon as he retired to rest stole out of 
the tent unperceived, set a guard about his father, 
and quietly awaited the event. Terentius, when he 
thought the proper time was come, arose, and ap- 
proaching the couch of Pompey with drawn sword, 
stabbed the bed-clothing many times, supposing him 
to be lying there. After this there was a great 
commotion, owing to the hatred felt towards the 
general, and a rush to revolt on the part of the 
soldiers, who tore down their tents and seized their 
arms. The general did not venture forth for fear of 
the tumult, but Pomjiey went up and down among 
the soldiers beseeching them with tears, and finally 
threw himself on his face in front of the gate of the 
camp and lay there in the way, weeping and bidding 
those who were going out to trample on him. As a 
consequence, everyone drew back out of shame, and 
all except eight hundred changed their minds and 
were reconciled to their general. 

IV. As soon as Strabo was dead, Pompey, as his 
heir, was jiut on trial for theft of public property. And 
although Pompey discovered that most of the thefts 
were committed by Alexander, one of his father's 
freedmen, and proved it to the magistrates, still he 
himself was accused of having in his possession 
hunting nets and books from the booty of Asculum. 
Now, he did receive these things from his Either 

1 In 87 B.C. 

123 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Xeae Se to)V K.ivva 8opv<p6pa)v, ore KarrjXdev, 
oyaafxevwv €t9 rr)V oiKiav auTov Koi ZiapTraadv- 

2 T&)y. e<ylvovro he rr]<; 8lkt]<; avTU) TrpoayMve^; ouk 
oXiyoL Trpo? rov Karyjyopov. iv ol<; o^u? afia Kal 
Trap" rjXiKiav evaTaOiji; (f)aii'6/ji.evo^ So^av icr-^e 
fieyaXyji' koI y^dpiv, MO-re ' t\v7L(jriov arparrj- 
yovvra koI ^pa^evovra rr]V BUrjv eKelvrjv epa- 
adrjiai rov Tioixirrjiov Kal yuvatKa 8tS6vai rr)v 
eavTOV dvyarepa Kal irepi tovtov toi<; (f}t\oi<i 

3 SiaXiyeaOai. Se^afxevov Se Ho/xTryyiov Kal yei>o- 
fxevwv iv avTOi<i cnroppi'iTwv o/jLo\oyi(ov, ojiw^ ovk 
eXaOe rov<; 7roWov<; ro "wpdyixa Sid riji' rov 
'AvTiaTLOu (nTOvh')']v. reXo? Ze rrjv <yvct)/j,'>-jv dva- 
yopevcravro'^ avTOv tmv SiKaaTcov aTroXvovaav, 
ooairep ck irapayyeXfiaro'i o 8y)/xo<; 67r€(f)(t)V)]ae 
TovTO 8r) TO Tol<; yap-ovaiv eirL^wvovfievov i^ 
eOov<; TraXaiov, TaXaaLW, 

4 To Se eOo(; dpxrjv Xa^eiv (j)aai ToiavTrjv. ore 
Ta9 6vyar€pa<; tmv "S-ajSivwi' eirl 6eav dyoovo^ ei? 
'F(Ofn]v Trapayevofieva'i ol rrpwrevovTe'; dperfj 621 
'V(i)/uLaLo)u I'jpTra^ov eafrot? yvvalKa<i, dSo^ol Tive^ 
TreXdrat Kal /SoT^/ae? dpdfiei'oi Koprjv KaX^jv Kal 
fxeydXt]v eKO/xi^ov. otto)? ovv fMrj tt poarv^oov rt? 
d(f)€XrjTai TOiv Kpeirrovwi', ejBowv 0€OVTe<; dfjia 
TaXaaio) {rwv Be y^apievToyv Kal yvcopi/iwv t/9 ?}y 

6 TaXficrto?), ware Tot? dK0vaavra<i rovvo/xa 
KpoTeiv Kal ^odv alov avv>-j8o/u.€vov<; Kal crvveiT- 

5 aivovvTu^. CK TOVTOV (f)aal (Kal yap evTV)(^i]<; 6 
ydfxo^ direct] tw VaXaalw) ravTrjv ttjv e7ri(f)(o 



124 



POMPEY, IV. 1-5 

when he took Asculuni,^ but he lost them when 
Cinna's guards, on that general's return to Rome, 
broke into his house and ransacked it. He had 
many preliminary bouts in the case with his accuser, 
and since in these he showed an acumen and poise 
beyond his years, he won great reputation and favour, 
insomuch that Antistius, the praetor and judge in the 
case, took a great liking to him and offered liim his 
own daughter in marriage, and conferred with his 
friends about the matter. Pompey accepted the 
offer and a secret agreement was made between 
them, but nevertheless the people got wind of the 
matter, owing to the pains which Antistius took to 
favour Pompey. And finally, when Antistius pro- 
nounced the verdict of the judges in acquittal, the 
people, as if upon a signal given, broke out in 
the ancient and customary marriage acclamation, 
" Talasio." 

The origin of the custom is said to have been this. 
At the time wlien the daughters of the Sabines, who 
had come to Rome to see a spectacle of games, were 
haled away by the most distinguished Romans to be 
their wives, certain hirelings and herdsmen of the 
meaner sort seized a fair and stately maiden and 
were carrying her off In order, therefore, that no 
one of their betters, on meeting them, might rob 
them of their prize, they shouted with one voice as 
they ran, " For Talasius," Talasius being a well-known 
and popular personage. Consequently, those who 
heard the name clapjied their hands and shouted 
it themselves, as if rejoicing with the others and 
approving what they did. From this circumstance, 
they say, — and indeed the marriage proved a happy 
one for Talasius, — this acclamation is used in mirth- 

1 In 89 B.C. 

125 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

vrjatv fj^era 7raL8id<i yeveaOai rol'i 'yafiovaiv. 
o5to? \oyo<i 7ri6av(t)rar6<i iari tmv irepl tov 
TaXaaiov Xeyofievcov. oXijaa S' ovv vaTepov 
?//iepa<9 6 Ilo/i7r7;to? r/ydyero rrjv ^AvTiaTtav. 

V. 'ETret Be Trpo? Kii'vav 6t? to arparoTreSov 
TTopevdel^ €^ alrlm tu'o^ koI Sia^o\P]<i eSeiae koX 
TCLX^ A.a^(i)v eKiroScov errotrjcrev eavrov, ovk ovro'i 
€fM(j)avov<; avTov dpov<; SLrjXdeii iv toj crTparoTreSfp 
Kol \6yo<i (W9 avrjpi')KOL tov veaviaKov o Klvvw;' 
€K 8e rovTOV ol iraKaL ^apwopLevoi Kal p.iaovvTe^ 
wpfjLTjcrav eV avrov. 6 he (pevycov /cal KaTokajx- 
^av6/x€P0^ VTTO Tivo<i Tcbv \o-)(ayMV yvfxvai rw 
^i(f)ei 8i-(OKovTO<; Trpoaeireae Tot<i yovaao Kal ttjv 

2 a(f) paylSa nrpovTeive iroXvTip.ov ovaav. o he kul 
fiuXa v^piariKO)<i elirdiv, " AXA, ovk eyywiv 
epxop'CLL a(f)paytov/jievo<i, dWa dvocnov Kal irapd- 
vopbov rip.copyao/jievo*; Tvpavvov," direKreivev av- 
rov. ovrco he tov Kivva TeXevTJjaaj'To^ ehe^uTo 
fxev TO. irpdypbaTa Kal avvel^e K.dp^o}v e/.i7rXr]K- 
TOTepa eKGivov Tvpavvo^, eTrrjeL he ^vWa^ toi<; 
7r\eLaT0i<; Trudeivo'^, viro tcov irapovTcov KaKOiv 
ovhe hecTTTOTOv /xeTa^o'\i]V p-iKpov ■))yovp^evoi'i dya- 
66v. et9 TovTO Trpoi'jyayov ai avpcpopal Tip' ttoXlv, 
0)9 hovXetav iirieiKeaTepav ^rjTelv dTToyvdyaet ttj^ 
iXevdepia^;. 

VI. Tore ovv 6 Y\op.Tn]lo<i ev tt] TliKtp'iht Tr)9 
iTttXiWi hieTpc/Sev, €X,(ov p.ev avToQc Kal 'xwpia, 

TO he TrXeov Tal'i rroXecnv i]hop.evo<i olKetw^ Kai 
(f)iXiKO)<; TrarpoOev e'xpvcrai'i 7rpo<; avTov. opoiv he 
T0v<i i7ri(f)av€aTdT0V<i Kal ^eXTiaTOv^ tu)i> ttoXl- 
T(ov a7roXet7ro2'Tfl9 Ta olKela Kal ■navTa')(o9ev ei9 
TO SuX,Xa aTpaTorrehov (oatrep el<i Xifieva KaTa- 



126 



POMPEY, IV. 5-vi. I 

ful greeting of the ncAvly wedded. This is the most 
credible of the stories told about Talasius.^ But 
be it true or not, a few days afterwards Pompey 
married Antistia. 

V. Then he betook himself to Cinna's camp, but 
because of some calumnious accusation grew fearful 
and quickly withdrew unnoticed. On his disap- 
pearance, there went a rumour through the camp 
which said that Cinna had slain the young man, and 
in consequence of this those who had long hated Cinna 
and felt oppressed by him made an onslaught upon 
him. Cinna, as he fled, having been seized by one of 
the centurions who pursued him with drawn sword, 
clasped him by the knees and held out his seal-ring, 
which was of great price. But the centurion, with 
great insolence, said : " Indeed, I am not come to seal 
a surety, but to punish a lawless and wicked tyrant," 
and slew him. When Cinna had come to such an 
end,2 Carbo, a tyrant more capricious than he, re- 
ceived and exercised the chief authority. But Sulla 
was approaching, to the great delight of most men, 
who were led by their present evils to think even 
a change of masters no slight good. To such a 
pass had her calamities brought the city that, in 
despair of freedom, she sought a more tolerable 
servitude. 

VI. At this time, then, Pompey was tarrying in 
the Italian province of Picenum, partly because he 
had estates there, but more because he had a liking 
for its cities, which were dutifully and kindly dis- 
posed towards him as his father's son. And when 
he saw the best and most prominent citizens for- 
saking their homes and hastening from all quarters 
to the camp of Sulla as to a haven of refuge, he 

^ Cf. the Romuhis, chapter xv, ^ In 84 B.C. 

127 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Oeoina^, avro'^ ovk 7)^i(oaev avroSpa? ovSe acrv/j.- 
/3oA.09 ovSe ^^p-pl^wv /3or]0€ia<i, dXXa U7rdp^a<; tivoi; 
)(^dptTO<i evB6^(i)<i Koi fxeTCi 8vvd/xe(o<i eXdelu irpo^ 

2 avTOv. 60 ev eKLvec tov'; Y[iKr]vov<; drroiretpco- 
pevo<i. 01 Be v7n]Kovov avrut irpo6vp,w^ Ka\ Toh 
rrapa K.dp^(i)vo<f ^]/covaiu ov 7rpoael)^oi'. Ow]8lov 
8e Tii'o<i el-wovTo^ on 8r]p,aycoy6<i avTol'i eV Trai- 
Sajcoyelov TrapaTreTTTf^hriKev o YlopLir-qlo'^, outco? 
}]<yavdKT7](7av coare ev6vs dueXelv 7Tpo(r7r6aovTe<; 
TOV Ou7]Biov, 

3 'E/c rovTov no/i7r>;to<f eTij /xev rpia Kal eUoai 
jejovQ)^, vtt' ov8ev6<i Be dvd poiTTwv diroBeheiy- 
/juevot; ar parity 6^, avTo^i eauTM Soix; to apy^etv, ev 
Au^t/zft), TToXei p-eydXr), ^f]/xa Bel'? ev dyopa, kui 
Tov(; ■7Tp(i)T€vovTa<; avTcov dSeXcpov^ 8uo Ovevri- 
8tof? unep Kap^cova dvTi7rpdTT0VTa<i Biardy- 
fxari /neraarrjvai t^9 TroXew? KeXevaai;, arrparno- 
ra<; KareXeye, koi \o'^ayov<i koL ra^Ldp')(^ov<; Kara 
Koaixov aTToSei^a? e/cdaToa ra? kvkXw iroXei^ 

4 iirrjeL to avro ttoimv. i^avicTTafievcov 8e Kal 
uTTO^copovvTcov oaoL ra K.dp^covo'i e(ppovovv, rwv 
8e aXXcov dap.evco<i e7n8t8ovT(ov avTOv<i, ovrco 
Karaveifia<; ev oXtyw ')(p6v(p rpia rdyp^ara reXeia, 
KOL rpocfirjv TTopuaa^ Kal aKevaycoyd Kal dp.d^a<i 
Kal Tr]v aXX7]v iraaav TrapaaKCvtjv, rjye Trpo? SuX- 
Xav, OVK eTTeiyofxevo'i ov8e to Xadelv dyarrcbv, 
dXXd 8LaTpil3o)v Ka6 68ov ev tm KaKO}<; iroielv 
Tov<; iroXepLiovi;, Kal rrdv oaov eirrjeL rr}? 'IraXta? 
7reip(i)/jLevo<; d^taTavai tov K-dp/dcova. 

VII. 'AvecTTrjaav ovv eV avTov Tpel'i ci/na 
aTpaTTjyol TroXeficoi, K.apiva'; Kal KXmXio'i koX 622 
B/oo{}to9, ovk evavTLOL TtavTa ovde op-odev, dXXa 

128 



POMPEY, VI. i-vii. I 

himself would not deign to go to him as a fugitive, 
nor empty-handed, nor with requests for help, but 
only after conferring some favour first, in a way that 
would gain him honour, and with an armed force. 
Wherefore he tried to rouse up the people of Picenum 
and made test of their allegiance. They readily 
listened to him and paid no heed to the emissaries 
of Carbo. Indeed, when a certain Vedius remarked 
that Pompey had run away from pedagogues to be a 
demagogue among them, they were so incensed that 
they fell upon Vedius at once and killed him. 

After this, Pompey, who was only twenty-three 
years old, and who had not been appointed general 
by anybody whomsoever, conferred the command 
upon himself, and setting up a tribunal in the 
market-place of Auximum, a large city, issued an 
edict oi'dering the chief men there, two brothers 
named Ventidius, who were acting against him in 
Carbo's interest, to leave the city. Then he pro- 
ceeded to levy soldiers, and after appointing cen- 
turions and commanders for them all in due form, 
made a circuit of the other cities, doing the same 
thing. All the partisans of Carbo withdrew and 
gave place to him, and the rest gladly offered their 
services to him, so that in a short time he had 
mustered three complete legions, and provided them 
with food, baggage-waggons, carriages, and other 
needful equipment. Then he led his forces towards 
Sulla, not in haste, nor even with a desire to escape 
observation, but tarrying on the march as he harried 
the enemy, and endeavouring to detach from Carbo's 
interest all that part of Italy through which he passed. 

VII. There came up against him, accordingly, 
three hostile generals at once, Carinas, Cloelius, and 
Brutus,! not all in front of him, nor from any one 

1 All belonging to the Marian party. 

o o I. u 120 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

KVK\(p rpial (TTpaTOTreSoi'i Tvepi'y^copnvvTe'i 609 
dvapTTaao/jLevoi. o Se ovk eheiaev, aXXa irdaav 
et<f ravTo Ttju Suva/xiv avvajaycov wppbrjaev €(f> 
ev TO Tou GpovTOv arpaTev/jia, TOv<i <V7ret9, ev oZ? 

2 ^v 01)709, TrpoTa^a^;. eVet Be koI uapa tmv 
TToXe/jilcoi' dvTe^iinrevcrav 01 KeXrot, rov irpoirov 
aiiTMV ^ Kol pwpaXeooTaTov (f)6dvei iraia'a^ e« 
)(eip6<i SopuTi Kol KaTa/3a\(t)v. 01 Se ctWoi 
Tpairo/xevoL Kal ro Tret^ov avverdpa^av, Mare 
(^vyrjv 'yevioOat irdvTcov. eK he rovrov araaid- 
aavre<; oi a-Tparyjyol tt/oo? dW'>]\ov<; dv€)(Q)p')]crav, 
ci)9 eKUCTTo^ erv^e, HofiTrrjio) 8e Trpoaex^oapovv al 
7r6\ec<i, ft)9 Sid cf)o^ov eaKehaapbevcov roiv iroXe- 

3 jjLioJv. avdi<; Se 2«»;7ria)i'09 i7Ti6vTO<; avTW tov 
virdrov, Trplv ev ifxjBoXal'i vaawv yeveaOai rd^; 
(pdXayya';, 01 XK7-i7rL(ovo<i danaadfievoi 701)9 Ho/jL- 
TTtyiov fxere^dXovTO, ^KrjTTLcov Se e^vye. 7e\o9 Se 
K.dpl3o)vo<i avTov Tvepl rov "Apaiv TTora/xov Itt- 
irecov crvyvd'; tXa9 e(pevro<i, eiipoicrru)'^ v7roard<i 
Kal Tpe\jrd/jievo<; 6i9 'x^aK.e'rrd Kal dcfuTnra %(W/9ta 
7rdvra<i ip/SdWei SicoKcov ol he rrjv awn^piav 
dveXmcrrov opcovre^ eve')(eipi(xav avrov^ fierd rcov 
ottXcov Kal rcov iTnTcov. 

VIII. OuTTO) he ravra 'ZvW.a<; eTreirvcrro, 
7rpo<i he 7a9 rrpcora^ dyye\ia<i kuI cf)7]fia<i vTvep 
avrov hehoLKu><i ev rocrovroL'^ Kal rrjXiKovroi'i 
dvacrrpe(f>ofxevov arpaniyol'i iroXeixioL'i, ihicoKe 
^O7]0ya(ov. yvov^ he o Hop^Trr'jio'i eyyv<i ovra 
TTpoaera^e roi<i yye/xoaiv e^OTrXi^eiv Kal hiaKocr- 

1 rbc irpWTOV ai/roov with CMS and Coraes : rhv Tr^yiirov 

130 



POMPEY, vn. i-viii. T 

direction, but encompassing him round with three 
armies, in order to annihilate him. Ponij^ey, how- 
ever, was not alarmed, but collected all his forces 
into one body and hastened to attack one of the 
hostile armies, that of Brutus, putting his cavalry, 
among whom he himself rode, in the van. And 
when from the enemy's side also the Celtic horse- 
men rode out against him, he promptly closed with 
the foremost and sturdiest of them, smote him with 
his spear, and brought him down. Then the rest 
turned and fled and threw their infantry also into 
confusion, so that there was a general rout. After 
this the opposing generals fell out with one another 
and retired, as each best could, and the cities came 
over to Pompey's side, arguing that fear had scattered 
his enemies. Next, Scipio the consul came up against 
him, but before the lines of battle were within reach 
of each other's javelins, Scipio's soldiers saluted 
Pompey's and came over to their side, and Scipio 
took to flight.'^ Finally, when Carbo himself sent 
many troops of cavalry against him by the river 
Arsis, he met their onset vigorously, routed them, 
and in his pursuit forced them all upon difficult 
ground impracticable for horse ; there, seeing no 
hope of escape, they surrendered themselves to him, 
with their armour and horses. 

VIII. Sulla had not yet learned of these results, 
but at the first tidings and reports about Pompey had 
feared for his safety, thus engaged with so many and 
such able generals of the enemy, and was hastening 
to his assistance. But when Pompey learned that 
he was near, he ordered his officers to have the forces 

^ Plutarch seems to have transferred this exploit from 
SiiUa to Pompey. See the Sulla, xxviii. 1-3, and cf. Appian, 
Bell. Civ. i. 85. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

fielv TTjv hvvafxiv, o)? KaWicnri tw avTOKpcnopi 
KoX Xa/xTrporaTy] (^aveby fieydXaf <yap ^jXiri^e 

2 iTcip' auTov Tf/ia?, eVf^^e 8e /Jiec^ovcov. o)? <yap 
el86i> avTov 6 SvWa^ Trpoaiovra koI t?)^ arpa- 
riav irapecnwaav evavhpia re Oavixaarrjv Kal Sia 
TQ? KaTopOooa€L<i e7r)]pp,ev7]v Kal iXapdv, uTTOTry]- 
S/jawi rov Xttttov koI tt poaayopevOei'i, &)? €lk6<;, 
avTOKpaTcop dvrnrpoarj'yopevaeu avTOKpdropa rov 
WopLTTi'fiov, ovSevo'i av TrpoaSoKijcravTO'i dvBpl vew 
KOI p.7)8e7ro) ^ov\rj<s p^ere^ovrt K0Lvd>aaa6aL rov- 
vo/xa TovTo ^vXXav, irepl ov "^Kyiriiocn Kal 

3 ]\Ia/9tOiS' eTToXifiei. Kal raXXa 8e rjv o/xoXo- 
yovvra ral^ Trpoorai'i (piXocfipocruvai,^, vire^avt- 
arap^evov re irpoaiovTi tw Ylop-Trrjiw Kal t/}? 
Ke(^aXrj<i aTrdyovTO^ to 'ip,dTLOv, a irpb^ dXXov ov 
f)aBi(i)<i ecopdro ttoimv, Kaitrep outcov ttoXXmv kuI 
dyaOoiv irepl avrov. 

4 Ov /xrjv eKov^iaOrj <ye Tovroi<i 6 ITo/xTrt/io?, 
dXX' €vdv<i 6t? T7]v KeXriK7]v vrr' avrov irep-Tro- 
jxevo^, rjv e')(^u>v 6 MeVeWo? eSoKei, p,7]8ev d^iov 
irpdrreiv ti}9 7rapaaKev7]<i, ov KaXd)<; e(f>r] ex,eii> 
Trpea^uTcpov Kal 7rpov)(0}>ra So^r) (TTpaTijjia<i 
d^aipelaOai, l3ov\op.ei'(i) p^evroi rep MereWw Kal 
KeXevovTL av piir oXe pelv Kal ^O7]0etv 6ToipLO<i elvai. 

5 he^apievov he rov MereXXov Kal jpdyjravroi; rjKeiv, 
epLJBaXthv eh rrjv K^eXriKr^v avra re Kad' eavrov 
epya davp.acrrd hieirpdrrero, Kal rov ^lereXXov 
ro pud-x^ipiov Kal OapcraXeov i')Bi] a-/3evvvp,evov inro 
'y7]po)<; avOt<; e^eppiTTi^e Kal avve^e0epp,aivev, 
cocnrep 6 pecov Kal TreTrvp(op.ei'o<i ■)(^aXK0'i rw ireTrr}- 
yon Kal yjrv^^pu) rrepLxydel's Xeyerai rov 7rvpo<i 

6 p,dXXoi^ dvvypaivGLV Kal avvavar7'jKeiv. dXXd 



132 



POMPEY, viii. 1-6 

fully armed and in complete array, that they might 
present a very fine and brilliant appearance to the 
imperator ; for he expected great honours from him, 
and he received even greater. For when Sulla saw 
him advancing with an admirable army of young and 
vigorous soldiers elated and in high spirits because 
of their successes, he alighted from off his horse, and 
after being saluted, as was his due, with the title of 
Imperator, he saluted Pompey in return as Imperator. 
And yet no one could have expected that a young 
man, and one who was not yet a senator, would 
receive from Sulla this title, to win which Sulla was at 
war with such men as Scipio and Marius. And the 
rest of his behaviour to Pompey was consonant with 
his first tokens of friendliness ; he would rise to his 
feet when Pompey approached, and uncover his head 
before him, things which he was rarely seen to do 
for any one else, although there were many about 
him who were of high rank. 

Pompey, however, was not made vain by these 
things, but when Sulla would have sent him forth- 
with into Gaul, where, as it was thought, Metellus 
was doing nothing worthy of the armament at his 
disposal, he said it was not right for him to take the 
command away from a man of great reputation who 
was his senior, but that if Metellus wished and bade 
him do so, he was ready to assist him in cariying on 
the war. And when Metellus accepted the proposal 
and wrote him to come, he hurried into Gaul, and 
not only performed wonderful exploits himself, but 
also fanned into fresh heat and flame the bold and 
warlike spirit of Metellus which old age was now 
quenching, just as molten and glowing bronze, when 
poured round that which is cold and rigid, is said to 
soften it more than fire does, and to melt it also 

^33 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

'yap, Mcnrep dOXrjrov TrpwTevaavro'i iv avhpdcTL 
Koi 70)79 7Tavra)(ov KaOeXovro^ evSo^ax; dy6i)va<; 
ei? ovBeva Xoyov ra^ 7raiSiKd<i TiOevTai vlkw; ovS" 
dvaypd(f)OV(Tiv, ovroi^ af eirpa^e rore irpd^ea o 
Tlo/XTTJ/to?, afxa? kuO eavTd<i v7rep^V€i<i ov(Ta<;, 
TrXrjOeL Be kol /xeyeOei twv varepwv dycovcov kol 
TToXe/uLcov KaraKe-^^^cocr/xeva^, eBeSieiv Kivetv, /xrj 
irepX rd irpwra TToWr}<; hiaTpi^ri<; jevofxevrj'i rwv 
fxeyiarcov /cal pdXiaTU BrjXovvTcov to rjdo^ epycov 
Kal iradrjixdTwv rov dv8po<; d7ro\€i(f)6(o/j,ev. 

IX. 'ETTfi Toivvv eKpdrrjae rrj<i 'IraXta? 6 623 
SuA-Xa? Kal BiKTUTCop dv7]yopev0r), tov<; fiev dX- 
Xov<i riye/xovwi Kai arpaTrjyov'i i)ixei^eTO irXov- 
(TLOV^ TTOLOiv Kttl TTpodyoov eVi dp-^d'i Kul ')(^apt^6- 
p.€vo<; d(})06vco<; Kal 7rpoOvp.co^ wv €KaaTO<i eSeiro, 
Ylo/jLTTTjioi' Be Oavfxdl^wv Si dperrjv Kal fxeya 
vofxi^Qiv o(f)eXo<i elvat rot? eavrov irpdypaaLv, 
eairovBacrev a/io)? ye irwi oIk€lot7]ti irpoaOeadai. 

2 avp^ovXo/jievi]<i Be t?}? yvvaLKO<i avrov tt}? Me- 
TeXXr]<;, TreiOovai rou Ilo/u,7n']iov diraXXayevra 
Ti}? ^ AvTLcrrLa<i Xa^elv yvvalKa rrju XvXXa irpo- 
yovov Al/jiiXiav, €k ^lereXkrjf; Kal ZKavpov ye- 
yei'Tj/jLevrjv, dvBpl Be avvoiKOvaav ijBij Kal Kvovaav 
Tore. 

'Hi' ovv TvpavviKa rd rov ydfiov Kal T0t9 
ZivXXa Kaipol<i pdXXov i) toZ? YIo/itdjiov rpoTToi'i 
TrpeTTOvra, t?}? pev AlpiXlaii dyop,evi]<i eyKvp,ovo<; 

3 Trap erepov 7rpo<i avruv, e^eXavvop,evri<; Be Trj<{ 



134 



POMPEY, viii. 6-ix. 3 

down. However, just as athletes who have won the 
primacy among men and borne away glorious prizes 
everywhere, make no account of their boyish victories 
and even leave them unrecorded, so it is with the 
deeds which Pompey performed at this time ; they 
were extraordinary in themselves, but were buried 
away by the multitude and magnitude of his later 
wars and contests, and I am afraid to revive them, 
lest by lingering too long upon his first essays, I 
should leave myself no room for those achievements 
and experiences of the man which were greatest, and 
most illustrative of his character. 

IX. So then, when Sulla had made himself master 
of Italy and had been proclaimed dictator, he sought 
to reward the rest of his officers and generals by 
making them rich and advancing them to office and 
gratifying without reserve or stint their several 
requests ; but since he admired Pompey for his high 
qualities and thought him a gi*eat help in his ad- 
ministration of affairs, he was anxious to attach him 
to himself by some sort of a marriage alliance. His 
wife Metella shared his wishes, and together they 
persuaded Pompey to divorce Antistia and marry 
Aemilia, the step-daughter of Sulla, whom Metella 
had borne to Scaurus, and who was living with a 
husband already and was with child by him at this 
time.i 

This marriage was therefore characteristic of a 
tyranny, and befitted the needs of Sulla rather than 
the nature and habits of Pompey, Aemilia being 
given to him in marriage when she was with child by 
another man, and Antistia being driven away from 

' Cf. the Sulla, xxxiii. 3. This was in 82 B.C. With a 
similar purpose Sulla tried to make Julius Caesar part with 
his wife, but Caesar refused (cf. Plutarch's Caesar, i. 1). 

135 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

AvTfCTTia? ari/xci)^ Koi ot/crpaK?, are 8r} koI tov 
TTarpo^; €vay)(o<; eaTeprj/jbepr}!; Bia tov dvhpa' 
KaTea(f)djr) ydp o ' Avrtcmo'i iv ra> jSovXeuTrjpla) 
ZoK(x)v ra ZvWa (^povelv hia TVoinn'-ilov t) Se 
fii]T7)p avrrj'i iiriSovaa ravra TrpojJKUTO tov ^iov 

€KOV(TiQ}^, M(TT€ /Cul TOVTO TO TTuOo^ T^ 776/91 TOV 

yd/xov CKeivov TpaycpSia Trpocryeveadai Kal vj] 
Aia TO TTjv KlixCkiav ev9v<; hiac^OapiivaL irapa 
TO) Ilo/x7rrjta) TiKTovaav. 

X. 'E« rovTOv XtKeXiav rjyyeWeTo YlepTrevva^ 
avTM KpaTvveaOat. kuI toI<; Trepiovaiv ert tt}? 
ivavTLa<i (TTaaecoq opixT)Tripiov Trapeyeiv TTjvvrjaov, 
alaypovfievov Kal Kap/Swyo? avTodi vavTLKw kol 
AofxeTLov Ai^ur) TrpoaTreTTTcoKOTO^;, dWcov ts 
TToWoiyv iireKeiva fxeydXoov oiOov/Mevcov (pvydScov, 
oaot ra? Trpoypacpd'i e(j)Or](Tav aTroSpdvTe^. eVi 
TOVTOV^ Ilo/ji7rt]'io<i aTTecTTdXr} /Ltera ttoXXt}? hvvd- 

2 fxew^. KOL Yi€prrevva<i fiev evdv<; avTw 'E,iKe\ia<i 
e^ecTTrj, ra? he iroXefi dveXdjjbjBave t€t pv)^u> /xevwi 
val (f)iXavOpci)7ro}<i 7rdaai<i e^prjTo ttXtjv Ma/xepri- 
vcov TMV iv ^€aa/]vr}. TrapaLTOv/xivwv ydp avTOV 
TO ^f]fia KOL Ti]v hiKaiohoaiav &>? vop^w iraXaiw 
'Vcdfiaiwv aTreiprjpeva, " Ov irauaecrOe,'' elirev, 
" TjpLV v7r€^(0(T/jL€voi<; ^i(p'>j vofiou^ dvayLvdxTKov- 

3 re?;" eho^e he koI raZ? K.dp/3covo<; ovk dvOpw- 
TTivco'i evv^piaaL av/x^opai<;. el ydp yv dvay/calov 
avTov, oiGTrep rjv tcrco^, dveXeiv, evOvf eSei 
Xa/3o2'Ta, Kal tov KeXevcravTO^ av r}v to epyov. 

136 



POMPEY, IX. 3-x. 3 

him in dishonour, and in piteous plight too, since she 
had lately been deprived of her father because of her 
husband (for Antistius had been killed in the senate- 
house ^ because he was thought to be a partisan of 
Sulla for Pompey's sake), and her mother, on behold- 
ing these indignities, had taken her own life. This 
calamity was added to the tragedy of that second 
marriage, and it was not the only one, indeed, since 
Aemilia had scarcely entered Pompey's house before 
she succumbed to the pains of childbirth. 

X. After this, word was brought to Sulla that 
Perpenna was making himself master of Sicily and 
furnishing a refuge in that island for the survivors of 
the opposite faction,^ that Carbo was hovering in 
those waters with a fleet, that Domitius had forced 
an entry into Africa, and that many other exiled 
men of note were thronging to those parts, all, in 
fact, who had succeeded in escaping his proscriptions. 
Against these men Pompey was sent with a large 
force. Perpenna at once abandoned Sicily to him, 
and he recovered the cities there. They had been 
harshly used by Perpenna, but Pompey treated them 
all with kindness except the Mamertines in Messana. 
These declined his tribunal and jurisdiction on the 
plea that they were forbidden by an ancient law of 
the Romans, at which Pompey said : " Cease quoting 
laws to us that have swords girt about us I " More- 
over, he was thought to have treated Carbo in his 
misfortunes with an unnatural insolence. For if it 
was necessary, as perhaps it was, to put the man to 
death, this ought to have been done as soon as he 
Avas seized, and the deed would have been his who 

1 Earlier in the same year, 82 B.C., by order of the younger 
Marins, one of the consuls (Appian, Bell. Civ. i. 88). 

2 The Marian party. 

^37 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

8e hk(Tfxiov Trpoayaycov avBpa Pm/jluIov rpls; 
virarevaavra koI irpo tov ^ijfu.aro'i arr-qcras 
Kade^6fMevo<i avTO<i dveKpivev, d^doixevtov icai 
^apwofxevcov tmv irapovroiv eira iKeXevaev 

4 aTraya'ydvTa'i dveXelv. dira^^OevTa fxevToi (paalv 
avTOV, 0)9 elhev eXKO/xevov ■>]B7] to ^l(^o^, helaOai 
TOTTOv avTw real ^(^povov ^paxvv, o)? viro KotXia^ 
ivo^Xov/xevo), 7rapaa)(^6lv. Vdio'i Se "Ottttlo^ o 
}s.aicrapo<i kralpo'^ d7rav6pu)7r(t)<i (p7]al koI KoiVxft) 
OvaX\epia> ■)(^p')'](Ta(T6aL tov Ilo/jiTnJLOv. eTricTTd- 
fievov jdp to? eaTi c^iXoXoyo^ dvrjp kol <f)iXo/j.aOi)<i 
ev 6Xlyoi<i 6 OvaXXepio<;, co? 'tJX^V "^po^ avTov, 
eTTLcnraadfjievov koI avpLirepiTraTrjcravTa koi ttvOo- 
fievov oiv €')(^pr]^€ Koi fjiaOovTa, TrpoaTa^ai toI<; 
v7rr]peTat<; €vOv<; dveXelv dTrayayovra^;. 

5 'AW' OTTTTtft) piiv, oTav wepl twv K.ai(Tapo<i 
TroXep,i03V r) (filXoyv hcdXeyiiTai, ajiohpa hel 
TTiaTeveLV peTO, evXa^ela^- Uop.Tr/fio'i Se tov<; 
fiev ev 86^7] p,dXi(rTa tmv %uXXa iroXep^lcov kol 
(pavepM'i dXi,cTKop,evov<; dvayKaiw'i eKoXa^e, tmv 
8' dXXcov oaovs e^rjv irepieoopa Xav9dvovTa<;, 

6 eviOV<i Se koX avve^eTrep.'ne. ttjv S' 'Ip^epaicov 
rroXiv iyvcoKOTO^ avTOv KoXd^eiv yevo/xevrjv fieTo. 
T&v TToXep^ioiv, '^Oevi'i o 8y]fiayoyyo<i alTi]adp.€vo<; 
\6yov ovK €(f)r] SiKaia Troiijaeiv tov IJo/j,7r)jiov, 
edv TOV aiTLOV dcfiec; diroXecrr) Tov<i p,7]Bev dSi- 
KouvTa<i. ipop^evov Be eKctvov Ttva Xeyei tov 624i 
a'tTiov, eavTov 6 XOevi^ €(f)7], Tov<i p,ev (piXou<; 
TrelcravTa tmv iroXiTcav, tov^ 5' e)(dpov<i (Siaad- 
138 



POMPEY, X. 3-6 

ordered it. But as it was, Pompey caused a Roman 
who had thrice been consul to be brought in fetters 
and set before the tribunal where he himself was 
sitting, and examined him closely there, to the dis- 
tress and vexation of the audience. Then he ordered 
him to be led away and put to death. They say, 
moreover, that after Carbo had been led away to 
execution, when he saw the sword already drawn, 
he begged that a short respite and a convenient 
place might be afforded him, since his bowels dis- 
tressed him. Furthermore, Caius Oppius, the friend 
of Caesar, says that Pompey treated Quintus Valerius 
also with unnatural cruelty. For, understanding 
that V^alerius was a man of rare scholarship and 
learning, when he was brought to him, Oppius says, 
Pompey took him aside, walked up and down with 
him, asked and learned what he wished from him, 
and then ordered his attendants to lead him away 
and put him to death at once. 

But when Oppius discourses about the enemies or 
friends of Caesar, one must be very cautious about 
believing him. Pompey was compelled to punish 
those enemies of Sulla who were most eminent, and 
whose capture was notorious ; but as to the rest, he 
suffered as many as possible to escape detection, and 
even helped to send some out of the country. 
Again, when he had made up his mind to chastise 
the city of Himera because it had sided with the 
enemy, Sthenis, the popular leader there, requested 
audience of him, and told him that he would commit 
an injustice if he should let the real culprit go and 
destroy those who had done no wrong. And when 
Pompey asked him whom he meant by the real 
culprit, Sthenis said he meant himself, since he had 
persuaded his friends among the citizens, and forced 

139 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

7 fxevov. ayaadel'i ovv rrjv irapprjaiav Kai to 
(ppovTj/xa rov dvSpo'i o Ylo/x7T)]io'i cK^rjKe tt}? 
alna^ irpoirov eKelvov, etra to 1/9 aWov<; airavra^;. 
CLKOvayv he tov<; oTpaTcct)Ta<i ev ral<i oSotTroplai^ 
aTUKTelv, (T(j)pa'yL8a rai<i fia')(aLpaL<; avTcov eVe- 
QaXev, fjv 6 /i?) (pu\d^a<; eKoXd^eTO. 

XL Tavra Trpdrrcov ev %iKe\La Koi TToXiTeuo- 
uevo<i eSe^aro Soy pa auyKXyJTOu kol 'ypdp,p,aTa 
^vXXa KeXeuovra et? Ai^u7]v nXeiv koI iroXep,eZi> 
^op^6Ti(p Kara Kparof;, rjOpoiKon iroXXaTrXaaiav 
hvva/jLCV r]<; e^y^cov M.dpio<i ov irdXai hieirepaaev €k 
\i^vrj<; ei? 'IraXiav Kol avve'^ei ra 'Vcofialwv 
irpdyp.ara, Tvpavvo<; ck (f)vyd8o'^ KaTuard^. 

2 6^e&)9 ovv airavTa irapaaKevaadp^evo^i 6 YVop.- 
TDjio^ ^tK€Xia<; p,€V a.p)^ovTa ^'lep,p,iov KareXtTre 
Tov dvhpa ri]^ aSeX^r}?, avTO<; he dv)]yero vaval 
p.ev p.aKpat'i eKarov elKoai, (popTr]yoc<; he alrov 
Kal /3eX77 Kal ')(^py]p,aTa koX p.y^')(^avd<; Kop,c^ovcrai<; 
oKTaKoaiaL'i. KaTa(T)(^ovTi he avTw Tal<; p,ev et? 
'Itvktjv vavai, rat? he eh Kapxv^^^^' '^^^ TroXe- 
p.icov drroaTdvre^; eTnaKL(7)(iXL0i 7rpoae')(^(i)pr]aav, 
avTo<i he ijyev e^ evTeXi) rdyp^ara. 

3 ^v/j,j3rjvai he avTw irpdyp-a yeXolov Icnopovcn. 
(TTpaTtciyTai yap rive<;, &>? eoiKe, Orjaavpo) irepi- 
Treaovre^ eXa^ov (xuxva y^prjp^ara, tov he irpdy- 
/LittTo? yevopievov (pavepou ho^a rot? aXXoa 
TrapeaTT] irdai ')(^pri piaTOdv p,earov elvai tov tottov 
ev rat? ttotc ru^^at? tmv ^apx^hovitov diroTe- 

4 Oeip^evcov, ovhev ovv Uop,7r7]io<; el'x^e ^pi^adai 
Tot? aTpaTicoTat-i errl TroXAa? iipepa<^ 0'>]aavpov<; 
t^rjTOVcriv, dXXd Trepi'pet, yeX&v Kal Oewpievo^ 6p.ov 
p,vpuiha<; ToaavTa^ opvaaoxxja^ Kal crTpe(povcTa<i 



140 



POMPEY, X. 7-xi. 4 

his enemies, into their course. Pompey, then, ad- 
miring the man's frank speech and noble spirit, 
pardoned him first, and then all the rest. And 
again, on hearing that his soldiers were disorderly in 
their journeys, he put a seal upon their swords, and 
whosoever broke the seal was punished. 

XI. While he was thus engaged in settling the 
affairs of Sicily, he received a decree of the senate 
and a letter from Sulla ordei'ing him to sail to Africa 
and wage war with all liis might against Domitius. 
For Domitius had assembled there a much larger 
force than that with which Marius, no long time 
ago,^ had crossed from Africa into Italy and con- 
founded the Roman state, making himself tyrant 
instead of exile. Accordingly, after making all his 
preparations with great speed, Pompey left Memmius, 
his sister's husband, as governor of Sicily, while he 
himself put out to sea with a hundred and twenty 
galleys, and eight hundred transports conveying 
provisions, ammunition, money, and engines of war. 
No sooner had he landed with part of his ships at 
Utica,^ and with part at Carthage, than seven thou- 
sand of the enemy deserted and came over to him ; 
and his own army contained six complete legions. 

Here, we are told, a ludicrous thing happened to 
him. Some soldiei's, it would seem, stumbled upon 
a treasure and got considerable amounts of money. 
When the matter became public, the rest of the army 
all fancied that the place was full of money which 
the Carthaginians had liidden away in some time of 
calamity. Accordingly, Pompey could do nothing with 
his soldiers for many da^^s because they were hunting 
treasures, but he went about laughing at the spectacle 
of so many myriads of men digging and stirring up 
1 In 87 B.C. 2 In g^ r,., 

I4T 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TO ireoiov, e&)? aTreiTroz'Te? eKeXevov avTov<i dyeiv 
oirrj ^ovXeraL rov YIo/j.tdj'loi', ox? Slktjv iKaui]!^ 
T% d/BeXrepla^ SeScoKOTai;. 

XII. ' AvTtTerayfMevdv Se rod Ao/ji€TLOv ko) 
'X^apdhpav riva Trpo/Be/SXtj/nevov ■)(a\e'ni]v rrepacrat 
Kat rpa^^eiav, 6/x^po'i d/xa TTvev/narL 7ro\u<i eu>9ev 
dp^d/j.evo'i KaTel')(ev, wcrre d-noyvovra t?}? i)ixepa^ 
eKeivrji; pa^^^eaaaOai rov Ao/uLeTiop dva^vyrjv 
TrapayyelXai. Uo/j.7r}]'io<i 8e rovrov avrov ttoi- 
ovfievo'i rov Katpov o^eo)? iirrieL Kal hte^atve rrjv 

2 ')(^apdhpav. oi he dra/CTft)? Koi Oopv^ovpievoi Kal 
ou vrafxe? ov8e o/uia\M<; ucfylaravTo, Kal to Trvev/iia 
Trepirjet tijv ^dXrjv auTOt? Trpocr^dXXov ivavrlav. 
ov fiijv dXXd Kal rov^ 'Vwfiaiov^; 6 ^ei/xcov erdpa- 
^ev ov Ka6opoiVTa<i aXX?;\of9 nKpij3(j)'s, avr6<i 
T€ IIo/u,Tn]io<i eKivBvvevaev dyvo-qOel^ diroOavelv, 
epcoTcovTi arpaTCcort] to (Tvi'Or]p.a j^pdhiov diro- 

Kpivd/J,€l>0<i. 

3 ^iladfievoL he iroXXw (f)6i'w toi)? jroXepLiovi 
(XeyovTui yap diro hi<Tp,vpioiv Tpi(T')(^iXioL 8ia- 
(pvyeiv) avroKpdropa rov Tlo/M7n']iov r^arrdaavro. 
<f)'^(TavTo<; he eKelvov p,i] he~)(ea6ai Trjv ri/xrjv etw? 
opdov earrjKe to (TTparoirehov rwv jroXefxlcov, el 
he avrov d^iovai ravr7]<; ri]<; TrpoarjyopLa^, eKelvo 
')(^p?]vai Trporepov Kara^aXelv, i!)pp,i]aav evBv<; eirl 
rov "^dpaKa- Kal Wop.iTi'jio'^ civev Kpdvov<; i]ya>VL- 

4 ^eTO hehoiKco'i ro irporepov irdOof;. dXtaKerai hrj 
TO arparoTrehov Kal d7roOv)jaK€i Ao/j,erio<i. rcov 
he TToXecov ai p,ev evdv<; v7n']Kovov, al he Kara 
Kpdro<i eXy']cf)6r]aav. elXe he Kal rcov /SaaiXewv 

142 



POMPEY, XI. 4-xii. 4 

the ground. At last they grew weary of the search 
and bade Pompey lead them where he pleased, 
assuring him that they had been sufficiently punished 
for their folly. 

\ll. Domitius now drew up his army against 
Pompey, with a ravine in front of him which was 
rough and difficult to cross ; but a violent storm of 
wind and rain began in the morning and continued 
to rage, so that he gave up the idea of fighting that 
day and ordered a retreat. But Pompey, taking 
advantage of this opportunity, advanced swiftly to 
the attack, and crossed the ravine. The enemy met 
his attack in a disorderly and tumultuous fashion, 
not all of them indeed, nor with any uniformity ; 
besides, the wind veered round and drove the rain 
into their faces. However, the Romans also were 
troubled by the storm, since they could not see one 
another clearly, and Pompey himself narrowly escaped 
death by not being recognized, when a soldier de- 
manded the countersign from him and he gave it 
rather slowly. 

Nevertheless, they routed the enemy with great 
slaughter (it is said that out of twenty thousand 
only three thousand escaped), and hailed Pompey as 
Imperator. And when he said he would not accept 
the honour as long as the camp of the enemy was 
intact, but that if they thought him worthy of the 
appellation, they must first destroy that, his soldiers 
immediately made an assault upon the ramparts ; and 
Pompey fought without his helmet, for fear of a peril 
like the one he had just escaj)ed. The camp was 
soon taken, and Domitius was slain. Then some of 
the cities submitted at once to Pompey, and others 
were taken by storm. King larbas also, the con- 



143 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

'Idp^av TOP (TVfx^a'xrjaavTa Ao/j,€TLfp, ri]v Se 
^aaikeiav ^la/xylra irapehutKe. y^pwixevo'; he rfj 
TvXD Kol rfi pv/J^r) rod orparevixaTO'^ et? riiv 
^opLahiK-qv evejSciXe' kuI ttoWmv oSov ijfiepcov 

5 iXdaa<; Koi ttuvtcov KpaT)jaa<; ot? eWru^e, koI 
TO 7r/509 'Pco/iatOL'? 8eo? r'jSr] tmv jSapjSdpwv 
e^eppvy]KO<i avdc<; la-)^vpov koI c})o/3ep6v iyKura- 
aT7]cra<i, ovSe to, di]pLa helv €(f>r] to, ttjv Ai/3vy]v 
KUTOiKovvTa tt}? rcov 'P(o/j,ai(ov aireLpa po)/ji7}<i koI 
To\/x.^;9 d-wdXe'fTreLi'. oOev iv djjpai^ Xeovrcov koI 625 
e\e<l)dvTwv i]p,€pa<; hierpi-^ev ov TroWd^- Tal<; he 
7rd(7ai<;, W9 <paai, recraapdKovra Tov<i 7roXe/itof<? 
avvelXe koI Ai^vrjv exeipdoaaro koI hL^rrjae ra 
t6)v ^aaiXeoiv, eVo? djcov e/ceivo reraprov Kal 
eiKoarov. 

XIII. 'ETraveXOovTL he et? 'Itvktjv uvtm ypd/x- 
fiara Ko/jUt^eTai ZvWa irpoaTaTTovTO'i d(f)iepai 
fxev rrjv dWrjv aTparidv, avrov he fied evo<i 
rd'y/xaTO<; Trepifieveiv avToOt rov hiahe^ofievov 
arpartiyov. eirl tovtoi^ dhi'jXwf; pev auro^ 
ijX^eTO Kal ^apeco<; ecpepev, ep(^avoy<i he o aTpaTO<i 
rjyavdKTeL- Kal hei^devro^ rov IIop.Tr7]i'ov irpo- 
eXOelv, Tov re '^vXXav /ca/cco? eXeyov, kuksIvov 
ovK ecpaaav TrpoijaeaOai %(W/3t9 avTMv, ovhe el'cov 

2 TTLareveiv tm rupdwo). to p,ev ovv irpwrov o 
rTo/xTT^^to? eTTeiparo nrpavveiv koI Trapijyopelp 
avTov<;' CO? S' ovk e-neiOe, Kara/3d'i diro rov 
^t]paTO<i eirl rtjv aKrjvriv dirrjet hehaKpvp.evo<^. 
01 he (TvXXa^ovTe^ avrov avOa eVl toO /3i]paro<; 
KaTecrrrja-av' Kal ttoXv pepo<; rrj'i rjp.epa<i dvT}- 
XdoOt], TO)v p,ev p^eveiv Kal apy^eiv KeXevovrcov, rov 
he ireideaOai heop^evov Kal fii] araaid^eiv, ci-^pi 



144 



POMPEY, xii. 4-xni. 2 

federate of Domitius, was ca])tured, and his king- 
dom given to Hiempsal. Taking advantage of the 
good fortune and momentum of his army, Pompey 
now invaded Numidia. He marched throuirh the 
country for many days, conquered all who came in 
his way, and made potent and terrible again the 
Barbarians' fear of the Romans, which had reached 
H low ebb. Nay, he declared that even the wild 
beasts in African lairs must not be left without 
experience of the courage and strength of the 
Romans, and therefore spent a few days in hunting 
lions and elephants. It took him only forty days all 
told, they say, to bring his enemies to naught, get 
Africa into his power, and adjust the relations of its 
kings, though he was but twenty-four yeai's of age. 
XIII. On his return to Utica, a letter from Sulla 
was brought to him, in which he was commanded to 
send liome the rest of his army, but to remain there 
himself with one legion, awaiting the arrival of the 
general who was to succeed him. Pompey himself 
gave no sign of the deep distress which tliese orders 
caused him, but his soldiers made their indignation 
manifest. When Pompey asked them to go home 
before him, they began to revile Sulla, declared they 
would not forsake their general, and insisted that he 
should not trust the tyrant. At first, then, Pompey 
tried what words could do to appease and mollify 
them ; but when he was unable to persuade them, 
he came down from his tribunal and withdrew to his 
tent in tears. Then his soldiers seized him and set 
him again upon his tribunal, and a great part of the 
day was consumed in this way, they urging him to 
remain and keep his command, and he begging them 
to obey and not to raise a sedition. At last, when 
their clamours and entreaties increased, he swore 

145 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ov TrpocrXnrapovvTcov koX /caTa^ocovrcov M/xocrev 
avaiprjaeiv eavrov el ^id^oivro, koI /jbo\i<i ovTWi 
eiravaavro, 

3 Tfij he ItvWa TrpcoTT) [xev rjXdev ayyeX^a rov 
Ho/jLtt/jlov d(f)eaTdvai, kol iTpo<i tov^ (f)LXov<i elirev 
(jtis upa TreTrpco/jLevov rjv avrw yevopivai yepovTi 
rraihwv dycova^i dywvi^eaOai, 8id to kuI ^dpiov 
avTU> veov ovra Kopuhfj nXelcrra Trpdy/xara irapa- 
a-^^elv KoX eh tov<; ea'^drov'i irepLaTrjaaL KLvhv- 

4 vov<^, 7TuOu/u,€vo<; Se TuXriOf], koI Trdvra^ dv6poo- 
7rof9 aladavopevo'i he^^aOaL kol Trapnirep^TreLV 
Tov Ylo/ji7T7jlov (jDp/jiTjpevov<; fier evvoia<i, eairevhev 
vireptBaXeadai' Kal irpoeXOcov dm'jVT'qaev auTO), 
KOL 8e^icocrd/jbevo<; (o? evyv Trpodvp-oraTa /xeydXr) 
cfioyvfi Mdyvov rjaTrdaaTO, Kal tou? Trapovra'i 

5 ouTO)? eKeXevcre irpoaayopeua-ac. arj/jiaujet 8e rov 
fxeyav 6 Ma^fo?. erepot 8e (f)aaiv ev Ai^vrj 
irpwrov dva(f)cov7]pa rovro rov arpaTOV Travrb'i 
yeveaOai, Kpdro'i 8e Xa^elv Kal huvapav vtto 
XvXXa /3e/3ai(i)dev. avTo<i p-evroi Trdvrcov vara- 
T09 Kal yLtera ttoXvv 'X^povov e/? 'l/3r)ptav avOv- 
Traro? e«7r6/x0^el? eirl Xeprooptov i]p^aro ypd^eiv 
eavrov ev Ttti? eTncTToXal'i Kal Tot9 hiardypaat 
^dyvov TioiXTTTqlov' ovKeTi yap i)v e'ni(j>6ovov 
Tovvojjia avvr]6e<; yevo/mevov. 

6 "Odev elKOTW'i dyaaOeiii Kal 0avp,daeiev av ti<; 
TOW irdXai 'Pcop.aiov'i, ot Tat? Toiavrai<i em- 
KXyaeai Kal Trpoacovvpiai'i ov Ta? TroXep-iKa'^ 
rjixeilSovro Kal aTpaTi(OTiKd<; KaTopOcoaei<; jjLovov, 
dXXd Kal rd<; ttoXltlkcl^ 7rpd^et<; Kal dperd<i 

7 eKoarpLOVv, hvo yovv Ma^tyuof?, oirep eari [xe- 
yiarovi, dvr]y6pevaev o ^r}yLto?" OvaXXepiov pev 
€7rl TO) SiaXXd^ai (naaid^ovaav avTU) tijv avy- 

146 



POMPEY, xiii. 2-7 

with an oath that he would kill himself if they 
used force with him, and even then they would 
hardly stop. 

Sulla's first tidings of the affair were that Pompey 
was in revolt, and lie told his friends that it was 
evidently his fate, now that he was an old man, to 
have his contests with boys. This he said because 
Marius also, who was quite a young man, had given 
him very great trouble and involved him in the most 
extreme perils. But when he learned the truth, 
and {)erceived that everybody was sallying forth to 
welcome Pompey and accompany him home with 
marks of goodwill, he was eager to outdo them. So 
he went out and met him, and after giving him the 
warmest welcome, saluted him in a loud voice as 
"Magnus," or The Grea/, and ordered those who were 
by to give him this surname. Others, however, say 
that this title was first given him in Africa by the 
whole army, but received authority and weight when 
thus confirmed by Sulla. Pompey himself, however, 
was last of all to use it, and it was only after a long 
time, when he was sent as pro-consul to Spain against 
Sertorius, that he began to subscribe himself in his 
letters and ordinances " Pompeius Magnus " ; for the 
name had become familiar and was no longer in- 
vidious. 

And herein we may fittingly respect and admire 
the ancient Romans ; they did not bestow such titles 
and surnames as a reward for successes in war and 
military command alone, but also adorned with them 
the high qualities and achievements of their states- 
men. At any rate, in two such cases the people 
bestowed the title of " Maximus," which signifies 
the Greatest : upon Valerius, for reconciling them with 
the senate when it was at variance with tht m ; i and 
^ After the famous secession of the plebs, in 494 B.C. 

147 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

kXtjtov, ^d^iov he 'VovXKov, oti 7r\ovaLOv<: riva^ 
e^ direXevOepcov yeyovorwi koI KaTaXeXe'yfiivouf; 
et? r)]V crvyKXr]Tov €^e/3a\ev. 

XIV. 'E« TOVTov dpiafjijBov rjrei Tlo/j,7n]io(i, 
avTeXeye 8e XvWa<i. virdju) <ydp rj crTpar7]ya) 
/jiovov, dW(p Be ovSevl BiScoaiv 6 v6fio<i. Bio kuI 
^KrjTTLcov 6 TrpcoTO? aTTo /iiei^ovcov Kol Kpenrovwv 
dydavutv ev 'l^rjpia K.ap')('r]SovtQ)v Kparijau'; ovk 
fJT7]ae Oplapi^ov i/Traro? yap ovk rjv ovSe arpa- 

2 Tijyo^. el Se IIo/A7r?;io9 oinro) irdw yeveioyv 
elaeXd dpia/ji/Sevcov et? Tr}v ttoXlv, o5 /SouX?}9 Bid 
TT)v i)\iKiav ov fiereari, iravrdiraaiv im^dovov 
eaeadai koX ttjv dp)(>]v eavrS) kuI ttjv ri/jirjv 
eKeivw. ravra Trpo? Ho/jnrr'fiov u Si;A,\a<f eXeyev, 
o)? OVK edacov, dXXd evaTt]aofj.€vo<i avrw Koi 
KcoXuaayv to (piXoveiKOV direidovvTOfi. 

3 'O Be Tlofj,7r^io<; ovx vTreTrrtj^ev, aXA,' evvoelv 
CKeXevae tov "StvXXav oti rov i]Xiov dvareXXovra 
irXeiove^i rj Bvofievov TrpoaKvvovaiv, (o? avTw fiev 626 
av^avo[xevrj<i, fxeiovfievr]^ Be koi p^apaivopLevrj^i 
€Keiv(p T>/9 Bvvdfji€(0<i. ravra a SuXXa? ovk uKpi- 
ySco? e^aKOvaa^i, opwu Be Tov<i uKovaauTa'i diro 
TOv TrpoacoTTov Kul rov cr^/^/xaro? ev davfxaTi 
TTOiovfievov;, r^pero rt to Xe')(dev eh]. TTvOopievo^ 
Be Kal KaTanXayei^; tov Tlo/u,7rrjiou tj]v roX/jiav 

4 dve^6t]ae Bl<i e(f>€^i]^, " ^piafi/devadTU)." TroXXcov 
Be Bva')(^epaiv6vTa)v Kal dyavaKTovvrtov, en /xdX- 
Xov avTOv<i, CO? (pacTi, ^ovXofxei'o'i dvidv 6 FIo/x- 
Trrjio<;, e7re)(eLpi}crev eXe(f)dvT(ov dpuari reTrdpwv 
eTn^d<i elaeXavveiv rjyaye yap e« Ki^vrjs TOiv 

148 



POMPEY, XIII. 7-xiv. 4 

upon Fabius Rullus,^ because he expelled from the 
senate certain descendants of freedmen who had 
been enrolled in it on account of their wealth. 

XIV. After this, Pompey asked for a triumph, but 
Sulla opposed his request. The law, he said, per- 
mitted only a consul or a praetor to celebrate a 
triumph, but no one else. Therefore the first Scipio, 
after conquering the Carthaginians in S{)ain in far 
greater conflicts, did not ask for a triumph ; for he 
was not consul, nor even praetor. And if Pompey, 
who had scarcely grown a beard as yet, and who was 
too young to be a senator, should ride into the city 
in a triumph, it would not only make Sulla's govern- 
ment altogether odious, but also Pompey's honour. 
This was what Sulla said to Pompey, declaring that 
he would not allow his request, but would oppose 
him and thwart his ambition if he refused to Hsten 
to him. 

Pompey, however, was not cowed, but bade Sulla 
reflect that more Avorshipped the rising than the 
setting sun, intimating that his own power was on 
the increase, while that of Sulla was on the wane 
and fading away. Sulla did not hear the %vords 
distinctly, but seeing, from their looks and gestures, 
that those who did hear them were amazed, he 
asked what it was that had been said. When he 
learned what it was, he was astounded at the bold- 
ness of Pompey, and cried out twice in succession : 
" Let him triumph ! " Further, when many showed 
displeasure and indignation at his project, Pompey, 
we are told, was all the more desirous of annoying 
them, and tried to ride into the city on a chariot 
drawn by four elephants ; for he had brought many 

^ Cf. the Fabius Maximm, i. 2. It was in the capacity of 
censor, 304 B.C., that RuUus thus purified the senate. 

149 
VOL. V F 



PLUTARCH'S LIV^ES 

j3aai\iK0iv crvyyov'i ot^^^/i.aXwTOL'? * aWa ri}? ttuXtj? 
(n€VQ)T€pa<; ovai]'; uTTeaTrj kui ^erifKdev eVi TOti? 

5 i'ttttoi'?. eirei hi ol arpaTiwrai /xi] rv)(6vTe<; 
ijXlkwv TrpoaeSoKTjcrav cvu^Xelu e/SouXovTo koL 
dopv^elv, ovhev e<pr} (ppovri^eiv, dXXd /j-aXXou 
d(\>i)aeLv Tov 6piap.^ov rj KoXaKevaeiv eKelvou^. 
6t€ Brj Koi "%€ povtXi.o<; , dvrjp iTricpavi]^; kol fxdXiara 
TTpo'i TOV Opiap^ov €vaTa<; rov Ylop.7ry]iov, vvv 
e(f>rj TOV Uopirrjiov opdv koi fxeyav dXr^Ooi^ kqI 

6 d^iov TOV Optdix^ov. hrjXov h eaTlv otl Kai 
j3ovXr]<; dv edeXrjcra^i Tore pa8l(o<i eTV^ev. dX}C 
ovK ecnrovSaaev, w? Xeyovai, to evBo^ov ck tov 
TrapaSo^ov Oijpwpevo'i. ov yap rjv 6avpa<JT0v el 
TTpo rjXiKLU^ €/3ovXeve nopTTt]io<;, dXX^ vjrepXap- 
rrpov OTi prjheTTCi) ^ovXevcov eOpidp^eve. tovto 
Be avTW KoX TTpo'i evvoiav inrrjp-^e tcoi-" ttoXXmv 
ov piKpov e\aLpe yap o Brjpo<; uvtm p,eTd dpia/j,- 
^ov ev Tot? Ittttikoi^ e^eTa^ofiivo). 

XV. XvXXa<i Be rjviaTO pev opoiv ei? oaov 
B6^ri<i irpoeioi Kai Bvvdpew^, aia')^vv6pevo^ Be 
KcoXveiv i)av)(iav rjye' irXi^v, oTe ^ia Kai dKOVTo<i 
avTOv AeTTiBov et? vTvaTeiav KaTeaTiiare, (jvvap-)(^- 
aLpeaidaa^; Kai tov Brjpov evvola t?} TTpo<; eavTov 
eKelv(p (TTTOvBd^ovTa •napaa'^^oiv, Oeacrdpievo^ avTov 
diTLOVTa psTa TrXrjdov^ BC dyopd<i 6 SyWa?, 
2 " 'Opo) <T6," elirev, " w veavla, x^^ipovTa tjj vIkt)' 
7rw9 yap ov)(l yevvala TavTa Kai KaXa, KarXof 
Toi) irdvTwv dpiaTov AeiriBov tov TravTcov kq- 



150 



POMPEY, XIV. 4-xv. 2 

from Africa which he had captured from its kings. 
But the gate of the city was too narrow, and he 
therefore gave up the attempt and changed over to 
liis horses. Moreover, when his soldiers, who had 
not got as much as they expected, were inchned to 
raise a tumult and impede the triumph, he said he 
did not care at all, but would rather give up his 
triumph than truckle to them. Then Servilius, a 
man of distinction, and one who had been most 
opposed to Pompey's triumph, said he now saw that 
Pompey was really great, and worthy of the honour. 
And it is clear that he might also have been easily 
made a senator at that time, had he wished it ; but 
he was not eager for this, as they say, since he was 
in the chase for reputation of a surprising sort. And 
indeed it would have been nothing wonderful for 
Pompey to be a senator before he was of age for it ; 
but it was a dazzling honour for him to celebrate a 
triumph before he was a senator. And this con- 
tributed not a little to win him the favour of the 
multitude ; for the people were delighted to have 
liim still classed among the knights after a triumph. 
XV. Sulla, however, was annoyed at seeing to what 
a height of reputation and power Pompey was advanc- 
ing, but being ashamed to obstruct his career, he kept 
quiet. Only, when in spite of him and against his 
wishes Pompey made Lepidus consul,^ by canvassing 
for him and making the people zealously support 
him through their goodwill towards himself, seeing 
Pomjiey going off through the forum with a thi'ong, 
Sulla said : " I see, young man, that you rejoice in 
your victory ; and surely it was a generous and noble 
thing for Lepidus, the worst of men, to be pro- 
claimed consul by a larger vote than Catulus, the 

^ In 79 B.C. 

151 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Kiarov airohei'^Orjvai Trporepov vrrarov, aov tov 
hy)n,ov ovTCo TrapaaKevdcravTO^ ; o'ypa p-evrot croi 
p,i] KadevheLv, aWa irpoae^eLv rot? irpd'yp.acnv 
la^vporepov jap tov avrayoiVKn-qv aeavrw Kare- 
aK€vaKa<;." ^ e5?;\aJ0'6 Be p.d\i(na XuWa<; on 
7rp6<; Tlop-mjiov ovk evpei>o)<; el^e rai'i 8iad7']Kai<; 

3 a? eypa-^ev. erepoi^ yap 0t\oi<? Bcopedt; diro- 
XiTTcov, KaX tov TTaiho^ diroSei^a^; eTTiTpoTrovi, tov 
T\op,TTi']lov 6\a><; TraprfKdev. yvey/ce p-evToc tovto 
p,eTpia}<; irdvv Kal TroXiTiKW'i €K€lvo<;, wcrre Xeiri- 
Bov Kai Tivcov dWcov iviCTTap^evcov firj Ta(l)i']vai tov 
ve/cpov €V Tfp TTeBiM, p.r)Be Brip,oaLa ttjv eKcfiopav 
yevecrdai, ^orjOijaai. Kal TTapaa')(^eiv Bo^av dp,a 
rat? Tacpal'i kul aacpaXeiav. 

XVI. 'Ettcj. Be Ta')(v tov livWa Te\evT7]a-avT0<; 
€t? (^w? Trapijei to, p.avTevp.aTa, Kal Ae7nBo<; 
elaiTOiMV eavTov eU ttjv eKeivov Bvvapnv ov kvkXo) 
TTepiicov ovBe peTa a'X^i]p.aT0<;, dWd ev6i)<; ev Tolf 
OTrXot? rjv, to, irdXac voaovvTa Kal Btacf)vy6vTa 
rov ^vWav v7ro\eip,/JLaTa twv aTdaecov av6i<; 
dvaKLvwv Kal rrepi/SaXXop.evo'i, o Be avvdp)^(ov 
avTov KarXo?, o5 to Kadapov Kat vyiaivov p.d- 
\i(TTa T/}? ^ov\rj<i Kal tov B/]p.ov Trpocrei^^^ev, tjv 
fiev ev d^i(t)p,aTi, cruxfypoavvy]^ Kal BiKacoavvrji^ 

2 fieyiaTO^ tcov totc 'Fayp,aia)v, eBoKei Be tto\ltik!]<; 
rjyep.ovLa'i p,dX\.ov rj aTpaTL(i)TiKt]<i OLKelo^ elvat, 
TMV TTpayp,dTu>v avTcov ttoOovvtwv tov Ylop,7rtjiov 
ov BLep.eWy](T€v otttj TpdnrtiTai, Trpoadel'i Be toi? 
dpl(TToi<; eavTOV drreBeiX^V crTpaTevp,aTo<; rjyep-wv 
€7rl TOV AeirtBov tjBt] TroWd t-^? 'IraXta? kckivi]- 
KOTa Kal TTjv evTo<; ' AXirecov TaXaTi'av KaTe)(ovTa 
Bid UpovTov aTpaT€vp,aTt. 

^ KareffKfvaKas with Bekker and S : naptffKfvaKas. 



POMPEY, XV. 2-xvi. 2 

best of men, because you influenced the people to 
take this course. Now, however, it is time for you 
to be wide awake and watchful of your interests ; 
you have made your adversary stronger than your- 
self." But Sulla showed most clearly that he was not 
well-disposed to Pompey by the will which he wrote. 
For whereas he bequeathed gifts to other friends, 
and made some of them guardians of his son, he 
omitted all mention of Pompey. And yet Pompey 
bore this with great composure, and loyally, inso- 
much that when Lepidus and sundry others tried to 
prevent the body of Sulla from being buried in the 
Campus Martius, or even from receiving public burial 
honours, he came to the rescue, and gave to the 
interment alike honour and security.* 

XVI. Soon after the death of Sulla,^ his prophecies 
were fulfilled, and Lepidus tried to assume Sulla's 
powers. He took no circuitous route and used no 
pretence, but appeared at once in arms, stirring up 
anew and gathering about himself the remnants of 
faction, long enfeebled, which had escaped the hand 
of Sulla. His colleague, Catulus, to whom the in- 
corrupt and sounder element in the senate and people 
attached themselves, was the greatest Roman of the 
time in the estimate set upon his wisdom and justice, 
but was thought better adapted for political than 
military leadership. The situation itself, therefore 
demanded Pompey, who was not long in deciding 
what course to take. He took the side of the nobility, 
and was appointed commander of an army against 
Lepidus, who had already stirred up a large jjart of 
Italy and was employing Brutus to hold Cisalpine 
Gaul with an army. 

* Cf. the Sulla, chapter xxxviii. 
a 78 B.C. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

3 Ta>i^ fjih' ovv ciXXoyv iKpdrii<j€ paBicof; eireXOcbv 627 
o Ylo/inT)'jio<i- iv he Mourtt'T; t?}? TaXaTta? avre- 
Kudriro TU) BpouTft) (TV)(yov ')(_p6vov' ev (L Xermho'i 

enl rr-jv 'Pwfirjv pvel^ koX tt pocr Ka6 7]p.€i>0'i e^coOev 
v'TTareiav rjrei Bevrepau, o^Xw iroXXep SeSiTTo- 

4 p.evo'^ TOL"> evhov. eXvcre Be tov (po^ov eTTiaroXr] 
irapa Tlo/jL7rt]iov Kopitadelaa KarcopOuyKoro'^ avev 
fxci)(i]<i TOP iroXep.ov, o yup Bpovro^;, eiTe irapa- 
Bov<i rrjv hvvafXLu avTO^, eire irpoSoOel^ fiera- 
^aXop.eur]<; €fC€LVT]<;, eve'^eipiae ro) Ylo/xTrrjiM to 
aoifia, Kal Xa^cov iTnrel'i TrpoTrop^Troii^ d-ney^ui- 
pvjcrev et? ■noXi')(yi6v ri twu irepl tov Wuhov, ottov 
fxeO' i)p.epav p,iav, eTrnre/j.yp-avTO'i avTO) tov IIo/x- 

5 TTijiou Tep.U'Lov, dvrjpedTp koI ttoXXiju €cr)(ev airb 
TOVTOV Ilojj,mjio<; alriav. yejpacjiw'i yap evdv<; 
ev dpxV '''V^ ixera^oXrj'i rrpof ttjv avyKXr)rov to? 
€K(t)v avTw irpoadoLTO BpoOTO?, erepa'^ avdi'^ 
eirep-yp-ev eViCTToXa? dvripr^ixevov tov dvOpooTTOv 
KaTtjyopovawi. tovtov BpoOro? ■>]v i/t'o? o Kat- 
aapa avv Kaaalw Kreiva^, dvrjp op,oL(o<i tw TTUTpl 
fxrjTC TroXe/jL7]crai; yn?;Te d-rroOavoiV, co? ev To2<i irepl 

6 eKeivov yeypaTTTai. AcTTiSo? y^ev ovv evdv<f 
eKireacov tj]? 'IraXta? cnreirepacTev et? 2.aph6va' 
KuKel voai^awi eTeXevTi](Te Si' d6v[xiav, ov twv 
irpay/xaTwi', to? ^aatv, aXXa ypap-fiUTiM irepi- 
Treacov i^ ov iJLOL')(e.'iav riva rr}? yvvaiKO'i ecpODpacre. 

XVI L AeTTiBo) Be ovSev 6fxoio<; aTpaTrjyo<i 
'I/3r]pLai> KaTe^wv X€pru>pio<i eTTr]U)p€iTO 'Fco/xaioi^ 
(po^epo'i, omTrep eV ea^^arov^ vocrrjpa rcov ifM- 
(pvXiuiv TToXep-wv eh tovtov tov avSpa avvep- 
pvrjKOTcov, TToWov'i p.6v ^]Si] Tcov iXaTTOvutv aTpa- 

^ f-rr' eo-xnTc*/ Stephanus, Coraes, and S : taxaToy, 



POMPEY, XVI. 3-xvii. I 

Other opponents against whom Ponipey came were 
easily mastered by him, but at Miitina, in Gaul, he 
lay a long while besieging Brutus. Meanwhile, 
Lepidus had made a hasty rush upon Rome, and 
sitting down before it, was demanding a second con- 
sulship, and terrifying the citizens with avast throng 
of followers. But their fear was dissipated by a 
letter brought from Pompey, announcing that he 
had brought the war to a close without a battle. 
For Brutus, whether he himself betrayed his army, 
or whether his army changed sides and betrayed 
him, put himself in the hands of Pompey, and 
receiving an escort of horsemen, retired to a little 
town upon the Po. Here, after a single day had 
passed, he was slain by Geminius, who was sent by 
Pompey to do the deed. And Pompey was much 
blamed for this. For as soon as the army of Brutus 
changed sides, he wrote to the senate that Brutus 
had surrendered to him of his own accord ; then he 
sent another letter denouncing the man after he had 
been put to death. The Brutus who, with Cassius, 
killed Caesar, was a son of this Brutus, a man who 
was like his father neither in his wars nor in his 
death, as is written in his Life. As for Lepidus, 
moreover, as soon as he was expelled from Italy, he 
made his way over to Sardinia. There he fell sick 
and died of despondency, which was due, as we are 
told, not to the loss of his cause, but to his coming 
accidentally upon a writing from which he discovered 
that his wife was an adulteress. 

XVII. But a general quite unlike Lepidus, namely 
Sertorius, was in possession of Spain, and was threat- 
eninjj the Romans like a formidable cloud. As if 
for a final disease of the state, the civil wars had 
poured all their venom into this man. He had 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

rrryMV avDprjKora, MertWo) Be TIlo) totc arvfi- 

2 TTeTrXey/xevov, dvSpl XafMirpo) /xev Koi rroXe/jiiKM, 
hoKovvTi he tipjoTepov vtto yjjpaxi eireaOai Tot^ 
Kaipol<i Tou TToXe/jLov, koi uTToXeLTreaOai rcov 
Trpayp-aTwi' dpTra^OfMevcov o^vTrjri kui rd'^ei, rov 
%€pTCi)piou 7Tapa/36\(o<i koX XrjarpiKcoTepov avrw 
7Tpo(T(f)€pop,ivou, Kal TapuTTOVTO^ ei>eBpai<; koi 
7r€pihpopal<i avhpa vofiL/xwc uOXrjrrju dycopcov xai 

3 Bul'dfM€0}<; aTuaifMOu Kal /3ap€ia<i rjyep.6i'a. 7rpo9 
ravra Hop,Tn]io'i e^oov ti]v arpaTidv u^' eavrw 
BieTrpaTTeTO MereWo) 7re/jL(f)9)}vaL ^oi)06<i' Kal 
KarXof K€\€vovTo<i ov SteXuev, dXX' iv toZ? 
ottXoi? rjv Tvepl rr]V ttoXlv, dei nva^ 7roiovp,evo<; 
7rpo(f)d(T€C<i, eco<i eBcoKOV avrw ti-jv dp-)(i]v Acvklov 

4 (piXiTTTTOV yvoofxijv eiTTovTo^. ore kul cpaaiv ev 
{TvyKXyTO) TTvOo/xevov Tiv6<i Kal Oaufid^ovTO^ el 
T[o/ji'7T}]iov dvdvirarov oierai Belv eK7r6/u,(f)dPjvat 
<i>iXt.TnTo^- " OvK eycoye,'' cfidrai rov (PtXnnrov, 
" dXX^ dv6^ vTrdrwv,' w? dfX(pOT€pov<i rov<i rore 
vTrarevovja^ ov8evo<i d^iov<i 6vTa<i. 

XVIII. 'ETrel he T?]<i 'l/3)]pia<; d-\frd/j,evo'i o 
TLofjLTTr'fio'i, ola (piXel tt/oo? veov ho^av rjyepiovoi;, 
erepovi rat? eXTTicnv eTTOiifae rovi dvdpunrov'i Kal 
TO, fir) TTuvv jBejBaiu)^ tw Xeproypifp avvearMra 
TOiv iOvoJv eKivelro Kal /xere^aXXero, X6yov<i 
vTreptjcpdvovi 6 Seprcopfo? Kara tou UopTrrjiov 
hieaTretpe, Kal aKciiincov eXeye vdp6i]Ko<i dv avru) 
hetjaac Kal ctkvtov^; iirl rov iralha rovrov, el p.rj 
TTjV ypavv eKeivr]V i<f)o/3elTo, Xeywv rov MereX.- 
2 Xov. epyu) p-evTOi (pvXaTTOfxevo^ crcpoSpa Kal 

156 



POMPEY, xvii. i-xviii. 2 

already slain many of the inferior commanders, and 
was now engaged with Metellus Pius, an illustrious 
man and a good soldier, but, as men thought, too slow 
by reason of his years in following up the oppor- 
tunities of war, and outdistanced when events swept 
along at high speed. For Sertorius attacked him 
recklessly and in robber fashion, and by his ambus- 
cades and flanking movements confounded a man 
who was practised in regular contests only, and com- 
manded immobile and heavy-armed troops.^ Pompey, 
therefore, who kept his army under his command, 
tried to get himself sent out to reinforce Metellus, and 
although Catulus ordered him to disband his soldiers, 
he would not do so, but remained under arms near the 
city, ever making some excuse or other, until the 
senate gave him the command, on motion of Lucius 
Philippus. On this occasion, too, they say that a 
certain senator asked with amazement if Philippus 
thought it necessary to send Pompey out as pro- 
consul. " No indeed ! " said Philippus, " but as 
pro-consuls," implying that both the consuls of that 
year were good for nothing. 

XVIII. When Pompey arrived in Spain,- the 
reputation of a new commander produced the usual 
results ; he transformed the men of Metellus with 
fresh liopes, and those nations which were not very 
firmly leagued with Sertorius began to be restless 
and change sides. Thereupon Sertorius disseminated 
haughty speeches against Pompey, and scoftingly 
said he should have needed but a cane and whip 
for this boy, were he not in fear of that old woman, 
meaning Metellus.^ In fact, however, he kept very 
close watch on Pompey, and was afraid of him, and 



1 Cf. the Sertorius, xii. 5. Mn 76 B.C. 

* Cf. the Sertorius, xix. 6. 



157 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

SeSoi/tct)? TOP V[ofnn']iov aa^aXea-repov iaipaTtj- 
lyei. Kal yap 6 MeVeWo?, OTrep ovk av tl<; (ot'^drj, 
ZiereO pvTTTO tw ^i(p KO/xiSfj Trpo? rwi rjSova'i 
ivSeScoKd)<;, koX fieydXri rt? et? ojkov kuI ttoXv- 
reXeiav €^ai(f>vrj<i iyeyovei fiera^oXrj irepi avrov, 
ware tw YVopLTrrjiu) Kal tovto dav/xacTTTjv euvoiav 
afia So^T) (f)ep€iv, eTTiTeivopTt ttjv evreXeiav t?}? 
8iaLTy]<i oil ■noWrj'i eTrtTJ^Seucrew? heo^iein^v (^vaei 
yap tjv a(o(f>p(ov kuI T€Tayjj.evo<; iv Tal<; eiridu- 
[jLLai's. 

3 ToO Se TToXe/iiov ttoWo,^ I8ea<; ex^ovro^, rjviaae 
fidXicrra tov Tloinrifiov i) Aavpo)vo^ dXcoai'i vtto 628 
'Eeprcopiou. KVKXovaOat yap avrov ol)]de\<i Kal 
Ti ixeyaXriyopi'jaa'i, aino<: i^aicpviTi dve(j)duTj irept- 
€x6/j.€vo<; kvkXw' Kal 8id tovto KLvelaOai 5e§tco9 
67reioe KaTaTrifj.7rpafi6V}]v ttjv ttoXiv avTOv irapov- 
TO<i. 'Kpevvcov Be Kal YlepTrevvav, dvSpa<; yye- 
/jLoviKoii^ Tfov TTjOo? 'S.epTcopiov KaTairecfyevyoTcov 
Kal aTpaT Tjy ovvTcov eKSLVw, viKrjaa^ irepl OvaXev- 
Tiav vTrep fivpiovi uTreKTeivev. 

XIX. 'ETrap^el? he ttj Trpd^ec Kal fxeya c^po- 
VMV eV avTov ecnrevSe "^epTUipLov, co? ixrj /xerd- 
cr;^oi tt}? vi.Kr]<; MereXXo?. irepl Be ^ovKpcovi 
"TTOTa/xcp T?}? rjp.epa<; y'jBr] TeXevT(iiarj<i avve/BaXov 
tA? Svvdfj.ec<;, B€Bi6Te<i eireXdelv tov ^leTeXXov, 

2 6 fxev &)<> /x6vo<;, 6 Be co? fiovw Biaycoviaairo. to 
fxev ovv TeXo<i d/J,(f)LBo^ov ea^^ev 6 dycov eKarepov 
yap Odrepov Kepa<i evLKijae' tcov Be aTpaTtjywv 
irXeov TjveyKaTO ^epTcopio<i' eTpe-yjraTo yap to 

158 I 



POMPEY, XVIII. 2-xix. 2 

therefore conducted his campaign with more caution. 
For Metellus, contrary to all expectation, had become 
luxurious in his way of living and had given himself 
up completely to his pleasures ; in fact, there had 
been all at once a great change in him towards pomp 
and extravagance,^ so that this circumstance also 
brought Pompey an astonishing goodwill, and en- 
hanced his reputation, since he always maintained 
that simplicity in his habits which cost him no great 
effort; for he was naturally temperate and orderly in 
his desires. 

The war had many phases, but what most vexed 
Pompey was the capture of Lauron by Sertorius. 
For when he supposed that his enemy was surrounded, 
and had made some boasts about it, all of a sudden 
it turned out that he was himself completely en- 
veloped. He was therefore afraid to stir, and had 
to look on while the city was burned before his 
eyes.2 However, near Valentia he conquered 
Herennius and Perpenna, men of military experience 
among the refugees with Sertorius, and generals 
under him, and slew more than ten thousand of their 
men. 

XIX. Elated by this achievement and full of 
pride, he made all haste to attack Sertorius himself, 
that Metellus might not share in the victory. By 
the river Sucro, though it was now late in the day, 
they joined battle, both fearing the arrival of 
Metellus ; the one wished to fight alone, the other 
wished to have only one antagonist. Well, then, 
the struffffle had a doubtful issue, for one wing on 
each side was victorious ; but of the generals, 
Sertorius bore away the more honour, for he put to 



^ Cf. the Sertorius, xiii. 1 f. 

* Cf. the Sertorius, chapter xviii. 



159 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

KaO' avTov €Keivo^ avrira')(^dei<i. Ylofxirriiq) Se 
avr]p jj.k'ya's nnrorrj ttc^o? ecl>(t}p/jL'>]a€' <TV/j.Trea6v- 
ro)v S" et<f TO avTO koI '^evofj.evoiv iv \a^al(; aTre- 
aKr}\}rav ai TTXrjyai tmv ^i(pc!)v eh Ta<j x^ipwi 
dfM(polp, ov)( ofioLW'i- €Tp(t)d7j fieu yap 6 Ylo/xTr}']io<; 

3 fxovov, €K€Lvov Se uTTeKO'^e rrjv '^(^elpa. nXeiovayv 
Be (Tvv8pa/j,6vT(i)v eV avrov, i]St] t*}«? rpoTrJ}? ye- 
yevr)fxevr]<i, avekTricnu)^ Biecpvye, TTpoefxevot tov 
iTTTTov Tol<i TToXe/xiot? <f)a\.apa "^pvad Kai Kocrjiov 
a^iov TToWou irepLKeLpievov. tuutu yap Ziavep,6- 
fievoL Kai, TTcpl rouTcov p,a-)(^6pievoL Tvpo^ aXXijXov^; 

4 aTT€\€i,(f)di]aav. afxa he ijfxepa Traperd^auTO /jlcv 
upLc^orepoi TrdXtv eK^e^aiovfievoi rb vLKy]fj,a, Me- 
TeXXov Se Trpoai6vTO<i dve^copjjaep 6 'S.eprMpio'i 
aKeSaaOevTi rw arpara). Tocavrat yap rjaav at 
BiaXva€i<; Kai rrdXtv avvSpo/xal tmv dv9pu)TTcov 
(oare TToWa/ci? /xovov ifXavdaOat tov ^eprcopiov, 
7roX\dKi<; 8e avdi<i eTrievai fxvpidcri TrevreKaiSeKa 
arpaTidf;, wairep 'X^etjJidppovv e^aL(f)v)]<i irifMirXd- 
lievov. 

5 'Oh ovv no/x.7r^i'o9, eirel /xerd rtjv pid')(riv 
diTi'jVTa T&) MereWco Kai TrXrjaLou dXXijXojv 
rjaav, CKeXevaev vtpelvai ra? 'pdj3hou<i, Oepairevcov 
0)9 irpov^ovra ri/xfj rbv MeTeXXov. 6 he Kai 
TOVTO hieKcoXvae kuI raXXa ')^pr]aTo^ rjv dvrjp 
Trepl avTov, ovhev ft)9 v7raTiK<^ Kai irpea-^vrepw 
ve/xQ)v eavTU) TrXeov, dXX^ rj rb avvdijp-a kolvtj 
arparOTrehevovTcov et9 d'iravra<i e^eTrefMTrero irapd 
^lereXXov rd iroXXd he %(wpt9 earparoTrehevovTO. 

6 hieKOiTTe ydp avTov<i Kai huaTrj ttoikIXo^ wv 6 

i6o 



POMPEY, XIX. 2-6 

Hight the enemy in front of his position. But 
Pompey, who was on horseback, was attacked by a 
tall man who fought on foot ; when they came to 
close quarters and were at grips, the strokes of their 
swords fell upon each other's hands, but not with 
like result, for Pompey was merely wounded, where- 
as he lopped off the hand of his opponent. Then, 
when more foes rushed upon him together, his troops 
being now routed, he made his escape, contrary to 
all expectation, by abandoning to the enemy his 
horse, which had golden head-gear and ornamented 
trappings of great value. They fought with one 
another over the division of these spoils, and so 
were left behind in the pursuit.' At break of day, 
however, both generals drew up their forces again 
to make the victory assured, but on the approach of 
Metellus, Sertorius retired and his army dispersed. 
His men were accustomed to scatter in this way, and 
then to come together again, so that often Sertorius 
wandered about alone, and often took the field again 
with an army of a hundred and fifty thousand men, 
like a winter torrent suddenly swollen. 

Pompey, then, when he went to meet Metellus 
after the battle and they were near each other, 
ordered his lictors to lower their fasces, out of 
deference to Metellus as his superior in rank. But 
Metellus would not allow this, and in all other ways 
was considei-ate of him, not assuming any superiority 
as a man of consular rank and the elder, except that 
when they shared the same camp the watchword was 
given out to all from the tent of Metellus ; but for 
the most part they encamped apart. For their 
versatile enemy used to cut off their communications 

^ Cf. the Sertorius, xix. 4. 

i6t 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TToXe/xio'; koI heivo^ ev ^pa^^l iroWaxov irepi- 
^avrjvaL Kol jiera'^ayelv air' aWcov ei? aWov<; 
a'y(t)va<;. reXo? Se TreptKoirrcov p,ev ayopd^, Xtfi- 
^6/jLevo<i Be T't-jv ^(^ciopav, eTTiKparcov he r>]<i Oakda- 
arr]<;, e^ej3a\ev d/ji,(f)orepov<; t/"}? vcf)^ eavrov ^1/3t]- 
pia'i, dva'yKaa6evTa<; et? dWoTpiWi Karaipvyelv 
i7rap)(^ia<; diropia rS)v eTrirrjSet'oov. 

XX. no/x7rT;io9 Se ra irXelaTa rcov Ihiwv 
e^av7}\(OKU)<i KoX KaraKexpVf'^^o'; et? tov TroXe/xov, 
yrei ypij/jiara rrju crvyKXrjrov, co? d(f)i^ufievo<; et? 
'IraXiai' /xeTa rf;? Buvd/xeo)^ el p.)} TrepuroLev. 
viraTevwv Be Aeu/coWo? Tore Kal Wop.irritw p.ev 
fov Bid(j)opo<i, p,v(t)p.evo<i S" eavTw rov MidpiBariKov 
TToXep.ov, earrevcTev dTroarakrjvai ra y^pi^p-ara, 
(j)o/3oup,€vo<; alrlav Uop^-rrrjio) irapaax^^v Beop,ev(p 
liepTOipiov d(ji€ivac Kal 7rpo<; MiOpiBdTrjv rpuTre- 
adac, XapbTvpov p,ev el<i Bo^av, eup.erax^i'pi^o-rov Be 

2 (f)aip6p,€Vov dvray(i)vtaT7]v. iv rovrfo Be Oi't'jcrKei 
Seprcopio'i VTTO rwv <^i\wv Bo\o^ovrj9ei,<i' mv Tlep- 
•jrevva<; 6 Kopv(f)ai6TaTO<; errexeiprjaev exeivto ra 
aura Troielv, diro twu avrcov p.ev 6pp,cop,€vo^ Buvd- 
pecov Kol irapaaKevcov, rov Be ;i^pw/xei'oi' avraU 
6poiw<i ovK ex^v \oytcrp6v. evdv<; ovv o IIo/x- 
irrjio'; eire^eXOcov kol pep.06p.evou ev roL<; irpdy- 
p^acri TOV UepTTevvav Karapadoiv, BeXeap avrw 629 
BeKa a-7reLpa<i vcf^yjKev, eh ro ttcBlov Biacnraprjvat, 

3 KeXev(Ta<;. rpairopievov Be irpo'i TavTa<; eKeivov 
Kol Bioi}KOVTO<;, dOpovt; in LcpaveU Kal avvdylra<i 
fidyrjv eKpdrrjae irdvrwv. Kal Bie(p6dpi]aav ol 



162 



POMPEY, XIX. 6-xx. 3 

and separate them, and showed great skill in appearing 
in many places within a short time, and in drawing 
them from one contest into another. And finally, 
by cutting off" their supplies, plundering the country, 
and getting control of the sea, he drove both of 
them out of that part of Spain which was under him, 
and forced them to take refuge in other provinces 
for lack of provisions.^ 

XX. When Pompey had exhausted most of his 
private resources and spent them on the war, he asked 
money of the senate, threatening to come back to 
Italy with his army if they did not send it. Lucullus 
was consul at this time, and was not on good terms 
with Pompey, but since he was soliciting the conduct 
of the Mithridatic war for himself, made great efforts 
to have the money sent,- for fear of furthering 
Pompey's desire to let Sertorius go, and march 
against Mithridates, an antagonist whose subjection, 
as it was thought, would bring great glory and 
involve little difficulty. But in the meantime 
Sertorius was treacherously killed by his friends,^ 
and Perpenna, the ringleader among them, attempted 
to carry on his work. He had indeed the same 
forces and equipment, but lacked equal judgement 
in the use of them. Accordingly, Pompey took the 
field against him at once, and perceiving that he had 
no fixed plan of campaign, sent out ten cohorts as a 
decoy for him, giving them orders to scatter at 
random over the plain. Perpenna attacked these 
cohorts, and was engaged in their ])ursuit, when 
Pompey appeared in force, joined battle, and won a 
complete victory. Most of Perpenna's officers 

^ Cf. the Sertoi-ius, chapter xxi. 
" Cf. the Lucullus, v. 2 f. 

2 In 72 B.C., two years after Lucullus had set out against 
Mithridates. 

163 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TrXelcTTOL TMV 7)j6fjLova)v iv rfj fid'^r]' tov Be JJep- 
Trevvav a')(6evra Trpo'i avrov aireKreivev, ovk 
d)(^dpiaTO<; ouS' djivrjiicov <y€v6fX€Vo<; tmv irepX 
^iKcXiav, &)<? ijKdXova-iv evioi, pieydXr} 8e Biavola 
4 Kal acoTt]pL(p roiv oXcov yvcoprj -x^prjadpevo^. o 
<ydp Tlep7r6vva<i tmv Zeprcoplou ypap.p.drcov ye- 
707'ft)9 Kvpio'i iBeiKvvev eTrtaroXdf tmv iv 'Vdip,rj 
8vvaT(OTdTCt)v dvSpMV, oc TO, irapovTa Kivrjaai, 
^ov\6p,€Voi Trpdy/jLUTa Kal //.eracTTTycrai t>]v ttoXi- 
Telav CKdXovv tov 'ZepTcopiov eh rrjv ^iToXlav. 
<^o^rjde\<s ovv UopTr/fco^ TavTa, prj pei^ova<i 
dvaaTiioT] twv Treiravpevwv iroX.ep.oiv, tov ts Tlep- 
irevvav dvelXe Kal ra? e7riaTo\d<; ouS' dvayi'ou'i 
KaTeKuvaev. 

XXI. '£« Be TOVTOV 7rapap.elva<; \p6vov ocrov 
Ta? peyLaTa<i KaTaaj3eaaL Tapaxd<i Kal to, 
^\ey paivovTa p,dXiaTa KaTaaTfjaai Kal BLaXvcrai 
TMV irpayixdTMV, aTrrjyev et? ^iTaXlav tov aTpa- 

TQV, dKp,d^OVTl TM BovXlKM TToXe/Xft) KaTO, TV^W 

(f)€p6p€V0^. Bio Kal Kpdaao^ o (TTpaTtjyo'i i^ireL^e 
7rapa^6XM<; Trjv pd'^^'jv, Kal KaTeuTu)(^7](T€, Bta'^i- 
2 Xiov<; TpiaKO(TLov<; iirl p.vpioi<; KT€lva<i. ov p,r]V 
dXXd Kal TOUTfp tov HopTrypov eccr7rotovcrrj<; 
dpM<i ye 770)9 Tw KaTopdcap^aTt Tfj<i Tvy^7]<;, irevTa- 
Kia')(^iXioi (f)evyovTe'i e'/c tt}? pd^r]^ iveirecrov et? 
auTov, oO? diravTa^ Bia^9eipa<i, eypa-^e Trpo'i ttjv 
(XuyKXrjTOv virocpddcra^ co? K/oacrcro? P'CV eK irapa- 
Ta^eo)? veviKTjKe tov^ p.ovopd^ov'i, auTo<i Be tov 
TToXepov eK pi^MV TravTdiraaiv dvrjprjKe. Kal 



164 



POMPEY, XX. 3-xxi. 2 

perished in the battle, but Perpenna himself was 
brought before Pompey, who ordered him to be put 
to death. In this he did not show ingratitude, nor 
that he was unmindful of what had happened in 
Sicily,! as some allege against him, but exercised 
great forethought and salutary judgement for the 
commonwealth. For Perpenna, who had come into 
possession of the papers of Sertoi'ius, offered to 
produce letters from the chief men at Rome, who 
had desired to subvert the existing order and change 
the form of government, and had therefore invited 
Sertorius into Italy. Pompey, therefore, fearing 
that this might stir up greater wars than those now 
ended, put Perpenna to death and burned the letters 
without even reading them. 

XXI. After this, he remained in Spain long 
enough to quell the greatest disorders and compose 
and settle such affairs as were in the most inflam- 
matory state ; then he led his army back to Italy, 
where, as chance would have it, he found the 
servile war at its height. For this reason, too, 
Crassus, who had the command in that war, pre- 
cipitated the battle at great hazard, and was success- 
ful, killing twelve thousand three hundred of the 
enemy. Even in this success, however, fortune 
somehow or other included Pompey, since five 
thousand fugitives from the battle fell in his way, 
all of whom he slew, and then stole a march on 
Crassus by writing to the senate that Crassus had 
conquered the gladiators in a pitched battle, but 
that he himself had extirpated the war entirely.^ 

' Cf. chapter x. 2, where there is nothing to iniply tliat 
Perpenna put Pompey under obligations to him, except that 
lie made no resistance. 

^ Cf. the Cfassus, xi. 7. 

165 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ravra ^ovkojxevoL'; rjv hC evvoLav aKpoacrdai Kai 
Xeyeiv rol<i 'lPu)fx.aiOL<;. ^J^rjpiav Se kol XepToopiov 
ovSe Trai^cov av ti<; elnev erepov koX /jltj Hofnrrjtov 
TO Trdv epyov elvai. 

3 Ev Toaavrr) he ri/birj kuI irpocrhoKia tou d}'Bp6<; 
o/Aft)9 ivrjv Kol vTTo-ijfLa ri<i koI Seo?, &)<? ov irpo- 
rjaofievov to (TTpaTevfia, ^aScov/xevov Be Si' 
ottXcov Kol /lovapy^^La^ dvriKpv; eVl ttjv XvWa 
TToX-Lreiav. bdev ovk iXdrrove^ rjcrav rwv hi 
eiivoiav Tpe')(^ovTO)v Kat, ^t\o(f)povovfM€voiv KaO^ 

4 ohbv oi (f)6/3q) ravra rroiovvre^. eVel he Kal 
ravrrjv dvelXe rrjv vtrovoiav 6 UofiTryjio'i irpoetTrcov 
d<\)r](7eiv TO arpdrevpa fiera rov Opi'ap^ov, ev 
alriaa$ai T0i9 ^acrKatvovai rreptrjv v-nokoLirov, 
on rw hjjfia) 7rpo(Tve/j,et p^dWov eavrbv rj rrj 
^ovXfj, Kal TO tt)? ht]/jbapxi'Cf''i d^lco/xa, ZvXKa 
Kara^aXovra, eyvcoKev dviardvat Kal ^api^eaOai 

5 TOi? 7roWo2<i, OTrep rjV d\r]Oe<;. ov yap eariv 
ovrivo^ ifxpavecrrepov 6 V(o/xaLa)V rjpdadr) hij/xo^; 
Kal fxdWov eTToOrjcjev rj rrjv dp')(r)v avdi^ eirihelv 
eKeivrjv, ware Kal TlofXTrrjiov evrv'X^rjp.a rroLelaOai 
fxeya rov rov iroXLrevp.aro'i Kaipov, (tx; ovk av 
evpovra y^dpiv dWrjv ^ ryjv evvoiav afiei'^erat 
roiv iroXircbv, el ravrrjv erepc; rrpoeXa^e. 

XXIL '^7](f)ia6evro<i ovv avru> hevrepov dpid/x- 
fiov Kcu VTTareia'i ov hid ravra Oavfxaaro<; ihoKei 

1 66 



POMPEY, XXI. 2-xxii. I 

And it was agreeable to the Romans to hear this said 
and to repeat it, so kindly did they feel towards him ; 
while as for Spain and Sertorius, there was no one 
who would have said, even in jest, that the entire 
work of their subjugation was performed by any 
one else than Pompey. 

Nevertheless, mingled with the great honour 
shown the man and the great expectations cherished 
of him, there was also considerable suspicion and 
fear ; men said he would not disband his army, but 
would make his way by force of arms and absolute 
power straight to the polity of Sulla. Wherefore 
those who ran out and greeted him on his way, out 
of their goodwill, were no more numerous than those 
who did it out of fear. But Pompey soon removed 
this suspicion also by declaring that he would dis- 
band his army after his triumph. Then there re- 
mained but one accusation for envious tongues to 
make, namely, that he devoted himself more to the 
people than to the senate, and had determined to 
restore the authority of the tribunate, which Sulla 
had overthrown, and to court the favour of the 
many ; which was true. For there was nothing on 
which the Roman people had more frantically set 
their affections, or for which they had a greater 
yearning, than to behold that office again. Pompey 
therefore regarded it as a great good fortune that he 
had the opportunity for this political measure, since 
he could have found no other favour with which to 
repay the goodwill of his fellow-citizens, if another 
had anticipated him in this. 

XXII. Accordingly, a second triumph was de- 
creed him,' and the consulship. It was not on this 
account, however, that men thought him admirable 

1 In 71 B.C. 

167 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

KoX fieya<;, aXX eKclvo TeKfii^piov eTTOiovvro t?)? 
'KafMirporriTO';, on Kpacrcro?, dvrjp rcov Tore ttoXi- 
Tcvofievoov 7rXovcna)raro<i koI Beiv6TaT0<i elireiv 
KoX jxk'yicrro'i, avrov re Tiofiinpov inrepcppovcov 
Kal rov<i dWov; a7ravra<;, ovk edappifaev inra- 
Tecav fierievac irporepov t) YlofxirifLov Berjdiji'ai. 

2 Kal fievroL Tiofjb'm]io<i tiydTrrjae, iraXai he6ixevo<i 
Ypeta? TLvo<i virdp^ai koX (f)i\avdpa)7r[a^ tt^o? 
avTov Mare Kal he^LOvaOat 7rpo0v/j.co<; Kal irapa- 
Ka\elv Tov hrjfxov, e-na'yyeXkofievo^ ^(dpiv e^eiv 
OVK eXuTTOva rod (7vvdp)(^ovTO<i rj Tr)<; dp-)(rj<i. 

3 ov fjbrjv dX)C d'rTohei')(^9evre<i viraroi 8ie(f)€povTo 
TrdvTa Kal TrpoaeKpovov aWT^Xoa' Kal iv fxev 630 
TTj ^ovXfi fidXXov t(T')(yev a Kpd(Tao<i, ev Se tw 
S?//i&) fi.eja TO no/j,7rr]iov Kpara rjv. Kai 'yap 
uTreBcoKe ti]V 8rj/j.ap)(^Lav avrw, Kat, ra? SiKWi 
irepieihev avdi<; et? tov<; iTTTreas vofico jxeraf^epo- 
fi€va<;. 7]SiaT0v Be Oea/xa ru> Bij/j-w jrapea-^ev 
avro^ eavTov rrjv arpareiav irapaLrovixevo^. 

4 "E^o? 'ydp iari 'Vcofiaioov Tol<i iTnrevcnv, orav 
aTparevacovrai tov vofii/xov ')(povov, dyeiv et? 
dyopdv TOV ittttov eVl rov^ 8vo dv8pa<i ov<; Tt/iT^ra? 
KaXovai, Kal Karapid firja-a/j-ivovi rcov crTpaTtjjMV 
Kal avroKpaTopwv eKaarov ixf oh iaTparevaavTO, 
Kal S6vTa<; €vOvva<; r?}? aTpaTeias d(f)i€aOai, 
ve/x€Tai Be Kal Tifir] Kal drifxta rrpoarjKovaa Tol<i 
^ioi<i eKdcTTcov. 

5 Tore Br) irpoeKdOrjVTO /xev ol rifirjTal TeXXio^ 
Kul AivTXo<; iv Koo-fio), Kal irdpoBo's rjv twv 



i68 



POMPEY, XXII. 1-5 

and great, nay, they considered this circumstance a 
proof of his splendid distinction, that Crassus, the 
richest statesman of liis time, the ablest speaker, 
and the greatest man, wlio looked down on Pompey 
himself and everybody else, had not the courage 
to sue for the consulship until he had asked the 
support of Pompey. Pompey, moreover, was de- 
lighted, since he had long wanted an opportunity 
of doing him some service and kindness, and there- 
fore granted his request readily and solicited the 
people in his behalf, announcing that he should be 
no less grateful to them for such a colleague than 
for the consulship. Notwithstanding, after they had 
been elected consuls, they differed on all points, and 
were constantly in collision.i In the senate, Crassus 
had more weight ; but among the people the power 
of Pompey was great. For he gave them back their 
tribunate, and suffered the courts of justice to be 
transferred again to the knights by law.- But the 
most agreeable of all spectacles was that which he 
afforded the people when he appeared in person and 
solicited his discharge from military service. 

It is customary for a Roman knight, when he has 
served for the time fixed by law, to lead his horse 
into the forum before the two men who are called 
censors, and after enumerating all the generals and 
imperators under whom he has served, and render- 
ing an account of his service in the field, to receive 
his discharge. Honours and penalties are also 
awarded, according to the career of each. 

At this time, then, the censors Gellius and 
Lentulus were sitting in state, and the knights were 

' Cf. the Crassus, xii. 1 f. 

* By a law passed in the time of Sulla, only senators were 
eligible as judges. 

169 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

linreoyv i^era^o/xevcov, wcfyOrj Be Tlo/j.7r/]'io^ avwOev 
iiT ayopav Karep'^o/xei'O'i, ra /lev dXXa irapda^ifia 
TT}^ "PX^? ^X^^> <^^'^o<i Be Bid ')(eipo<i dyayv rov 
iTTTTOv. to? S' eyyvf r}v Kol Kara(f)apy<; eyeyovei, 
Ke\evaa<s BLa<T')(elv tou? pa^Bo(f)6pov^ tw j3i']paTt 

6 TTpoarjyaye rov 'lttttov. r/v Be tm B)]/J,cp davpa 
KOI aiwTTrj irdcra, tov<; re dp)(^ovra<; alBu><; dpa 
Kol X^P^ 7r/309 rrjv o^jriv ea^ev. elra o /xev 
7rp€(T0vrepo<i r^puyrrjae- " TivvOdvopal aov, w 
HofjLTTJjie Mdyve, el 7rdaa<; earpdrevaat ra? Kara 
vofiov o-T/oareta?;" HofiTn'fio^ Be /xeydXr} (pwvfj, 
" nacra9," elrTev, " earpdrevpai, Kal rrdaa^ l'tt' 
ifiavru) avroKpdropi." rovro uKovaa^ o BTJpof 
e^eKpaye, Kal Karaa^^etv ovKeri rrjV ^orjv vtto 
'^apd<i rjv, dW dvaaruvre^ oi ri/xrjral Trpoeirep,- 
irov avrov otKaBe, ')(^apc^6p,€V0i rol-i 7roXlrai<; 
eiTopLevoL'^ Kal Kporovaiv. 

XXIII. "WBrj Be rrj<i dp-^i)(; irepatvopemi'^ rSf 
TlopLTrrjto), tt}? Be Trpo? Kpdaaov av^op.evT]'; Bia- 
(f)opd<i, Faio? Tf? Avp7]Xio'i, d^iwfia fiev Ittttikov 
€X<^v, ^L(p Be dirpdypovc Ke)(prjpevo<i, iKKXi]aLa<; 
ov(Ti]<i dva^d<i errl to ^T]p,a Kal rrpoaeXdwv ecprj 
Kara rov^ vrrvovi avru) rov Ata (pavrjvai, KeXev- 
ovra rati; vrrdroi^ (ppdcrai prj rrporepov aTTodeaOai 

2 rrjv dp")(r]V rj (piXov; dXXi]Xoi<; yeveadai. prjOev- 
rav Be rovrcov a /xev IIo/U7r?;to9 rjav^^av rjyev 
ecrrci)^, 6 Be Kpdaao<; dp^dpevo^ Be^LovaOat Kal 
TTpoaayopeveiv avrov, " OvBiv,'^ elirev, " olpai 
rroielv dyevvef ouBe raTreivov, (o iroXlrai, TVop- 
mftw 7rp6repo<i evBcBoix;, ov vp,el<i pLijTro) pev 
yeveiMvra ^leyav y^Lcoaare KaXeiv, pijTrco Be 
perexovrt /3ouA.?'}9 e^lnjcfyiaaade Bvo 0pidpf3ov<i" 
eK rovrov BiaXXayevre^ direOevro ri-jv dp')(^i)V, 

170 



POxMPEY, XXII. 5-xxiii. 2 

passing in review before them, when Pompey was 
seen coming down the descent into the forum, other- 
wise marked by the insignia of his office, but lead- 
ing his horse with his own hand. When he was near 
and could be plainly seen, he ordered his lictors to 
make way for him, and led his horse up to the 
tribunal. The people were astonished and kept 
perfect silence, and the magistrates were awed and 
delighted at the sight. Then the senior censor put 
the question: "Pompeius Magnus, I ask thee whether 
thou hast performed all the military services re- 
quired by law ? " Then Pompey said with a loud 
voice : " I have performed them all, and all under 
myself as imperator." On hearing this, the people 
gave a loud shout, and it was no longer possible to 
check their cries of joy, but the censors rose up and 
accompanied Pompey to his home, thus gratifying 
the citizens, who followed with applause. 

XXIII. When Pompey's term of office was now 
about to expire, and his differences with Crassus 
were increasing, a certain Caius Aurelius, who, 
though belonging to the equestrian order, had never 
meddled in public affairs, ascended the rostra at an 
assembly of the people, and came forward to say that 
Jupiter had appeared to him in his sleep, bidding him 
tell the consuls not to lay down their office before 
they had become friends. After these words had 
been said, Pompey stood motionless, but Crassus took 
the initiative, clasped his hand and greeted him, and 
then said : " I think I do nothing ignoble or mean, 
my fellow-citizens, in yielding first to Pompey, whom 
you were pleased to call Magnus when he was still 
beardless, and to whom you decreed two triumphs 
before he was a senator." Upon this, they were 
reconciled, and afterwards laid down their office.^ 

^ Cf. the Crassus, xii. 3 f. 

171 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

3 Kal Kpda(To<; jxev ovrrep i^ «PX% eYXcTO 
rpoirov rov ^lou 8ie(f)v\arT€, UofXTnjio^ Se xa? 
re TToWa? aveSvcTO avvrjyopi.a'i Kal rrjv a'yopav 
Kara ficKpov aireXecTre Kal irpo^et aTravtco^ el<; to 
8i]/ji6cnov, ael Be fiera 'rr\i)dov<i. ov <ya.p ?]v en 
pahiov 6)(\ov %ft)/3t9 evrv)(eLv ovS" IBecv avrov, 
aXV ijBiaro^ opou TroWot? Kal ddpooi^ e^aivero, 
aepLvorrira Trepc/SaWo/xevo^ eK tovtov ttj oyjrei 
Kal ojKOv, rat? Be tmv ttoWmu ivTev^eat Kal 
avvr]delat<; ddiKTov ol6p,evo^ Beip to d^lco/xa Bia~ 

4 Trjpelv. 6 'yap ev IpLaTico /3lo^ e'ma^a\rj<; ecTTi 
7rpo<; dBo^iav Tot<; eK tmv ottXcov fi€yd\oi<i Kal 
7r/)o? laoTYjTa Bi-JixoTiKriv daup.p,eTpoi<;' avTol /xev 
rydp Kal evTavda TrpcoTeveiv, co? eKel, BiKaiovai, 
TOi? Be eKel (f)epo/ievot<i eXaTTOv einavda <youv 
fir) irXeov e')(eiv ovk dveKTOv eaTi. Bio tov ev 
aTpuTOTreBoL^ Kal Opidp^oa XafiTTpov, oTav ev 
dyopa Xa^cocnv, vwo ')(6lpa TTOiovvTai Kal KaTa- 
^dXXovai, TO) Be d7roXeyo/xev(p Kal vno^^^copovvTi 
Tijv eKel Tifii]v Kal Bvvap.iv dveiric^Oovov (pvXaTTov- 
aiv. iB7]Xa)c-e Be avTO, to, irpdypaTa peT oXiyov 
■)(^p6vov. 

XXIV. 'H yap ireipaTiKr) BvvapL<; copp^ijO)] pev 
eK KtXf/cta? TO izpcoTov, dpji^ijv irapd/SoXov Xa- 
^ovaa Kal XavOuvovcrav, (^povrjpa Be Kal ToXpav 
eay^ev ev tw ^\i6piBaTLKU> iroXepLcp, ')^p7]craaa rat? 
2 /3aatXiKaL<i VTTv^pea-iaL'i eavTi'jV. elTa 'Vwpaiuiv 631 
ev TOt<? ep^^vXioL^ 7roXep,oi<i irepl 0vpa<i t?}? 'Yoiprjf; 
(TvpTTeaovTcov, epi]po<i ovaa (f)povpd^ rj ddXaaaa 
KaTa fiiKpov avTov'i eipelXKeTO Kal irporjyev, 

172 



POMPEY, XXIII. 3-xxiv. 2 

Now, Crassus continued the manner of life which 
he had chosen at the outset; but Pompey ceased 
his frequent appearances as an advocate, gradually 
forsook the forum, rarely shewed himself in public, 
and when he did, it was always with a retinue ot 
followers. In fact, it was no longer easy to meet 
him or even to see him without a throng around 
hhn, but he took the greatest pleasure in making 
his appearance attended by large crowds, encom- 
passing his presence thus with majesty and pomp, 
and thinking that he must keep his dignity free 
from contact and familiar association with the multi- 
tude. For life in the robes of peace has a dangerous 
tendency to diminish the reputation of those whom 
war has made great and ill suited for democratic 
equality. Such men claim that precedence in the 
city also which they have in the field, while those 
who achieve less distinction in the field feel it to be 
intolerable if in the city at any rate they have no 
advantage. Therefore when the people find a man 
active in the forum who has shone in camps and 
triumphs, they depress and humiliate him, but when 
he renounces and withdraws from such activity, they 
leave his military reputation and power untouched 
by their envy. How true this is, events themselves 
soon showed. 

XXIV. The power of the pirates had its seat in 
Cilicia at first, and at the outset it was venturesome 
and elusive ; but it took on confidence and boldness 
during the Mithridatic war,i because it lent itself to 
the king's service. Then, while the Romans were 
embroiled in civil wars at the gates of Home, the 
sea was left unguarded, and gradually drew and 
enticed them on until they no longer attacked navi- 

1 88-85, 83-81, 74b.o. 

173 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ovKeri T0t9 TrXeovai ^ovov i7nTi6€/j.€vov<;, aWa 
zeal v)]aov<; kuI iroXeii; 7Tapa\iou<i €KK67rTovra<;. 
r'jSr] Be Kal ')(pi]fiaai. hvvarol Kol yeveai XafXTrpol 
Kal TO ^ (f)povelv d^iov/j.evoi Bcatpepecv avhpe^ 
ive^atvov el<i ra XyarpiKu Kal pere2)(^ov, 60^ koI 
Bo^av riva kol (^iXoripiav tov epyou (pepovro'i. 

3 ^v Be Kal vaixnadfia TroXXa-^oOi ireLparLKa koX 
(f)pvKT(opia Teret^tcT/ueVa, Kal aroXoi TrpoaeTmrTou 
ov irXrjpcofiaTcov fiovov evavBpiai'i ovBe re^^yai^ 
Kv/SepvrjTMV ovBe rd'veai, veuiv Kal Kov(p6Trjaiv 
i^i]aKr)/jLevoi Trpos to OLKelov €p<yov, dXXa rov 
(po^epou fidXXov avrwv ro eTri^Oovov eXvirei Kal 
v7Tepr](f)avov, arvXiai ')(puaalf Kal TrapaTrerdcTfMa- 
cnv dXovpyol'i Kal irXdratfi e7rapyvpoi<;, (oaTrep 
€VTpv(f)ct)vrcov Tco KOKOvpyetv Kal KaXXcoTTc^o/xevcov. 

4 avXol Be Kal yfraXp-ol Kal /xeOat irapd irdcrav 
UKTTjv Kal (TcofidTWV rjjepovLKoJv dpirayal Kal 
TToXecov al')(^ixaXd>T(ov dTroXvTpcoaei'i 6veiBo<i r/aav 
T/}"? 'PcofiaLcov ijyefMOVLa^. eyevovTO B^ ovv al p.ev 
Xtjarp'iBe'i vi^je^i virep ')(^cXLa<i, al Be dXoucrai 7r6Xei<; 

5 utt' avro)V rerpaKoatai. rcov Be dcrvXcov Kal 
d^aTcov irporepov lepcov e^eKoyjrav em6vTe<i to 
J^XdpLov, TO AiBufialov, to ZajMoOpaKiov, tov ev 
'EpfiioPT] Ti]<; X.dovLa<; vecov Kal tov ev ^^TTiBavpw 
TOV ^ActkXtjttiov Kal tov Xadfxol Kal Taivaptp Kal 
J^aXavpta tov UoaeiBoJvo^, tov Be 'AttoWcoi^o? 
Toy ev 'Aktlw Kal AevKdBi, t>79 Be "}ipa<; top ev 
'Edp.cp, TOV ev "ApyeL, tov eirl AaKiviw, fe'va? Be 
6v(jia<i edvov avTol Td<; ev ^OXufiirrp, Kal TeXeTa? 
Tiva<i aTroppyjTovi eTeXovv, a>v 7) tov ls,Mdpov Kal 
p-expi' Beupo Biaau>(^eTac KaTaBef^Oelaa irpSiTov 
VTZ eKelvcov. 

* rb Sintenis, with SkA ; Bekker, with inferior MSS., t^; 



POMPEY, XXIV. 2-5 

gators only, but also laid waste islands and maritime 
cities. And presently men whose wealth gave them 
power, and those whose lineage was illustrious, and 
those who laid claim to superior intelligence, began 
to embark on piratical craft and share their enter- 
prises, feeling that the occupation brought them a 
certain reputation and distinction. There were also 
fortified roadsteads and signal -stations for piratical 
craft in many places, and fleets put in here which 
were not merely fui-nished for their peculiar woi'k 
with sturdy crews, skilful pilots, and light and 
speedy ships ; nay, more annoying than the fear 
which they inspired was the odious extravagance of 
their equipment, with their gilded sails, and purple 
awnings, and silvered oars, as if they rioted in their 
iniquity and plumed themselves upon it. Their 
flutes and stringed instruments and drinking bouts 
along every coast, their seizures of persons in high 
command, and their ransomings of captured cities, 
were a disgrace to the Roman supremacy. For, you 
see, the ships of the pirates numbered more than a 
thousand, and the cities captured by them four 
hundred. Besides, they attacked and plundered 
places of refuge and sanctuaries hitherto inviolate, 
such as those of Claros, Didyma, and Samothrace ; 
the temple of Chthonian Earth at Hermione ; that 
of Asclepius in Epidaurus ; those of Poseidon at 
the Isthmus, at Taenarum, and at Calauria ; those of 
Apollo at Actium and Leucas ; and those of Hera at 
Samos, at Argos, and at Lacinium. They also 
offered strange sacrifices of their own at Olympus,^ 
and celebrated there certain secret rites, among 
which those of Mitliras continue to the present time, 
having been first instituted by them. 

^ A town in southern Asia Minor, one of the strongliolds 
of the pirates. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

6 UXelara 8e 'l?o)fiaioi<; evv^piaavre'^, en Kal 
To.^ oSov^ avTcov avaj3aivoine^ utto Oa\daar]<; 
iXrjt^ovTO Kol Ta<i iyyv^ eVauXei? i^eKo-mov. 
ijpiraaav Si Trore koX crTpaTriyoLXi 8vo Xe^TbXiov 
Kal J^eWlvov iv rat? 7repL7rop(pupoi<i, Kal rov'i 
VTrripeTa<i ap,a Kal pa^So(f)6pou<; w^ofTO avv 
avroL'i €Kelvoi<; 6;^oj^t69. f]X(o Se Kal 6vyd- 
Tqp 'Avrcovlov, dpia/jij3cK0u civSpo'^, €l<; dypov 
^aSi^ovaa, Kal ttoWcov ^pij/xdrcov d.7Te\vrpco9r]. 

7 eKelvo he tjv v^piaTiKooTaTov. OTToxe yap rt^ 
ea\&)/ca)? ava^07]aeie Pcofjialo'i etvai Kal Touvop,a 
<f)pdcr€iev, eK'rre'n\ri-)(6ai TrpoaTroiovfievoi Kal BeBie- 
vai T0U9 re p.rjpov'i eiraLOVTO Kal TrpoaeTrnrTov 
avTW, a-vyyvdi)fjLy]v e)(eLv dvri^oXovine<i- 6 he 
eTreiOero raireivov^ opcov Kal heojJLevov^. eK tov- 
Tov he 01 fxev inrehovv TOi<i Ka\K[oi<; avTOv, ol he 
rrj^evvov vepie^aWov, co? hi] fxrj irdXiv dyvorjOelrj. 

8 TToXvv he ')(p6vov ovtu) KareipwyevadfievoL Kal 
diroXavaavre'i rod dvOpcoTTOV, Te'A.09 ev fiearo rre- 
Xdyei KXifiaKa TrpoajSaXovTe^ eKeXevov eK/Salvecv 
Kal aTTievai ')(aipovTa, rov he fir] ^ovXofievov 
u}6ovvTe<i avrol Karehvov. 

XXV. 'Fj-rreveLfiaTO he 1) hvva/xi<i avrrj Trdaav 
Ojjiov Ti TTjp KaO^ iip.d'i OdXaacrav, were dirXovv 
Kal a^arov efXTTopia Trdcrrj yeveaOai. tovto hrj 
fidXiara 'Pw/xatou? eTrecrTpeyfre, 6Xi/3ofj,evov<; rfj 
dyopa Kal airdvLv fieydXrjv irpoahoKOivra^, eK- 
'irefxyjrai Uofnrf'ilov d(f)aip-)]a6fX€vov tcov ireipaTCOv 
•2 TT)v ddXacraav. eypay\re he Fa/Blvio^, el? twv 
Tiofi7ry]iov avvi'jOwv, vopov ov i'avap')(lav, dvriKpvq 
he jiovapxiav avrw hihovra Kal huvafitv eirl 
TidvTa'i dvd pwTTOV^ dvvirevdvvov. ihlhov yap 



176 



POMPEY, XXIV. 6-xxv. 2 

But they heaped most insults upon the Romans, 
even going up from the sea along their roads and 
plundering there, and sacking the neighbouring 
villas. Once, too, they seized two praetors, Sex- 
tilius and Bellinus, in their purple-edged robes, and 
carried them away, together with their attendants 
and lictors. They also captured a daughter ot 
Antonius, a man who had celebrated a triumjjh, as 
she was going into the country, and exacted a large 
ransom for her. But their crowning insolence was 
this. Whenever a captive cried out tliat he was 
a Roman and gave his name, they would pretend to 
be frightened out of their senses, and would smite 
their thighs, and fall down before him entreating 
him to pardon them ; and he would be convinced of 
their sincerity, seeing them so humbly suppliant. 
Then some would put Roman boots on his feet, and 
others would tlirow a toga round him, in order, 
forsooth, that there might be no mistake about him 
again. And after thus mocking the man for a long 
time and getting their fill of amusement from him, 
at last they would let down a ladder in mid ocean 
and bid him disembark and go on his way rejoicing ; 
and if he did not wish to go, they would push him 
overboard themselves and drown him. 

XXV. This power extended its operations over 
the whole of our Mediterranean Sea, making it un- 
navigable and closed to all commerce. This was 
what most of all inclined the Romans, who were 
hard put to it to get provisions and expected a great 
scarcity, to send out Pompey with a commission to 
take the sea away from the pirates. Gabinius, one 
of Pompey's intimates, drew up a law which gave 
him, not an admiralty, but an out-and-out monarchy 
and irresponsible power over all men. For the law 

177 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ap)(€iv o vofio^ avTU) t% ivTd<; 'HpuKXeicov 
(TTrfkMV 6aKacr(Tri<i, rjireipou Be '7rucrr)<; iirl ara- 
Biov<i rerpaKoaiov^ cltto OoKdcrcrrj^;. tovto Se ov 
irdvu TToWa •y^wpia ri)^ inro Vwixaiwv oiKov/xevr}^ 
TO fxerpov i^e^vyev, dWa rd pbkyicna tmv iOvMV 
Kol TMV ^acriXewv oi Bvvarcoraroi irepieKajMJSd- 

3 vovTO. 7rpo<; Be tovtol'; eXeadat irevreKalBeKa 632 
iTpe(X^evTa<; avrov i/c /Soi/Xj}? eirl Td<; Kara fi€po<; 
rjyefiovLa^i, ')(^pi]/j.aTa Be \a/u.^dvetv ex t(ov ra- 
fiieioiv Kal irapd tcov reXwvSiv oaa ^ovXono kul 
vav<i BiaKoaLa<;, Kvpiov ovra TrXtjdovi kuI Kara- 
Xoyov cTTpaTid^ Kal TrXrjpcofidTcov epeTiKu>v. 

^ AvayvoxrdevTcov Be tovtcov 6 fiev BP]/j,o<; v-rrep- 
<f)Vco<; iBe^aro, Tr)<; Be crvyKXiJTov roi? neyiaroi^; 
Kal BvvaTcordTois eBo^e fxel^ov /xev ^Oovou, (^ojSov 
Be d^LOv eJvat to t?}? e^ovaia<i direpiXriTrrov Kal 

4 dopiaTov. odev evicFTavro toj vofiw, ttXtjv Kat- 
aapo<i' ovTO<i Be avvy]ydpei tw vop-u), TiofXTTii'iov 
fxev eXdy^Lcrra (^povri^wv, v7ToBv6/ji.evo<i Be tov 
Brjfxov ef dp)(_rj^ eavrSi Kal KTco/xevo^. ol Be dXXot 

TOV Ho/XTTTJIOV (r(f)oBpcb^ Kadl'jTrTOVTO. Kal TMV 

fiev vTrdrcov aTepo^, elircov Trpo^ avTov ore 'P(o- 
[xvXov ^rjXcov ov (f)€v^eTai tuvtov eKeivw reXo?, 
eKivBvvevaev vtto tov TrXt]Oov<; Bta(f)Oapi]vaf 

5 KdrXov Be Kara rov vofiov irpoaeXdovro'i, ttoXXtjv 
fiev alBov/ievo<; 6 Bij/j.o'i i](TV)(^iav TTapel)(ev, errel 
Be TToXXd perd rip-i]^ dv€7ri(f)66v(i)<i inrep rov 
Tlop,7r7]tov BieXOcov cruve^ovXeve (fyelBeadai Kal 
fir) 7rpo/3dXXeiv TOiovrov dvBpa kivBvvoi<; irraX- 



178 



POMPEY, XXV. 2-5 

gave him dominion over the sea this side of the 
pillars of Hercules, and over all the mainland to the 
distance of four hundred furlongs from tiie sea. 
These limits included almost all places in the Roman 
world, and the greatest nations and most powerful 
kings were comprised within them. Besides this, he 
was empowered to choose fifteen legates from the 
senate for the several principalities, and to take from 
the public treasuries and the tax-collectors as much 
money as he wished, and to have two hundred shijis, 
with full power over the number and levying of 
soldiers and oarsmen. 

When these provisions of the law were read in 
the assembly,^ the people received them with 
excessive pleasure, but the chief and most influential 
men of the senate thought that such unlimited and 
absolute power, while it was beyond the reach of 
envy, was yet a thing to be feared. Therefore they 
all opposed the law, with the exception of Caesar ; 
he advocated the law, not because he cared in the 
least for Pompey, but because from the outset he 
sought to ingratiate himself with the people and 
win their support. The rest vehemently attacked 
Pompey. And when one of the consuls told him 
that if he emulated Romulus he would not escape the 
fate of Romulus,^ he was near being torn in pieces 
by the multitude. Moreover, when Catulus came 
forward to speak against the law the people had 
regard enough for him to be quiet for some time ; 
but after he had spoken at length in Pompey's 
praise and without any disparagement of him, and 
then counselled the people to spare such a man and 

* In 67 B.C., Pompey being then thirty-nine years old. 
2 That is, he would be mysteriously put out of the way. 
Cf. the Romulus, chapter xxvii. 

179 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

X7;Xot9 «ai iroXi/jioi,^, "*H -riva" elirev, " e^ere 
aWov, av airdXea'qTe tovtov; ' ck fiia^ >yi'co/jit]<; 

6 v7r6(f>(ov)](yav airavTe^;, " Se avTov." 6 fxeu ovv 
KarXo?, ft)9 ovK eireiOev, airecnri' 'Vwctklov Se 
7rpoaeX66v'TO<i ovhel<i rjKovaev o 5e rol'i BaKTv\oi<; 
hiecrrjfxaive fii] jiovov, aWa Sevrepov a'lpelcrdat, 
JlofxiTifiov. eVl TovTfp Xeyerai hv(Tj(epdvavTa 
Tov Bfj/jLov TrjXtKourov dvuKpayelv ware vTrepireTO- 
[16V0V KopaKa tt}? dyopd'; TU(po)dPjvat Koi Kara- 

7 irecrelv et? rov oyXov. 69 ev ov SoKel pi'i^ei roi) 
depo<; Kol SiaaTraafiw Kevov iroXv XajjL/3dvovTO<i 
evoXiaOaiveiv rd TriirTOvra Toi)V opveoiv, dXXd 
TVTTTO/jieva TTj TrXrjyfj Trj<i (f)(t)vrj<i, orav ev rut 
depi adXov Koi KVfia Troijjar] ttoXXtj kuI l(7')(ypd 
(pepo/xevT]. 

XXVI. Tore /xev ovv SieXvOrjaav fj Be rj/jbipa 
rrjv yp'f](f)ov eTToicreiv efxeXXov, vire^iiXdev 6 Ilo/i.- 
'irrjio<i et9 dypov. dKovcra<; he KeKvpcoadai tov 
vo/iiov elcrrjXde vvKTcop et? ti]v ttoXlv, &>? eVt^^o- 
vov T^9 TTpo? avrov diravrrjaew'^ koL crwdpo/xij^; 
iaofievr]';. d/jia Be Tjfiepa irpoeXdoov eOvae' koX 
<y€V0/j,€V7]<; eKKX'i)cria<i ainu>, Bieirpd^aro Trpoa- 
Xa^elv erepa rroXXd Tot<? e-\jrrj(f)i(Tp,evoi<i tjBj], 
2 fiLKpov Bt7rXaaid(Ta<i rrjv irapacrKevyjv. irevra- 
KocTiai fiev yap avTW vrjc^ eTrXrjpcodTjaav, ottXi- 
Tcov Be p.vpidBe'i BcoBeica koi 7revTaKia)(^iXioi 
Imre'l'i tjOpoladijaav. ip/e/xoviKol Be koI crrpa- 
TTjyiicol KareXeyrjaav diro ^ovXrj<; dvBpe<; eiKO- 
(TiT€(Taape<i vrr^ avTov, Bvo Be rafiiai Trapijcrav. 
at Be Ti/xal tcov cji'lcov 6v9v<; Treaovaai Xoyov 

i8o 



POMPEY, XXV. 5-xxvi. 2 

not expose him to successive wars and perils, asking, 
"VV^iom else will you have if you lose him?" all 
with one accord replied, "Thyself." Catulus, 
accordingly, since he could not persuade them, 
retired ; but when Roscius came forward to speak, 
no one would listen to him. He therefore made 
signs with his fingers that they should not choose 
Pompey alone to this command, but give him a 
colleague. At this, we are told, the people were 
incensed and gave forth such a shout that a raven 
flying over the forum was stunned by it and fell 
down into the throng. From this it appears that 
such falling of birds is not due to a rupture and 
division of the air wherein a great vacuum is pro- 
duced, but that they are struck by the blow of the 
voice, which raises a surge and billow in the air 
when it is borne aloft loud and strong. 

XXVI. For the time being, then, the assembly 
was dissolved ; but when the day came for the vote 
upon the law, Pompey withdrew privately into the 
country. On hearing, however, that the law had 
been passed, he entered the city by night, feeling 
that he was sure to awaken envy if the people 
thronged to meet him. But when day came, he 
appeared in public and offered sacrifice, and at an 
assembly held for him he managed to get many 
other things besides those already voted, and almost 
doubled his armament. For five hundred ships were 
manned for him, and a hundred and twenty thou- 
sand men-at-arms and five thousand horsemen were 
raised. Twenty-four men who had held command 
or served as praetors were chosen from the senate 
by him, and he had two quaestors. And since the 
prices of provisions immediately fell, the people 



181 

VOL. V G 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

rjSo/jLev(p TU) Si]/J-ai irapeX^ov, 0)9 avro robuofxa tou 
JJoflTTTjlOV \e\vK€ TOV TToXe/xov. 

3 Ov fj,r]v dWa BteXcov ra TreXdyrj Kal to Scd- 
arrjixa rrj<i evTO<i 6a\dcra7)<; ei? /-I'Spt] rpiaKaiSeKa, 
Kal vecov dpiOpov e<^' eKdarcp kuI dp-^ovTa rd^wi, 
dfia iravTa^ov rfj Bvvdpet aKeBaadeicrt] to, fiev 
i/jLTTLTTTOVTa TMv TTeipaTiKcov ddpou TTepiXafx^dvcov 
€vdv<i e^edrjpcLTO Kal Kariiyev ol Be ^OdaavTe<; 
BiaXvOrjvai Kal BieKTreaovre^i coairep et? crfii]vo<f 
iBvovro iravTa')(^o6ev KaTa<^ep6p.evoL rrjv HiXiKiav, 
e'^' ou<i atiTO? ecTTeWeTO vaO? €)^o}v e^iJKovra ra? 

4 dpi(JTa<i. ov p,r)V rrporepov iir eKCLvowi e^e- 
ifKevoev r) TravrdnaaL KaOripai tmv avroOt 
XrjaTrjpicov to 'Tvppi]vi.Kov iriXa'yo'i, to Ai/3vkov, 
TO irepl SapBoua Kal Kvpvov Kal XiKeXiav, 
ri/jiepai<i reaaapdKOvra Tal? 7rdcrai<i, avrw re 
y^pdipLeva drpvTW Kal roi<; (TrpaTrjyol^; 7rpodvp,OL<i. 

XXVII. 'Ev Be 'Pd)pr} TOV vTrdrov Ileicrwi/o? 
opyfj Kal (f)d6va) Xvpaivop-evov Tt]v TrapacrKevrjv 
Kal BiaXvovro<; rd TrXrjpdypara, to pev vavTiKov 
€19 ^pevT^aiov TrepLiirep-^ev, avTo<; Be Bia Tvp- 633 
pr]via<i ei9 'Fd>p.r]v dve^aivev. alaOopievoL Be 
irdvTe<i e^e^vOi]aav et9 ttjv oBov, wcnrep ov irpo 
2 rjpepcov oXlywv €K7T€p,yp-avTe<i avrov. eiroiet Be 
TTjV ■)(apnv TO Trap" eXTzlBa t?}9 pi€Ta^oXf]<; rdyo'i, 
virep^dXXovaav dcjiOovlav t>}9 dyopd<i e')(ovai]'?. 
66ev Tleiacov eKivBvvevcre rr}v virareiav acpai- 
peOrjvai, Va^iVLOV v6/xov exovTo<i 7]Bt) avyyeypap.- 
fievov. dXXd Kal tovto BteKOiXvcrev o no/i7r7/(09, 
Kal ToXXa 'X^pr]p,aTiaa<i iTrieiKO)^ Kal Biairpa^d- 

182 



POMPEY, xxvi. 2-xxvn. 2 

were moved to say in their joy that the very name 
of Pompey had put an end to the war. 

However, he divided the waters and the adjacent 
coasts 1 of the Mediterranean Sea into thirteen 
districts, and assigned to each a certain number of 
ships with a commander, and with his forces thus 
scattered in all quarters he encompassed whole fleets 
of piratical ships that fell in his way, and straight- 
way hunted them down and brought them into port ; 
others succeeded in dispersing and escaping, and 
sought their hive, as it were, hurrying from all 
quarters into Cilicia. Against these Pompey in- 
tended to proceed in person with his sixty best 
ships. He did not, however, sail against them until 
he had entirely cleared of their pirates the Tyrr- 
henian Sea, the Libyan Sea, and the sea about 
Sardinia, Corsica, and Sicily, in forty days all told. 
This was owing to his own tireless energy and the 
zeal of his lieutenants. 

XX Vn. But the consul Piso at Rome, out of 
wrath and envy, was interfering with Pompey 's 
equipment and discharging his crews ; Pompey 
therefore sent his fleet i-ound to Brundisium, while 
lie himself went up by way of Tuscany to Rome. On 
learning of this, the citizens all streamed out into 
the road, just as if they had not escorted him forth 
only a few days before. What caused their joy was 
the unhoped for rapidity of the change, the market 
being now filled to overflowing with provisions. 
As a consequence Piso came near being deprived of 
his consulship, and Gabinius had the requisite law 
already written out. But Pompey prevented this, 
as well as other hostile acts, and after arranging 
everything else in a reasonable manner and getting 

* Cf. chapter xxv. 2. 

183 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

fievo<i MV iBeiTo, Kara/3a<i ei? Bpevrecnov e^e- 

3 irXevaev. iireiyo/J-evoq 8e rco Kaipw kol irapa- 
irXecov Ta<; TroXei? vtto airovSij^, o/iw? ov TrapfjXOe 
TUf; *K6rjVa<i, avafSa<; Be koI Ovtra^ toI<; 0€oi<i koI 
Txpocra'yoptvaa^ tov Brj/xou evdvi uttloov aveji- 
vcoaKCv eh avrov iin'ye'ypafiiieva fiovoarL'^ay to 
jxev evr6<i t?}? TryX?;?* 

'E^' ocrop oi)v avdpcoTTo^; olBa<i, iirl roaovrov el 
6e6<;' 

TO O eKTOf 

UpoaeBoKM/xev, irpoaetcvvovjiev, e'lBojxev, irpo- 
7re/ji7ro/jiev. 

4 CTrei Be tmv crvveaTcoToov en Ka\ TrXavw/jLevcov e^co 
Tr€cpart]pi(i)v evLOi<i Bei]6elcnv eTrieiKco^; i^pTjaaro 
KOL 'jrapaKa^oiv ra TrXota Koi ra acofiara kukov 
ovBev €Troit]aev, eV e'XTrtSo? ^/ot^cttt}? ot Xolttol 
>yev6pevot tou? p.ev aWovi Biecfyeuyou i)'ye/u,6va<;, 
tlopLTryyio) Be <^epovre<i kavrov<; fieTU reKvcov koI 
lyvvaiKOiv eve')(eLpL^ov. 6 Be irdvrcov e(f)eiBeTo, 
Kal fiaXiara Bca Tovrcov Tov<i eVi Xavddvovra^ 
e^L-^vevwv Kal Xapb^dvwv eKoXa^ev a)9 avrovf 
eavTol<i dvt]K€(TTa (TvveiBora'i. 

XXVIII. Ot Be irXelaTOi Kal BwarcoTaTOi, 
y€vea<i /xev avTcov Kal '^p/jp.ara Kal tov dxp^o-rov 
ox^ov ev ^povploL'i Kal TToXiafiacri KapTepo2<i 
Trepl TOV Taupov c^X^^ drroKeip-eua, Ta<i Be vav<i 
7rX7]p(t}aavT€<i avrol Trepl to K.opaKJ]cyiov Trj<i 
KiXi/cia? eTTLTrXeovra tov Uop,7n]iov eBe^avTO' 
Kal fidxvi >yevo/xev7]<i viKrjOevTe^ eTToXiopKovvTO. 
reXa Be Trefx^lravTe^; iKeTrjpia^ TrapeBoiKav eavTov; 
Kal TToXei'i Kal vtjaov; Siv eireKpaTOvv evTeiXi-- 

184 



POMPEY, XXVII. 2-xxviii. I 

what he wanted, went down to Brundisium and set 
sail. But though his immediate business was urgent 
and he sailed past other cities in his haste, still, he 
could not pass Athens by, but went up into the city, 
sacrificed to the gods, and addressed the people. 
Just as he was leaving the city, he read two inscrij)- 
tions, each of a single verse, addressed to him, one 
inside the gate : — 

" As thou knowest thou art mortal, in so far thou art 
a god ; " 

and the other outside : — 

"We awaited, we saluted, we have seen, and now 
conduct thee forth." 

Some of the pirate bands that were still roving at 
large begged for mercy, and since he treated them 
humanely, and after seizing their ships and persons 
did them no further harm, the rest became hopeful 
of mercy too, and made their escape from the other 
commanders, betook themselves to Pompey with 
their wives and children, and surrendered to him. 
All these he spared, and it was chiefly by their aid 
that he tracked down, seized, and punished tliose 
who were still lurking in concealment because con- 
scious of unpardonable crimes. 

XXVIII. But the most numerous and powerful 
had bestowed their families and treasures and useless 
folk in forts and strong citadels near the Taurus 
mountains, while they themselves manned their 
ships and awaited Pompey's attack near the promon- 
tory of Coracesium in Cilicia ; here they were 
defeated in a battle and then besieged. At last, 
however, they sent suppliant messages and sur- 
rendered themselves, together with the cities and 
islands of which they were in control ; these they 

i8s 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

crdfievoi, y^dXeTrcif ^laadrjvai koX hvcnrpoaireXd- 

2 crTOU?. KareKvOrj fiev ovv 6 TToXeixo^; koX ra 
TravTa^ov XTjarypia rr}? OaXdaatj^; i^eireaev ovk 
iv TrXelovt y^povfo rpiMV /bLr/vcov, vav<; Se TToXXa? 
/jl€V dWa<;, ivevi]Kovra he yakKe^^oXovi irape- 
XajSev. avTov^ Be Sia/xvplcov iT\eiova<; yevofievovii 
dveXelv fiev ovSe e/SovXevaaro, fieOeivai Be koX 
TTepuBelv aKeBaaOevra^ t) av(TrdvTa<; avOi<;, i 

d'JT6pOV<i Kol 7T0\€/XIK0V<; KOI TToWoU? ^ 6vTa<;, OVK 

3 (pero KaX(i}<i e')(^etv. evvoyjcra^; ovv on (pvaei fxev 
dv0pQ)7ro<; ovre fyeyovev ovr ecrriv dvtjpepov ^wov 
ovB dfiiKTOV, dXX' e^icxraTai rfj KaKio, irapa 
(pvaiv ^p&j/ieyo?, eOecn Be Koi tottcov koI jSiwv 
pera^oXal^i e^iipepovrai, koI drjpia Be " Bialrt]^ 
Kotvcovovvra rrpaoTepa^ eKBverai to dypiov xal 
•y^aXeTTOv, €<yv(i) tou? ai'Bpa<; eh yrjv fieracpepeiv 
€K Try? OdXdacTi]^ Kal ^iov yeveiv e7rieiKov<i, avv- 

4 eOiaOevTa<; iv TroXeaiv oIkcIv Kal jewpyelv. eviov<i 
fxev ovv at piKpal Kal vireprjfjioi rcov K.iXLKa}v 
7roXef9 eBe^avTO Kal Karefxi^av eavral^ ')((opav 
'rrpoaXajBovaai, ttjv Be l^oXicov rjpTj/jiQypevrjv evay- 
^09 VTTO Tiypdvov Tov ^Ap/uLeviwv ^acTLXea)<; i 
dvdXa^wv 'IBpvae TroXXovf iv avrfj. rol<i Be I 
TToXXoi? otKTjWjpiov eBcoKc Avp,r]v rrjv A')(atBa, 
-Xpipevovaav dvBpoiv Tore, yrjv Be ttoXXtjv Kal 
dyaOrjv €')(ov(xav. 

XXIX. TaOra fiev ovv ol ^a(TKaivovTe<i eyfreyov 
Tot9 ^e irepl }^pr]Ti]v Trpaxdelat tt/oo? MereXXoi^ 
ouS' ol Trdvv (f)iXovvTe<i avrov €')(atpov. 6 yap 

^ Kol iroWovs Coraes and Bekker, with S^: tovs iroWovs 
after Stephamis [most of them heing, etc.). 

* Sf supplied, after Eniperius ; Bekker has oirov koi Q-rjpia, 
after Coraes. 

i86 ^ 



POMPEY, XXVIII. i-xxix. I 

had fortified, makin<:f thcin hard to get at and diffi- 
cult to take by storm. The war was therefore 
brought to an end and all piracy driven from the 
sea in less than three morrths, and besides many 
other ships, Pompey received in surrender ninety 
which had brazen beaks. The men themselves, who 
were more than twenty thousand in number, he did 
not once think of putting to death ; and yet to let 
them go and suffer them to disperse or band together 
again, poor, warlike, and numerous as they were, he 
thought was not well. Reflecting, therefore, that 
by nature man neither is nor becomes a wild or an 
unsocial creature, but is transformed by the unnatural 
practice of vice, whereas he may be softened by 
new customs and a change of place and life ; also 
that even wild beasts put off their fierce and savage 
ways when they partake of a gentler mode of life, he 
deteiTnined to transfer the men from the sea to land, 
and let them have a taste of gentle life by being 
accustomed to dwell in cities and to till the ground. 
Some of them, therefore, were received and incor- 
porated into the small and half-deserted cities ot 
Cilicia, which acquired additional territory ; and 
after restoring the city of Soli, which had lately 
been devastated by Tigranes, the king of Armenia, 
Pompey settled many there. To most of them, 
however, he gave as a residence D3'me in Achaea, 
which was then bereft of men and had much good 
land. 

XXIX. Well, then, his maligners found fault with 
these measures, and even his best friends were not 
pleased with his treatment of Metellus in Crete. 

187 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

MeVeWo?, OiKeio<; cov eKeivov rov avvdp^avTO<; 
ev ^l^rjpia tco UofiTTrjia), (TTpaTTjyo'i et? l^pijrrjv 
€7T€p,(f)67] irporepov rj rov Ilo/ji,Tr7]iov aipedrjvar 
Bevrepa yap Tf? rjv avrrj rcov -rreipaTijplaiv ir-qyrj 
p-era rrjv ev YLiKiKta,' koI ttoWou? eyKardXa^Qiv 

2 6 MereWo? e^rjpei koI Biecfideipev. ol he irepiovre^ 634 
en Kol TToXLopKovp.evoL irep^'^avTe'^ iKerrjpiav 
erreKoKovvTO rov Tlo pb-n /fiov et? ti]v vrjcrov, w? 

T% eKeivov /j.epo<; ovaav a/5%/}9 Kal TTavTa-)(^6dev 
ipurLTTTOvaav e/'? to p,erpov ro utto 6a\daari<;. 
6 he he^dp,evo<; eypa(pe rw MereXXw /ccoXvcov rov 
TTokepbov. eypa(^e he Kal Tal<; TroXeat p,rj Trpoa- 
e)(eiv MereWci), Kal arpaTrjyov eirepb^lre tmv v(f) 

3 eavTov dp')(^6vTcov eva AevKiov 'OKraoviov, o? 
(TVi'ei(Te\6aiv et? ra Tei-)(r] toi<; 7ro\iopKOvp,evoi<; 
Kal p.a'X^opbevo^ pier avrwv, ov pLovov eTray^drj Kal 
^apvv, dWa Kal KarayeXaarov eTTolet tov Hopi- 
TTTjlov, dvdp(07roi<i dvoaioi<; Kal dOeoi^ rovvopua 
Kiy^pdvra Kal TrepuiTrrovTa rr]V aurov ho^av 
Mairep dXe^L(f)dppLaKov vtto (f)6ovov Kal (j)iXoTipiia<i 

4 T/}? 7r/3o<? TOV M^ereXXov. ovhe yap rov ^A'x^tXXea ! 
TTOielv dvhpo<i epyov, dXXa pieipaKiov TravrdTracriv 
ipLirX^KTOv Kal aeao^rjpevov Trpo<; ho^av, dva- 
vevovra TOt<; dXXot<i Kal hiaKwXvovra ^dXXeiv 
'E/cTopa, 

Mt; Tf9 Kvho<; dpono ^aXciiv, o he hevTepo<; eXOor 

5 Tlop,Tr7]lov he Kal aai^eiv v7repp.a')(^ovvTa twv 
KOLVwv TToXepiiwv eirl rG> rov OplapL^ov dc^eXeaOat 
crrpaT7]you TToXXa TreTrovrjKOTO^. ov piijv evehco- 

i88 



POMPEY, XXIX. 2-5 

Metellus, a kinsman of the Metellus who was a 
colleague of Pompey in Spain, had been sent as 
general to Crete before Pompey was chosen to his 
command ; for Crete was a kind of second source 
for pirates, next to Cilicia. Metellus hemmed in 
many of them and was killing and destroying them. 
But those who still survived and were besieged 
sent suppliant messages to Pompey and invited him 
into the island, alleging that it was a part of his 
government, and that all parts of it were within the 
limit to be measured from the sea.^ Pompey 
accepted the invitation and wrote to Metellus 
putting a stop to his war. He also wrote the 
cities not to pay any attention to Metellus, and sent 
them one of his own officers as general, namely, 
Lucius Octavius, who entered the strongholds of the 
besieged pirates and fought on their side, thus 
making Pompey not only odious and oppressive, but 
actually ridiculous, since he lent his name to godless 
miscreants, and threw around them the mantle of 
his reputation to serve like a charm against evil, 
through envy and jealousy of Metellus. For not 
even Achilles played the part of a man, men said, 
but that of a youth wholly crazed and frantic in his 
quest of glory, when he made a sign to the rest 
which prevented them from smiting Hector, 

" Lest some one else win honour by the blow, 
and he come only second " ; ^ 

whereas Pompey actually fought in behalf of the 
common enemy and saved their lives, that he might 
rob of his triumph a general who had toiled hard 
to win it. Metellus, however, would not give in, 

^ C£. chapter xxv. 2. « lUad, xxii. 207. 

189 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

KGv MereX/Vo?, aWa tov<s re 7reipaTa<i i^eXoii' 
erLfxwprjaaTo, koX top OKraoviov ev rS) crrpaTO- 
TTehcp Ka6v^plaa<; Kal \oiSop/]aa<; d(pi]Kev. 

XXX. ^ATrayy€\OevTo<i Be et? 'Pcofiijv wepw; 
€-)(eiv TOP ireipaTLKov iroXefiov koL a-^oXrjv ayovra 
TOP Uo/nrr'fiov e-rrepxeaOai, ra? 7r6Xei<;, ypdc^et 
vofxov eh TMV S^jfidp^cov MaXXio?, octt;? Aeu- 
«oA,Xo9 dp^ei ^(opa<; koI Bvvd/j,€a)>;, Uo/J-Try^iov 
TTapaXa^ovra Trdcrav, irpocrXa^ovTa Be Kal Bidu- 
viav, rjv e%ei TXa^piwv, iroXepbelv l^hdpiSdrr] Kal 
Tiypdi'Tj roi'i ^aatXevaiv, e^ovra Kal rip vauri- 
Kijv Bvva/jLiv Kat to Kparo<i Try? 6aXd(Tari<i €(f) 

2 0Z9 eXa^ev i^ dp-)(rj<;. rovro S' ^v e<^' evl 
auXX-q^Briv yeveadai rrjv 'Pco/naiO)V riyefiovlav 
cov yap eBoK€L fiovcov e7j-ap)(^io!)v /nr) ecpiKveiaOai, 
To5 irpoTepw v6fi(p, ^pvyla^, AvKaovLa^, VaXaTLa<;, 
Ka7r7raBoKLa<;, K.iXiKia<i, t/)? dvco KoX^j^tSo?, 'A/J- 
fj,evLa<i, avrai irpocreTLOevTO /xera arpaTOireBcov 
Kal Bvvdjiewv ah AeuKoXXo<i KajeTroXep^rjcre 

3 MidptBdrrjv Kal Tiypdvrjv. dXXd AevKoXXov 
fiep aTToaTepovfiepov rrjp Bo^ap cor KareipydcraTO 
Kal 6pid/x^ov fidXXop rj rrroXefiov BLaBo-)(rip Xafi- 
^dpOPrO<i, l^TTCiiP X0709 TjP Toh dpiaTOKpaTLKoh, 
KaiTTep olo/xepoL<; dBiKa Kal d'y^dpiara 7rda)(^eip 
TOP dpBpa, rrjp Be Buvap^ip rov Uo/LL7r7]tov /3ap€0)<; 
(f)epoPTe<; co? rvpapplBa KaOia-Tafiepyjp, IBia irape- 
KdXovp Kal irapeOdppvvop avrov'i eTriXa^eaOat 
Tov po/xov Kal fii) TTpoeaOat rrjp iXevdepiap. 



190 



POMPEY, XXIX. i-xxx. 3 

but captured the pirates and punished them, and 
then sent Octavius away after insulting and abusing 
him before the army. 

XXX. When word was brought to Rome that the 
war against the pirates was at an end, and that 
Pompey, now at leisure, was visiting the cities, 
ManUus,^ one of the popular tribunes, proposed a law 
giving Pompey all the country and forces which 
Lucullus commanded, with the addition, too, of 
Bithynia, which Glabrio ^ had, and the commission 
to wage war upon Mithridates and Tigranes, the 
kings, i-etaining also his naval force and his dominion 
over the sea as he had originally received them. 
But this meant the placing of the Roman supremacy 
entirely in the hands of one man ; for the only 
provinces which were held to be excluded from his 
sway by the former law, namely, Phrygia, Lycaonia, 
Galatia, Cappadocia, Cilicia, Upper Colchis, and Ar- 
menia, these were now added to it, together with the 
military forces which Lucullus had used in his con- 
quest of Mithridates and Tigranes. But though 
Lucullus was thus robbed of the glory of his achieve- 
ments, and was receiving a successor who would 
enjoy his triumph rather than prosecute the war,^ 
this was of less concern to the aristocratic party, 
although they did think that the man was unjustly 
and thanklessly treated ; they were, however, dis- 
pleased at the power given to Pompey, which they 
regarded as establishing a tyranny, and privately 
exhorted and encouraged one another to attack the 
law, and not to surrender their freedom. But when 

^ More correctly, Manilius. The Manilian law was passed 
in 66 B.C. Cf. the oration of Cicero Pro Ltye Manilia. 

* Glabrio, consul in 67 B.C., had been sent out to supersede 
Lucullus. 

* Cf. the Lucullus, xxxv. 7. 

191 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

4 evcrrdvTO^ he rov Kaipou, rov Bij/nov <^o^r]6evT€<; 
e^eXiTTOv Kol KareaicoTrrjaav ol Xolttol, KarA-o? 
he rov vofiov iroWa KaTtjyoptjaa'; koI tov 677- 
/iidp)(^ov, fJLrjheva he ireiOwv, eKeXeve rrjv fiovXrjv 
ciTTo TOV /3/;^aT09 KeKpa'yco'^ TroWaKLf 6po<i i^rjrelv, 
oicnrep ol Trpoyovoi, /cat Kprj/xvov, ottov Kara- 

5 (^vyovaa htaauxrei rrjv iXevOepiav. eKvpdodrj 6' 
ovv I'ofJbO'i, CO? XeyovcTL, TraVat? Tal<; ^uXal^, koI 
Kvpio<i uTToheheiKTO purj irapwv 6 noyU7r?;io9 dirdv- 
Tfov a-)(ehov oiv SfXXa? ovrXot? Kal nroXepiw rri<i 
TToXeo)? Kparrjoa^. avTO<i he he^dpLeva ra ypd/x- 
fiara koI irvdopLeva ra hehoyp.eva, tmv (f^lXoov 
Trapovrcov koI crvvrjhopiivwv, ra<; 6(^pv'i Xeyerai 
(Tvvayayelv koI tov pLrjpov iraTd^at Kal elrrelv 
CO? av /3apvv6fievo<; i'jhrj koI hvcr^^^epaii'oov to dp- 

6 %etv "^ev T(ov dvrjvvTcov ddXcov, (1)9 d,pa KpetTTov 
rjv eva tcov dho^cov yevecrOai, el firjheiroTe Ttav- 
aop,ai crTpaTev6pbevo<i pbijhe tov (f)d6vov tovtov 
eKhv<; iv dypw hiaiTijao/xai, p.eTa t?;? yuvaiKO'i.'^ 635 
i(f)' ol? \eyop.evoi<; ovh' ol irdvv avvrjdei^ ecfiepov 
avTov TrjV elpcovelav, yivcoaKOVTe^ otc t?}? €fx(f)VTov 
(f)iXoTLp,ia<; Kal (})t\ap)(^La<; vireKKavpLa ttjv 7rp6<i 
AevKoXXov ey^MV hia(f)opdv /j,€i^6va><; e'x^aipev. 

XXXL 'A/ieAet he Kal to, epya ra^^^eo)? avTOV 
direKaXviTTe. TravTa^ov yap eKTLdel<i hiaypdp,- 
fiaTa T0v<; (TTpaTicoTa<i dveKaXeiTO Kal /teTevre'/i- 
TTCTO TOV<; VTcrjKoov^; hvvdaTa<i Kal l3aaLXel<; o)? 
eavTov. eTTicov re ttjv yjcopav ovhev aKivrjTov eta 
Twi^ VTTO TOV AevKoXXov yeyovoTCOV, dXXa Kal 



192 



POMPEY, XXX. 4-xxxi. i 

the time came, their hearts failed them through fear 
of the people, and all held their peace except Catulus; 
he denounced the law at great length and the tribune 
who proposed it, and when none of the people would 
listen to him, he called out in loud tones from the 
rostra urging the senate again and again to seek out 
a mountain, as their forefathers had done,^ or a lofty 
rock, whither they might fly for refuge and preserve 
their freedom. But still the law was passed by 
all the tribes, as we are told, and Pompey, in his 
absence, was proclaimed master of almost all the 
powers which Sulla had exercised after subduing the 
city in armed warfare. Pompey himself, however, on 
receiving his letters and learning what had been 
decreed, while his friends surrounded him with their 
congratulations, frowned, we are told, smote his thigh, 
and said, in the tone of one who was already op- 
pressed and burdened with command : " Alas for 
my endless tasks ! How much better it were to be 
an unknown man, if I am never to cease from military 
service, and cannot lay aside this load of envy and 
spend my time in the country with my wife ! " As 
he said this, even his intimate friends could not 
abide his dissimulation ; they knew that his enmity 
towards Lucullus gave fuel to his innate ambition 
and love of power, and made him all the more 
delighted. 

XXXI. And certainly his actions soon unmasked 
him. For he sent out edicts in all directions calling 
the soldiers to his standard, and summoned the 
subject potentates and kings into his presence. 
Moreover, as he traversed the country, he left 
nothing undisturbed that Lucullus had done, but 

^ In reference to the secession of the plebs to Mons Sacer. 
See the Coriolanua, cliapter vi. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

KoXda€i'i avi]ffe 7toWoI<; koI h(iipea<; cK^eCXeTO kul 
iravra oXw? eTrparrev eTriSel^ai top avhpa (f)i\o- 
veiKutv TOLf Oavfid^ovatv ou8evo<i ovra Kvpiov. 

2 iyKaXovvTo^ 8' eKelvov hia tmv <^l\o)v, eBo^e 
avveXOelv et? raino- kol avvrfkOov irepl ttjv 
VaKarLav. ola Se fxeytcncov (TTpar^]'y6)v Kal 
^e'yiara KUTcopOcoKOTcov Bd(f)vaL<i dvearefMfxei'a'i 
e)(^ovTe<i 6/jLov koI to? pd^8ov<; ol vTrr/perai 
d7n']VTWv' dWa AevKoWo^ fiev e'/c roiTbiv yXoepoiv 
Kal KaraaKLcov irpocrriei, YiopLirifio'i he TTdWi]v 
ahevhpov Kal KaTeyjrvy/jLevrjv €TV)(e SteXrjXvOcoi;. 

3 l86vT€<; ouv OL Tov AevKoXXov pa^8o(f)opot rod 
Ilop,7n]iov Td<i 8dcf)va<i dOaWei^; Kal /ne/xapa/j,- 
fj-eva'i TravTUTraatv, €k tmv ISlwv irpoa^dTwv 
ovao)v fieraSiSovTe'i eireKoafx'qaav Kal Karecne^\rav 
rd^ eKeivov pd^Sov^. o arj/xelov eho^ev elvat 
TOV Ta AeuKoWou VLKrjT)]pia Kal Tr]v So^av olcro- 

4 fxevov epx^aOat TIo/u.7n']iov. r]V he AevKoWo^ 
fiev ev uTrareta? re rd^ei, Kal KaO i^XiKcav nrpea- 
^vTepo<i, TO Be TOV Tlofnrrjiov p,eitov d^LMfia Tot? 
Bval 6pidfi^oi<i. ov /xrjv dXXd ttjv TrpcoTTjv ev- 
Tev^LV ct)9 evrjv p-dXiara 7ToXiTiKoi)<i Kal (piXo- 
(f)p6vco<i eTTon'^aavTo, pbe'yaXvvovTe<i dXXtjXoov Ta 
epja Kal avvi^hopievoi rot? KaTopOcopLaatv ev 8e 
TOA? \6yoL<; irpo^ ovhev eViet/ce? ovSe fieTpiov 
av/jL^dvTe<i, dXXd Kal XoL8opi]aavT€'i, o /xev eZ? 
(f)iXap'yup[av tov AevKoXXov, 6 he el<; (jiiXapx^iav 
eKelvov, VTTO tmv (plXcov /x6Xi<i hieXvOtjaav. 

5 Kat AevKoXXoi; fiev ev VaXaTia hieypa-^e xd>- 
pa<; T?}? al'^fiaXcoTOV Kal hcoped'i dXXa^ oh e^ov- 
Xero, Uofnrt]Lo<i he puKpov dircoTepco crTpaTOirehev- 
aa'i eKwiXve rrpoae^eiv avTU), Kat tou? aTpuTiMTa'i 



194 



POMPEY, XXXI. 1-5 

remitted punishments in many cases, and took away 
rewards, and did everything, in a word, with an 
eager desire to shew the admirers of that general 
that he was wholly without power. Lucullus ex- 
postulated through his friends, and it was decided 
that they should have a meeting ; they met, there- 
fore, in Galatia. And since both were very great 
and very successful generals, their lictors had their 
rods alike wreathed with laurel when they met ; but 
Lucullus was advancing from green and shady regions, 
while Pompey chanced to have made a long march 
through a parched and treeless country. Accordingly, 
when the lictors of Lucullus saw that Pompey's 
laurels were withered and altogether faded, they 
took some of their own, which were fresh, and with 
them wreathed and decorated his rods. This was 
held to be a sign that Pompey was coming to rob 
Lucullus of the fruits of his victories and of his 
glory. Now, Lucullus had been consul before Pompey, 
and was older than he ; but Pompey's two triumphs 
gave him a greater dignity. At first, however, their 
interview was conducted with all possible civility 
and friendliness, each magnifying the other's exploits 
and congratulating him on his successes ; but in the 
conferences which followed they could come to no 
fair or reasonable agreement, nay, they actually 
abused each other, Pompey charging Lucullus with 
love of money, and Lucullus charging Pompey with 
love of power, and they were with ditticulty separated 
by their friends. 

Furthermore, Lucullus, remaining in Galatia, as- 
signed parts of the conquered territory and made 
other gifts to whom he pleased ; while Pompey, en- 
camped at a little distance from him, tried to prevent 
any attention to his commands, and took away all 

195 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

UTrapra^ d(f)€L\€TO irXrjv ^iXtwy e^UKOcncov, ov^ 
evofii^ev viT avdaheia<i a-^pijaTOV^ fiev eavro), rw 

6 AgvkoWm he hvo-jxevel^ elvai. 7rpo<; 8e rovToi<i 
Siacrvpcov ta epja ifx(pavci)<i eXeye rpaywBtai'i 
Kal aKiaypa(f)i,ac'i TreTToXe/xrjKevai ^aai.XiKal<; top 
AevKoXXov, avTW he Trpo<i dXrjOivrjv Kol aeacocppo- 
pi(T/xev>]v TOP dyoiva XeiireaOai huvafxiv, eh Ou- 
p€Ov<i Kal ^l(f)i] Kal imrou^; ^lidpihdrov Kura- 
^tvyovTO<i. djivvo^evo^ he o AevKoXXo<i eihcoXfo 
Kal <7Kid TToXefMov TOP n.o/j,7n]iop ecprj /xa)(^ovfxepop 
^ahi^etp, eWiajxepop dXXoTpLoi<i peKpoh, locnrep 
opptp dpybv, eiTLKaTaipeiP Kal Xei-^apa TroiXe/xoop 

7 airapdaaeiv. ovtco yap avTOP iTTiypdyfrai, 2.ep- 
Twpiw, Aeirihw, tol<; '%7rapTaKeL0L<i, rd p.ev Kpdcr- 
aou, rd he MereXXov, rd he KaxXoi; KaTcopOco- 
KOTOf. odep ou 0avfA,d^€tp el twv ^ KppbePLuKWP 
Kal WoPTLKOiP TToXifxcop vTTO^dXXeTac Ti]P ho^av, 
dp6pwno<i eavTOP eh hpaireTLKOV Opia^^op d[iS)<i 
ye TTw? ifi^aXeiP firj^aprjadfiepo'i. 

XXXII. 'E« TOVTOV AeuKoXXo<; fiep dirrjpe, 
Tlo^7r7)Lo<; he rw cftoXw iraprl ri-jp jxera^v ^oipl- 
«r;9 Kal BouTropou OdXaaaav eirl cppovpa hia- 
\aj3(op, avT6<i efidhi^ep eirl MiOpihdTrjP, e^opra 
rpia/xvpiov<i 7re^ov<i ep (jidXayyc Kal hia'X^tXiov'i 
2 iinreh, fidj^eadai he /a^ dappovpra. Kal nrpcorop 
jxep avTov Kaprepop 6po<; Kal hvapa^^op, ep a> 
cnparoirehevuip eTV)(ep, d)<; dpvhpop eKXnrovTO'i, 
avTo Tovro KaTaa^cup o IIo/47r?;io9, «ai t>7 (pvaei 
TOiP ^XacTTaPOPTociP Kal rah avyKXiviai^ tmp 
TOTTcop T€Kfiaip6/u,epo'i e^etv irrjyd'i to 'Xfopiop, 
196 



POMPEY, XXXI. 6-xxxii. 2 

his soldiers from him, except sixteen hundred, whose 
mutinous spirit made them, as he thought, useless to 
himself and hostile to Lucullus.^ Besides this, he 
would belittle the achievements of LucuUus, de- 
claring that he had waged war against mimic and 
shadowy kings only, while to himself there was now 
left the struggle against a real military force, and 
one disciplined by defeat, since Mithridates had now 
betaken himself to shields, swords, and horses. To 
this Lucullus retorted that Pompey was going forth 
to fight an image and shadow of war, following his 
custom of alighting, like a lazy carrion-bird, on bodies 
that others had killed, and tearing to pieces the 
scattered remnants of wars. For it was in this way 
that he had appropriated to himself the victories 
over Sertorius, Lepidus, and the followers of Spartacus, 
although they had actually been won by Metellus, 
Catulus, and Crassus. Therefore it was no wonder 
that he was trying to usurp the glory of the Pontic 
and Armenian wars, a man who had contrived to 
thrust himself in some way or other into the honour 
of a triumph for defeating runaway slaves.'- 

XXXII. After this, Lucullus withdrew from those 
parts, and Pompey, having distributed his whole fleet 
so as to guard the sea i)etween Phoenicia and the 
Bosporus, himself marched against Mithridates, who 
had a fighting force of thirty thousand foot and two 
thousand horse, but did not dare to offer battle. To 
begin with, the king was strongly encamped on a 
mountain which was difllcult of assault, but abandoned 
it, supposing that it had no water. Pompey took pos- 
session of this very mountain, and judging by the 
nature of the vegetation and by the channels in the 
slopes that the place had springs, ordered his men to 

' C£. the LucuUus, xvi. 1-4. ^ Cf. chapter xxi. 2. 

197 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

eKeXevaev cK^aXelv 7ravTa-)^ou (^peara. koX fie- 
arov Tjv ev6u<i v8aT0<i dcpdovou rh cnparoTrehov, 
ware Oaufid^eiv el tw ttuvtI ^p6uu> lovro Mi^pt- 

3 BdTT]<i rjyvorjaev. eirena irepKTrparo-nehevaa'i 636 
ire pier ei'X^L^ev avrov. 6 he irevre kul Terrapd- 
Kovra 7roXLopKy]del<i rj/j,epa<i eXadev d7roSpd<; /xera 
T^? epp(i)ixev€ardTrj<; 8uvdp.€0)<i, Kreiva^ tou? a^/3»;- 
CTOvi Kal vocrovvTa<i. elra fxevTOi irepl rbv 
^vfppdrrjv KarakajBoov avrov o Ho/u,Trtj'io^ irape- 
cnparoireZevae' Kal SeStco? fit] (pOdcrrj Trepdawi 
TOP ^v^pdjrjv, €K fieacou vuktmv iTTr,yev ounXt- 

4 apLeuTjv rrjv cnparidv Kad^ ov 'xpovov XeyeTai 
Tov MidptSdrriv o-yjnv ev v7rvoi<i IBeiv to. /xeX- 
Xovra 7rpoBr]Xovaav. iSoKei yap ovptu) Trvevfiari 
jrXecov to YIovtlkov iriXayo'i ijSrj Bocrrropov 
KaOopdv Kal (piXoippovelaOaL rov^ av/xirXeovTWi, 
0)9 ap TC<i iwl aoiTTjpia aa^el Kal l3e/3ala) "x^atpcov 
d(f>v(o Be dva(f)avf]vai irdvTwv €p7]/j,o<; eVt XeirTOv 
vavayiov Bia(f)ep6/jLevo<;. ev tolovtol<; Be avrov 
ovja irddeac Kal (f)d(rp.aaiv e7riaTdvTe<: dveaTrj- 

5 aav 01 (fiiXoi, (ppd^ovre'i eirievai Ilo/jiinjiov. rjv 
ovv i^ dvdyKri<i pLa')(^r)Teov virep rod 'x^dpaKO'i, Kal 
7rpoayayovTe<i ol arparrjyol rrjv Buva/xtv era^av. 
ala66pLevo<i Be rrjp "irapaaKevyjv avrcov 6 Uofi- 
7n]io<i wKvet Kara aKora el<i klvBvvov iXOelv, 
Kal kvkXo) jxovov wero Belv TrepieXavveiv, otto)? 
fXT] (pevyoiev, T]/j.epa<i Be KpeLTrov<; ovTa<i eVi^ei- 
pelv. ol Be irpea^vraTOL rcov Ta^iap)(^(ii)v Beo- 
fxeuoi Kal 7rapaKaXovvTe<; e^oi pixfjcrav avTov ovBe 
yap aKOTO^ rjv iravrdTTaaLV, dXXa i) creXi'jvy] 

198 



POMPEY, XXXII. 2-5 

sink wells everywhei-e. At once, then, his camp was 
abundantly supplied with water, and men wondered 
that in all the time of his encampment there Mithri- 
dates had been ignorant of this possibility. Next, 
he invested the king's camp and walled him in. 
But after enduring a siege of forty-five days, Mithri- 
dates succeeded in stealing off with his most effective 
troops ; the sick and unserviceable he killed. Then, 
however, Pompey overtook him near the Euphrates 
river, and encamped close by ; and fearing lest the 
king should get the advantage of him by crossing 
the Euphrates, he put his army in battle array and 
led it against him at midnight. At this time Mithri- 
dates is said to have seen a vision in his sleep, re- 
veirting what should come to pass. He dreamed that 
he was sailing the Pontic Sea with a fair wind, and 
was already in sight of the Bosporus, and was greet- 
ing pleasantly his fellow-voyagers, as a man would 
do in his joy over a manifest and sure deliverance ; 
but suddenly he saw himself bereft of all his com- 
panions and tossed about on a small piece of wreckage. 
As he dreamed of such distress, his friends came to 
his couch and roused him with the news that Pompey 
was advancing to the attack. He was therefore 
compelled to give battle in defence of his camp, and 
his generals led out their troops and put them in 
array. But when Pompey perceived their prepara- 
tions to meet him, he hesitated to hazard matters in 
the dark, and thought it necessary merely to surround 
them, in order to prevent their escape, and then to 
attack them when it was day, since they were 
superior in numbers. But his oldest officers, by 
their entreaties and exhortations, prevailed upon him 
to attack at once ; for it was not wholly dark, but 
the moon, which was setting, made it still possible 

199 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

KaTdcf)€po/jL€vr} Trapetx^v en ro)i> croy/xaTcov iKaviji 
eTToyjrLU. koI rovro fidXiara TOv<i /3aaiXcK0v<i 
G €a(f)r}Xev. eirrieaav fxev 'yap ol 'Vco/xalot Kara 
vuiTov Ti]v creXrjviji' e)(ovre^' Treirtecr/xevov Be Trep] 
Ta<{ Bvaei^ rov (jxoTO's, al a/ctal ttoXv twv crcofxd- 
Tbiv e/jLirpoadev irpolovaai rot? TroXe/xtoif eVe- 
/BaXXoi^, ov hvvafievoL<i to BidaT^jfxa avviSeti 
aKpi^(jj<i' dXX 0)9 ep ■)(^€palv i'jSrj yeyovoTcov 
TOVf vaaov'i u(f)€vre'i /xdrrjv ovBei'o'i €(f)LK0VT0. 

7 Tovro cruviS6vT€<i ol 'PcofMaioL [xerd Kpavyrj'i iire- 
hpafJLOv, KoX fir]/ciri fievecv ToXp,(Ji)VTa<i, dXX^ eKire- 
ttXtjj /x€i'ov<; Kal (f)€vyovTa^ eKTeivov, wcrre iroXv 
irXeLova^; fivpioov dirodavelv, dXcovai Be to arpa- 
roTreBov. 

AvTo^ Be yiidpiBdrrj^; ev dp')(ri fiev 6KTaKoaLoi<i 
iTTTrevai BieKoyjre Kal Bie^rjXacre TOt'9 'Po)/j,aLov<;, 
Ta')(^v Be TMP dXXcov crKeBaadevrcov direXei<pdri 

8 yuera rpiMV. iv ot<? rjv 'TyjriKpdTeia TraXXa/ct?, 
del fxev dvBp(oBr)<i Tt? ovaa koX TrapdroX/JiO'i' 
"TyjnfcpdTrjv yovv avTrjv o /3acnXev'i e/cdXei' Tore 
Be dvBpo<; e^ovaa Ylipa-ov aToXr]v Kal 'ittttov ovre 
Tw acofxaTL irpo's tu /xijkt) twv Bpofxcov dirriyo- 
pevaev ovre Oepairevovaa rov ^aatXeca to crco/jLa 
Kal TOP Ittttov i^eKap,ev, d')(pi tjkop elf ')(copLov 
XiPcopa ')(^priixdTO}v Kal KeijJiTfXiwp ^aaiXiKMP 

9 /xearop. e^ ov Xa^tbv 6 MiOpiBdTr]<; ecrOf]Ta<i 
TToXvTeX€l<i Bievet/J^e to?? (TUpBeBpap,i]KoaL TTp6<{ 
avTov eK T^9 (f)V'yTj^. eBwKe Be Kal tmv <j)iXcop 
e/cacTTft) (f)opeiP davdaipLOP (f)dp/j,aK0V, ottux; aKcop 
/xr]Bel<i vTro')(^eLpio'i yevoiro Tot9 TToXefiLoa. ep- 

200 



POMPEY, xxxn. 5-9 

to distinguish persons clearly enough ; indeed, it was 
this circumstance that brought most harm to the 
king's troops. For the Romans came to the attack 
with the moon at their backs, and since her light 
was close to the horizon, the shadows made by their 
bodies were thrown far in advance and fell upon the 
enemy, who were thus unable to estimate correctly 
the distance between themselves and their foes, but 
supposing that they were already at close quarters, 
they hurled their javelins to no purjwse and hit no- 
body. The Romans, seeing this, charged upon them 
with loud cries, and when the enemy no longer 
ventured to stand their ground, but fled in panic 
fear, they cut them down, so that many more than 
ten thousand of them were slain, and their camp was 
captured. 

Mithridates himself, however, at the outset, cut 
and charged his way through the Romans with eight 
hundred horsemen ; but the rest were soon dispersed 
and he was left with three companions. One of 
these was Hypsicrateia, a concubine, who always dis- 
played a right manly spirit and extravagant daring 
(for which reason the king was wont to call her 
Hypsicrates), and at this time, mounted and ac- 
coutred like a Persian, she was neither exhausted by 
the long journeys, nor did she weary of caring for 
the king's person and for his horse, until they came 
to a place called Sinora, which was full of the king's 
money and treasures. Thence Mithridates took 
costly raiment and distributed it to those who had 
flocked to him in his flight. He also gave each of 
his friends a deadly poison to carry with them, that 
no one of them might fall into the hands of the 
enemy against his will. From thence he set out 



201 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

reuOev MpfirfTO fiev eV ^ApfievLa<; Trpo^ Tiypdvrjv, 
eKeivov he aTTa'yopevovTO<i koI rdXavTU efcarov 
eTTiKTjpv^avTO^ avTO), Trapafieiylrdpevof; Ta<; Trrjya'i 
Tov Kvcfypdrov 8ia t?}? KoA,^t8o9 ec^evye. 

XXXIII. no/x7r>;i'o9 he el<i ^ Xpixeviav eve^aXe 
TOV veov Tiypdvou KakovvTo<; avrov i]S)] yap 
d<f)eiaTijKei tov TraTpo<i, Kal crvvijvTrjae tw TIo/jl- 
TrrjLU) TTepl tov ^Apd^ijv iroTa/iov, 6? dvia')(€L p.ev 
e« TMv avTcov tm lLv(j)paTr] Toircdv, aTroTpeirop.evo'i 
he Trpo'i Ta<? dvaToXa<; et? to K.da7nov e/ji/SdWeL 

2 7re\ayo<i. ovtoi p^ev ovv Trporjyov dfj.a ra? TroXei? 
irapaXap^/BdvovTe^- 6 he /SaaiXev'i Tiypdvrj'i evay- 
p^o? p,ev VTTO AevKoWov crvvTeTpip.p^evo'i, i]p,epov 
he TLva TU) Tpoirm Kal irpaov Trvdop.evo'i elvai tov 
WopbTrrjiov, ehe^uTO p,ev eh ra ^aaiXeta ^povpdv, 
dvaXa^oov he tov<; (piXovs Kal avyyevel^ avT0<; 

3 eiTopeveTO Trapahwatov eavTov. ax; he fjXdev lir- 637 
TTOTT]^ eVl TOV "x^dpaKa, pa/3hov)(oi hvo tov Ylopi- 
•jryfiov 7TpocreX66vTe<; eKeXevaav dTTo^rjvai tov 
'iTTTTov Kal TTe^ov iXOelv ovheva yap dvOpcoTroyv 

€(f)* 'iTTirov Ka6e^6p,€vov ev ' Pco pLaiKM aTpaTOTrehqy 
iroiTTOTe 6(f)dt]vai. Kal TavTa ovv 6 Tiypdv7]<; 
iireldeTO koI to ^L(f)o<i avTol<i d7roXvaap,evo<i 
irapehihov Kal TeXo<i, o)? tt/jo? avrov i)\Oe rov 
Ilop,7r7]iov, d(j)eX6p.evo'i ttjv KCTapiv copfn]ae irpo 
T(t)V TTohcov delvaiy Kal KaTajBaXoov eavTov, ata-)(^i- 
GTa hr) TvdvTwv, TTpocnreaeiv avTov rot? yovaaiv. 

4 aXA,' TTo/XTTJ^io? e^Qy] Tr]<i he^id^ avTOv Xa/36- 
p,evo<i TTpocrayayeaOai' Kal irXrjcriov lhpvadp,evo<i 
kavTOV, TOV he v'tov eVt Odrepa, Tcof pev ciXXoiv 
ec^rjae helv alTidadat AevKoXXov, vrr' eKeivov yap 
d(f)-r)pi]a9ai Svplav, ^oivlki]v, HiXiKiav, TaXa- 
Tiav, Xco4>V^V^' ^ ^^ ^XP'' ^'^tL'Toi) hiareTtjpyjKev, 

202 



POMPEY, XXXII. 9-xxxiii. 4 

towards Armenia on his way to Tigranes ; but that 
monarch forbade his coming and proclaimed a reward 
of a hundred talents for his person ; he therefore 
passed by the sources of the Euphrates and continued 
his flight through Colchis. 

XXXIII. Pompey then invaded Armenia on the 
invitation of young Tigranes, who was now in revolt 
from his father, and who met Pompey near the river 
Araxes, which takes its rise in the same regions as 
the Euphrates, but turns towards the east and 
empties into the Caspian Sea. These two, then, 
marched forward together, receiving the submission 
of the cities as they passed ; King Tigranes, how- 
ever, who had recently been crushed by Lucullus, 
but now learned that Pompey was rather mild and 
gentle in his disposition, received a Roman garrison 
into his palace, and taking with him his friends 
and kindred, set out of his own accord to surrender 
himself. When he rode up to the Roman camp, 
two of Pompey's lictors came to him and bade him 
dismount from his horse and go on foot ; for no 
man mounted on horseback had ever been seen in 
a Roman camp. Tigranes, accordingly, not only 
obeyed them in this, but also unloosed his sword 
and gave it to them ; and finally, when he came 
into the presence of Pompey himself, he took oft 
his royal tiara and made as if to lay it at his feet, and 
what was most humiliating of all, would have thrown 
himself down and clasped his knees in supplication. 
But before he could do this, Pompey caught him 
by the hand and drew him forward, and after giving 
him a seat near himself, and putting his son on the 
other side, told him that he must lay the rest of his 
losses to Lucullus, who had robbed him of Syria, 
Phoenicia, Cilicia, Galatia, and Sophene ; but that 

203 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

e^eiv eKTLcravTa iroivrjv €^aKi(7')(lXia TciXavra 
'Y*a)fxaioi'i Tr]<; dSiKLa<;, Lwcj^rjvi]^ Se ^aaiKevaeiv 

5 Tov vlov. €7rl TOVTOi<; 6 /j,ev Tiypavrj^ riydirriae, 
KoX TOiv 'Poy/xaloyv dcriraaaixevwv avTov ^acriXea 
Trepi^ap?/? yevo/xevo'i iiri-j'yyeiXaTO arparLOiTrf fiev 
rj/xL/nvalov dpyvpiov hcaaeiv, eKaTOvrdpxj) ^e /xvat 
BeKU, %tXta/3^&) 8e rdXavrov 6 3' vlo<; ehvcr^opei, 
Kol K\r]6e\^ €ttI helirvov ovk €(^r) Ylop^Trrjtov hel- 
aOav TOiavra Tifi(t)VTo<;' koX jdp avT6<; dWov 
evpijcreiv 'Vwfiaiwv. €k toutov Be0el<i et? tov 

6 Oplapi^ov i(f)u\dTT€To. /cat fier ov ttoXvv y^povov 
€Trep.y\re ^padr7)<; 6 UdpOo<; diratTMV pev tov 
veavlaKQV, a)9 avTov <yapLJ3p6v, d^iwv Be tmv rjje- 
povLOiv oprp ')(^py]adai tm l!^v(f>pdTT}. Tlop,7rr]lo^ Be 
aTreKpivaTo tov p,€V Tiypdvrjv tS> iruTpl pdXXov 
t) tw nrevOepw Trpoai]Keiv, opw 8e ■)(^p^aeaOai t& 

BlKaLW. 

XXXIV. KaToXnrfov Be cppovpov ^Appevla<i 
^KSpdviov auT09 e^dBc^e Bid twv TrepioiKovvTcov tov 
}^avKacrov i6vMV dvayKalb)'; eVt Mi9piBdT')]v. /xe- 
ryicTTa Be aiiTwv eaTtv edvrj'^ ' AX/Savol KaV'l^Tjpe^, 
"l/3r]pe^ pev eVl to. Moo-_\;i/ca opi] koI tov Wovtov 
Ka07]KovTe<;, 'AX^avol Be eirl T-qv eon Koi Trjv 
2 }s^aa7rlav Ke/c\ipevoi OdXacrcrav. ovtoi irpwTov 
p,ev auTOVVTi Tlopbirrjiw BloBov eBocrav y^eip.oivo'i 
Be Ti]V aTpuTidv ev tjj X^P9 KUToXa^ovTO^ fcal 
Ti]<; KpoviKrj<; eopTfj<i rot? 'Vcopaiotf Ka$r]Kovcn]<;, 

^ tBv-ri bracketed by Sintenis. 
204 



POMPEY, XXXIII. 4-xxxiv. 2 

what he had kept up to the present time lie should 
continue to hold if he paid six thousand talents to 
the Romans as a penalty for his wrongdoing ; and 
that his son should be king of Sophene. With 
these terms Tigranes was well pleased, and when 
the Romans hailed him as King, he was overjoyed, 
and promised to give each soldier half a mina of 
silver, to each centurion ten minas, and to each 
tribune a talent. But his son was dissatisfied, and 
when he was invited to supper, said that he was 
not dependent on Pompey for such honours, for he 
himself could find another Roman to bestow them. 
Upon this, he was put in chains and reserved for 
the triumph. Not long after this, Phraates the 
Parthian sent a demand for the young man, on 
the plea that he was his son-in-law, and a pro- 
position that the Euphrates be adopted as a boundary 
between his empire and that of the Romans. Pom- 
pey replied that as for Tigranes, he belonged to his 
father more than to his father-in-law ; and as for a 
boundary, the just one would be adopted. 

XXXIV. Then leaving Afranius in charge of 
Armenia, Pompey himself proceeded against Mithri- 
dates,^ and of necessity passed through the peoples 
dwelling about the Caucasus mountains. The 
greatest of these peoples are the Albanians and 
the Iberians, of whom the Iberians extend to the 
Moschian mountains and the Euxine Sea, while 
the Albanians lie to the eastward as far as the 
Caspian Sea. These latter at first granted Pompey's 
request for a free passage ; but when winter 
had overtaken his army in their country and it 
was occupied in celebrating the Roman festival ot 
the Saturnalia, they mustered no less than forty 

1 In 60 B.C. 

205 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

yevo^evoi reTpaKiafivpicov ovk cXuttov^ cTre^ei- 
prjaav avToi<;, Bia^dvT€<; top Kupi^ov TroTa/xov, 6? 
€K TOiv 'l^rjpLKMv 6pot)v avKTTo.p.evo'^ KOI he^^ofxevo^ 
Kanovra tov Apci^yjv «7r' Appeviaf €^ii]cn Sw- 

3 Se/ca GTopaaiv et? to YLdamov. ol he ov (f)aai 
TOVT(p crvp,(^epecr9at tov Apd^rjv, dWa Ka9' 
(avTov, eyyv'i Be iroLelaOai rrjv €KJ3oXrjV et? ravro 
ireXayo^. no/x7rj;/o? ^e, Kaiirep evarrjvaL Bvvd- 
fxevo^ 7rpo9 rrjp Bui^acriv TOi? TToXe/xloif;, TreptelSe 
hLal3dvTa<i Kad' i]av)(^iav' elra eTTwyaycov erpe- 

4 yjraTo Kal Bie(f)d€ipe 7Ta/jL7rX'rjOei<i. too Be /SaaiXel 
BetjdevTi Kal TTe/jLyjravTi 7Tpea/3ei<i d(f)el<; rr]v dBi- 
Kcav Kal a'jreiadfievo'i, iirl tou? "\^i]pa^ e/SdBi^e, 
vXijOei jxev ovk eXdTTOva<;, [xa')(^Lp.wTepov<i Be rwv 
erepwv 6vTa<;, la')(^vp(t)<; Be ^ouXo/iievov<; tm MiOpi- 
Bdrrj -^api^eaOat Kal Btcodeca-Oai tov Ilo/x7n]iov. 

6 ovTe yap M.i]Bot<s ovTe Hep(Tai<i vir/jKOvcrav 
"l^7]pe<i, Bie(f)vyov Be Kal T7]v MaKeBovwv dp-^7]v, 
^AXe^dvBpov Bid Ta)(^eQ)v etc t^9 "TpKavla^ drrd- 
pavTo<i. ov fxi-jv dXXd Kal tovtov<; P'd')(r] fieydXrj 
TpeylrdfMevo<i 6 Yio/ji7n]'io<;, axTTe diroOavelv fxev 
€vaKi<T)(iXLOV<i, dXcbvat Be irXeLovi [xvpnov, et? rr/y 
l^oX'^^^iKrjv evej3aXe- Kal tt/jo? tov ^daiv avTw 
'EepoviXLO'; dinjVTrjae, tu^ vav<i e')(U)V al<i ecfypovpei 

TOV YioVTOV. 

XXXV. 'H p.ev ovv MidpiBaTou Biu)^i<; evBeBu- 
k6to<; 619 Ta Trepl Boajropov eOvvj Kal ti-jv ^laiMTiv 
diTopia'i et;^e fxeydXa^i' ^AX^avol Be avOi^ d(f)€- 
o-Tft)Te? avTO) irpocrriyyeXd'qaav. 7rpo<; oO? vir 638 
6pyr}<i Kal (piXovecKia^ eTriaTpe-^jra^; tov re J^vpvov 
fi6Xi<; Kal 7rapa/36X(i}^ irdXiv Bieirepaaev eirl 
TToXv (TTavpol<; vtto tmv /3ap^dpo)v aTroKe^apa- 

2o6 



POMPEY, XXXIV. 2-xxxv. i 

thousand men and made an attack upon it. To 
do this, they crossed the i-iver Cyrnus, which rises 
in the Iberian mountains, and receiving the Araxes 
as it issues from Armenia, empties itself by twelve 
mouths into the Caspian. Others say that the 
Araxes makes no junction with this stream, but 
takes a course of its own, and empties itself close 
by into the same sea. Although Pompey could 
have opposed the enemy's passage of the river, 
he suffered them to cross undisturbed ; then he at- 
tacked them, routed them, and slew great numbers 
of them. When, however, their king sent envoys 
and begged for mercy, Pompey condoned his wrong- 
doing and made a treaty with him ; then he marched 
against the Iberians, who were not less numerous 
than the others and more warlike, and had a strong 
desire to gratify Mithridates by repulsing Pompey. 
For the Iberians had not been subject either to the 
Medes or the Persians, and they escaped the 
Macedonian dominion also, since Alexander departed 
from Hyrcania in haste. Notwithstanding, Pompey 
routed this people also in a great battle, in which 
nine thousand of them were slain and more than 
ten thousand taken prisoners ; then he invaded 
Colchis, where, at the river Phasis, Servilius met 
him, at the head of the fleet with which he was 
guarding the Euxine. 

XXXV. Now, the pursuit of Mithridates, who had 
thrown himself among the peoples about the Bos- 
porus and the Maeotic Sea, was attended with great 
difficulties ; besides, word was brought to Pompey 
that the Albanians had again revolted. Turning back 
against these in resentment and wrath, he crossed 
the Cyrnus again with great difficulty and hazard, 
since the Barbarians had fenced off its banks with 

207 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

2 KWfxevov, Kal ^aKpa<; avrov eVSe^oyLAeV?;? avvhpov 
KoX apyaXew; oSov, fivpiov^ dcrKov<; v8aT0<; ifi- 
TrXrjcrdfxevo'i I'jXavvev eVi tov^ TroXefilov^, Kal Kare- 
Xa/3€ Trpo? "A^avTi 7T0Ta/xw 7TapaT€Tay/M6VOV<; 
e^aKiafjLVpiov; Tre^ou? koX Siay^iXiovi tVTrei? eVt 
/j,vpiOL<;, ooTTXiajxevov^ Be (pavXwf; Kal hepfiacri 
Or^piwv Tov's TToXXov<s- rjyecTO Sk^avTcov j3a(7iXe(o<; 

3 dheX(^o^ ovo/xa Kwcrt?. outo? ev X^P^'- '''V'^ l^^X^^ 
y€VOfi€vr)<; eirl tov TIo/x7T7']10v opp,t](ja<i avrov 
ejBaXev iirl tvjv tov OcopaKO'i eVfTrTu^^y aKovTL- 
(TfxaTi, YlofiTrrjlo^ Se eKelvov e'/c ')(!^ipo<i SieXdawi 
dvelXev. 

'Kv TauTT) rf) /J'dxD Xeyovrai Kai A/j.a^ove'i 
(TvvayayvLaaaOat Tol<i ^ap^dpoL<i, diro rwv Trepl 
TOV %eppLU>hovra TroTa/mov opoiv KaralSdaai. fiera 
yap T7]v fjid^VV crKvXevovT€<i ol 'Po)fialoi rov<i 
iSap^dpouf; TreXrai? ^ A/jia^oviKai^ Kal Kodopvoi^ 
ei'ervyxavov, aoyjxa he ovSev MCpdrj yvvaiKclov. 

4 vifioinai 8e tou KavKdaov to, Kad^JKOvra tt/jo? 
TTjv "TpKaviav OdXacraav, ou^ o/xopovcrai toi^; 
^AX^avoL<;, dXXd TeXai Kal AT^Ye? oIkovcti hia 
fxeaov Kal TOVTOi<i erov; eKdarov Svo jxrjva'^ et? 
ravTo (f)ocrcoaai Trepl tov @€pfMa>8ovTa TTOTa/jiov 
6/xi-Xovatv, elra KaO^ auTd<i diraXXayelaaL /3co- 
Teuovatv. 

XXXVI. 'Opfxy^aa^ he fieTa ttjv fid^V^ o TTo/x- 
TTJ/io? eXavuecv irrl Trjv 'TpKaviav Kal KaaTTiav 
OdXaaaav, vtto 7rX'>]dou<i epTreTMV davaai/xcov 
direTpdini Tptcov ohov rj/xepcov aTToaxf^v, €l<i he ti-jv 
2 fxiKpdv ^ Apfxeviav dvexo>>pv^^' '^^'' "^V f^^^ EXf- 
fiaiwv Kal Mrjhcov ^aaiXel irei-L-y^acn 7rpecr/3ei<; 
dvTeypay^re (f)tXtKco<;, tov he Udpdov, et? ttjv 
Tophvrjvrfv efjL^efiXtjKoTa Kal TrepLKOTTTOVTa T0v<i 

2o8 



POMPEY, XXXV. 2-xxxvi. 2 

long stretclies of palisades ; then, since he must 
make a long march through a waterless and difficult 
country, he ordered ten thousand skins to be filled 
with water, and with this provision advanced upon 
the enemy. He found them drawn up on the river 
Abas, sixty thousand foot and twelve thousand horse, 
but wretchedly armed, and clad for the most part in 
the skins of wild beasts. They were led by a 
brother of the king, named Cosis, who, as soon as 
the fighting was at close quarters, rushed upon 
Pompey himself and smote him with a javelin on 
the fold of his breastplate ; but Pompey ran him 
through the body and killed him. 

In this battle it is said that there were also 
Amazons fighting on the side of the Barbarians, and 
that they came down from the mountains about the 
river Thermodon. For when the Romans were 
despoiling the Barbarians after the battle, they came 
upon Amazonian shields and buskins ; but no body 
of a woman was seen. The Amazons inhabit the 
parts of the Caucasus mountains that reach down 
to the Hyrcanian Sea, and they do not border on 
the Albani, but Gelae and Leges dwell between. 
With these peoples, who meet them by the river 
Thermodon, the}' consort for two months every 
year ; then they go away and live by themselves. 

XXXVI. After the battle, Pompey set out to 
march to the Hyrcanian and Caspian Sea, but was 
turned back by a multitude of deadly reptiles when 
he was only three days march distant, and withdrew 
into Lesser Armenia. Here the kings of the Ely- 
maeans and the Medes sent ambassadors to him, 
and he wrote them a friendly answer ; but against 
the Parthian king, who had burst into Gordyene 
and was plundering the subjects of Tigranes, he sent 

209 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

V7T0 Ti'ypdvT], 7r€/jL\lra's fiera ^Acppaviov Svvafiiv 

"Oaai Be jwv MiOpiStiTOv TraXXaKiScov avr]- 
')(67)aav, ovBep-tav e'yvw, TraVa? he rot? fyovevcn 
Kal oiKeloL^ aveirepLTTev. tjcrav 'yap ac iroWal 
duyarepa koI 'yvvatKe'; crTpaTi]'ycov koX hvvaarwv. 

3 "ETpaTovcKT) Be, ?) fieyLarov el'X^ev a^ioyp-a Kal to 
iroXvy^pvaoraTov twv (ppoupc'cov e(f)uXarTev, rjv 
p.ev, ft)? eoLKC, yp-dXTov tivo^ ouy^ euTi'^oi}? raXXa, 
TTpea/Surou Be Ovydrrjp, ovrw Be eudv<; el\e irapa 
TTOTOV yp-i]Xaaa rov M id piBaTijv , Mare eKelvijv p,ev 
e\(ov dveiraveTo, rov Be 7rpea/3vT7]v a7re7re/j,-\lre 
BuacpopovvTa tQ) p,r)Be TvpocrpTjaeco'i TV)(elv iiri- 

4 eLKOv<s. &)<? p^evroL jrepl opOpov ejepOel'i elBev 
evBov eK7raip.dTa>v p,ev dpyvpcov Kal y^pvawv rpa- 
Tre^a?, o-^Xov Be 6epa7reia<i ttoXvv, evvov^ov^i Be 
Kal ■TralBa<; IpLaria tmv 7To\vTeX(bi> 7rpoa(j)epovTa'i 
avTO), Kal TTpo T?)? Ovpa'i Xttttov earMTa KeKOcrpirj- 
p,evov cocnrep o'l tmv (^iXoiv tov /SacnXeayi, %XeL'- 
aap,6u elvai to ')(^pi]p,a Kal TracBidv rjyovpLevo^ 

5 otippbrjcre (pevyeiv Bia dvpoiv. T(i>v Be depairovrayv 
dvTiXap.^ai'opevo)!>, Kal Xeyovrcov on irXovaiov 
reOvrjKOTO^i evay')(o<; oIkov avrw pueyav o ^acriXeu'i 
BeBd)pr]Tai, Kal ravra p^iKpai Tive<i d'iTap')(aX Kal 
BeiypLara tmv aXXwv ■^(^pi^pdTcov Kal KT7]p,dTa>v 
elaiv, ovTco Trtcrreycra? p.oXi'i Kal Tr]v irop- 
(pvpav dvaXa^MV Kal dva7r7]Bijaa<i ein tov I'ttttov 
rjXavve Bid t?)? TroXeco? jSomv " Eipca TavTa 

6 irdvTa ecrrt." irpo^ Be Tov<i KaTayeX6)VTa<^ ov 
TovTo eXeyev elvai Oavp-aaTov, aXX' otc ywr; \i6oi<; 
^dXXei Tov<i diravTWVTa'i 00' ySovij'i pbaiv6p,evo<;. 
TavTr]<{ jxev rjv Kal yeved<i Kal a'ip.aTo<; i) ^TpaTO- 



2 lO 



POMPEY, XXXVI. 2-6 

an armed force under Afranius, which drove liim out 
of the country and pursued him as far as the district 
of Arbehv. 

Of all the concubines of Mithridates that were 
brought to Pompey^ he used not one, but restored 
them all to their parents and kindred ; for most of 
them were daughters and wives of generals and 
princes. But Stratonice, who was held in highest 
esteem by the king and had the custody of the 
richest of his fortresses, was, it would seem, the 
daughter of a humble harpist, an old man, and poor 
besides ; but she made such a swift conquest of 
Mithridates as she once played for him at his wine, 
that he took her with him to his bed, but sent the 
old man away in great displeasure at not getting so 
much as a kindly greeting. In the morning, however, 
when the old man rose and saw in his house tables 
loaded with gold and silver beakers, a large retinue 
of servants, and eunuchs and pages bringing costly 
garments to him, and a horse standing before his 
door caparisoned like those of the king's friends, he 
thought the thing a mockery and a joke, and tried 
to run out of doors. But the servants laid hold of him 
and told him that the king had bestowed on him 
the large estate of a rich man who had recently 
died, and that these things were only small fore- 
tastes and specimens of the goods and chattels still 
remaining. In this way he was with difficulty per- 
suaded, and putting on his purple robes and leaping 
upon his horse, he rode through the city, crying : 
" All this is mine." To those who laughed at him 
he said that what he was doing was no wonder ; 
the wonder was that he did not throw stones at 
those who met him, for he was mad with joy. Of 
such a stock and lineage was Stratonice. But she 

2 I I 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

vLKrj. Tft) he Uo/jL7r7]ia) koX to '^(wpiov irape- 
SiSov TOVTO Koi hoipa TToWa TTpoai'jve<yK6i', oiv 
e/cetvo^ '6a a Koapiov iepoi<; koI Xa/jLTrporrjra tw 
BpidpL^cp irape^eiv e^aivero Xa^cov jiova, ra 
\onra r)]v "SrpaToviKrjv eKeXeve KCKTrjaOai %at- 
7 povaav. opLoiwi he koi tov ^aaCKewi tmv ^l/Srjpwv 
KXivrjv re kuI rpciTre^au kol dpovov, aTtavra G39 
')(^pv(ja, TrefxyjraPTO^ avrw koI Be)]0evTO(; Xa/3eiv, 
Koi raura roc<i Ta/xiat^ irapehwKev el<i to St]~ 
fMoaiov. 

XXXVII. 'FjV he Tw Katvo) (^povplw koI ypd/j,- 
IxacTLv d'Troppi')TOi<i o Uofj,7r)']Lo<i ereru^e tov M.tOpL- 
hdrou, Koi hirjXdev ovk d7]h(o<i avTo, iroXXi-jv 
evovTa TOV i]6ov<i KaTavoi^cnv. vTro/xvyj/uara yap 
rjv, e^ wv e(f>o)pdO>] cf)app.dK0L'i dXXovi re 7roXXov<i 
Kol TOV vlov ^Apcapdd)]v di>r)prjKoy<i koi tov 
^apBiavov 'AXKalov, otl 7rapevSoKi/j.r](Tev avrov 

2 'Cirirovi dyoivLaTa,^ iXavi'cov. yaav he dvayeypap,- 
fievac KOL icpL(Tet<i evvTTvlcov, o)v to, fiev avTO<i 
ewpdKei, TO, he eviai tmv yvvauKOiv, einaToXal re 
Aloi^tyu.?;? 7rpo9 avTov uKoXacrToi fcal irdXiv e/cetvov 
77/90? avTi]v. %eo(^dvrj<i he Kal 'PovtlXlov Xoyov 
evpedrjvai (^yvcn irapo^vvTiKov eVt t7]v dvaipeaiv 

3 TOiv ev ^Aata 'Pco/jLulcov. o KaX(o<i elKd^ovaiv 
ol irXelcTTOi KaKOi']0evp,a tov &eo(f>dvov<; elvai, 
Taya p.ev ovhev avT(p tov PovtlXiov eoiKora 
p.i(TovvTO<i, et'/co? he koi htd Ho/xTr/ftov, ov tov 
TTUTepa TrafiTTovrjpov aTrehei^ev o PofrtXto? ev 
ial<i iaTopiai<i. 

XXXVIII. ^KvTevOev elf ^Ap-taov eXdoov 6 
Uo/jiTDJio'i 7rdOo<; vefiearjTov vtto (fiiXoTifitWi 
eTTaOe. iroXXd yap tov AevKoXXov eTciKSpTO- 
p.t]aa'i, OTi TOV TToXefiLov t^covTOf eypa<^e hiaTd^€i<; 

212 



POMPEY, XXXVI. 6-xxxviii. i 

surrendered this stronghold to Pompey, and brought 
him many gifts, of which he accej)ted onlj^ those 
which were likely to adorn the temples at Rome 
and add splendour to his triumpii ; the rest he 
bade Stratonice keep and welcome. In like manner, 
too, when the king of the Iberians sent him a couch, 
a table, and a throne, all of gold, and begged him to 
accept them, he delivered these also to the quaestors, 
for the public treasury. 

XXXVII. In the fortress of Caenum Pompey 
found also private documents belonging to Mithri- 
dates, and read them with no little satisfaction, since 
they shed much light upon the king's character. For 
there were memoranda among them from which it 
was discovered that, besides many others, he had 
poisoned to death his son Ariarathes, and also 
Alcaeus of Sardis, because he had surpassed him in 
driving race-horses. Among the writings were also in- 
terpretations of dreams, some of which he himself 
had dreamed, and others, some of his wives. There 
were also letters from Monime to him, of a lascivious 
nature, and answering letters from him to her. 
Moreover, Theophanes says there was found here an 
address of Rutilius, which incited the king to the 
massacre of the Romans in Asia. But most people 
rightly conjecture that this was a malicious in- 
vention on the part of Theophanes, perhaps because 
he hated Rutilius, who was wholly unlike himself, 
but probably also to please Pompey, whose father had 
been represented as an utter wretch by Rutilius in 
his histories. 

XXXVIII. From Caenum Pompey went to Amisus, 
where his ambition led him into obnoxious courses. 
For whereas he had roundly abused Lucullus be- 
cause, while his enemy was still alive, he would 

213 

VOL. V H 



PLUTARCH S LIVES 

Kal Bcopea^ eve/xe kol Tt/ia<?, a crvvTjprjfxevov TroXi- 
jxov Kal ■nepa's e^oi'TO? eloiOaa-t, iroielv oi vevcKT]- 
Kore^i, avro'i ev BoaTropo) ^ItOpihaTOv Kparovvro<; 
Kal (7VV6iXoxoro<i a^io/xaxov Svvafiiv, ft)<? Srj 

2 avvTereXecr/xipwv airavruiv, e-nparre ravrd, 8ta- 
Koafxojv Ta9 €7rap)(^La'i Kal Siaveficov Bu>pea<;, 
ttoWmv /xev rjje/Jiovcov Kal hvvaarwv, /SaaiXeoou 
Be ScoSeKa ^apjBdpwv cKpijfievwv irpo^ avrov. 
odev ovhe rj^iwcre rov YldpOov dvriypdcfxov, (ocnrep 
01 XoiTToi, /SacrtXea /3aaLXe(i}v Trpocrayopeva-ai, 
TOt? dXXoi,<i )(^api^6/xevo<;. avTOv Be rtf e'yowf Kal 
^r]Xo<; el%6 Svpuav dvaXa/Selv Kal Sia t% ' Apa- 
/3ta<? eVt Tijv epvOpav eXdaat OdXaaaav, &)? tw 
TTepdovTL rrjv oiKovixevrjv TravTa^oOev 'VlKeavfo 

3 irpoapii^eie vlkmv Kal yap ev Ai^vrj irpMro'^ 
ayp^ Trjf e/CTO? OaXdacnj^ Kparwv "rrpoTjXde, Kal 
Tr)V ev ^\^iipia. irdXiv dp-)(riv (jopiaaTO 'V*(o^aiot<; 
T(o ^ArXavTiKO) TreXdyei, Kal rpiTov €vay)(o(; 
'AXySafou? SicoKcov oXiyov eherjcrev ejx^aXelv et<? 
rrjV "TpKavlav OdXacraav. (if ovv avvdyjrcov Tfj 
epvOpd Tr]v irepioSov tt}'^ crT/aareta? avLararo. 
Kal yap aXXw? rov MiOpiSuTriv ecopa hvaO/^parov 
ovTa ToU 67rXoi<i Kal (f)€vyovTa x^XeTrcoTepov t) 
p.axoP'€vov. 

XXXIX. Ato TOVTO) fiev elircov la^vporepov 
eavTov TroXe/Jiiov rov Xi/j.6v aTroXeiyJreiv, eTrecmjae 
(pvXaKci'i roji' vecov iirl tou? irXeovTa^ et? Bocttto- 
pov ifiTTopovi- Kal ddvaTO<; rjv rj ^ijfiia Toh 
uXiaKO/jbivoi^;. dvaXa^oov Se t?/? aTpaTt,d<; rrjv 



214 



POMPEY, xxxviii. i-xxxix. i 

issue edicts and distribute gifts and honours, — things 
which victors are wont to do only when a -war has 
been brought to an end and finished, — yet he himself, 
while Mithndates was supreme in Bosporus and had 
collected a formidable force, just as though the 
whole struggle was ended, took the same course, 
regulating the provinces and distributing gifts ; for 
many leaders and princes and twelve barbarian 
kings had come to him. Whei-efore, to gratify 
these other kings, he would not deign, in answering 
a letter from the king of Parthia, to address him as 
King of Kings, which was his usual title. Moreover, 
a great and eager passion possessed him to recover 
Syria, and march through Arabia to the Red Sea,^ 
in order that he might bring his victorious career 
into touch with the Ocean which surrounds the 
woild on all sides ; for in Africa he had been the 
first to carry his conquests as far as the Outer Sea, 
and again in Spain he had made the Atlantic Ocean 
the boundary of the Roman dominion, and thirdly, 
in his recent pursuit of the Albani, he had narrowly 
missed reaching the Hyrcanian Sea. In order, 
therefore, that he might connect the circuit of his 
military expeditions with the Red Sea, he put his 
army in motion. And, besides, he saw that it was 
difficult to hunt Mithridates down with an armed 
force, and that he was harder to deal with when he 
fled than when he gave battle. 

XXX IX. Wherefore, remarking that he would 
leave behind him for this fugitive a mightier enemy 
than himself, to wit, famine, he stationed ships to 
keep guard against the merchants sailing to Bos- 
porus ; and death was the penalty for such as were 
caught. Then taking the great mass of his army. 

'■ i.e. the Persian Gulf. 

215 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

7r\r]9vv crvyvrjv rrporjye' xal tmv fiera 'Ipiaptov 
7rpo9 M.idpi8dTT]v aTV')(^cii)<; dycoviaa/xevcov Kal 
irecrovTcov ivTv^wv ard^oi'^ en Toc<i veKpol<i, 
edayjre \a/u,7rpo)<; koX ^tA,oTi/u,&)9 aTravra^, o hoKel 
irapaXeic^dev ov'x^ rjKicrra AevKoWrp /uKrovi 

2 aiTiov <yeveadai. yeipoyadixevof; he hi 'A^pa- 
vLov rov<; Trepl ^Afiavov "Apa/3a<? Kal KaTaf3d<; 
avT6<i 619 ^vplav, ravTTjv fxev 6i)<; ovk €')(^ovaav 
yvr]alov<; ^aaikei^ ercapxiav d7re(f)Tjve Kal Krrjixa 
rov 8i]/xov 'Vcofxaicov, rrjv 8e lovSaiav Kare- 
arpeylraro, Kal avveXa^ev Apiaro^ouXov tov 
^aacXea. TroXet? Be ra? p-ev eKTi^e, ra? 8e 
rjXevOepov KoXd^wv Toix; ev avTai<; rvpdvvov<i. 

3 TTjv 8e TrXeiarrjv Biarpi/Sijv ev tm 8iKd!^eiv 
eTTOieiTO, TToXewv Kal j3aaiXecov dp(jita^7]rrjpaTa 
8iairci)v, e<^' a 8e avro<; ovk e^iKvelro, irepLiTwv 
Tov<; (f)iXov<;, oidTrep ^AppevCocs Kal Hdpdoi^; Trepl 
979 8i,€(jiepovTO ■)(d>pa<; tijv Kpiatv TTOirjaapevoi^; 
eV avTw T/0€i9 direcTTeiXe KpiTd<i Kal 8taXXaKrd^. 

4 p.eya puevyap rjv ovopba Trj<; 8vvdpeQ)<i,ovK eXarrov 640 
8e T779 dpeTr]<; Kal TrpaoTifTo^' (Z Kac ra TrXeiara 
T(ov Trepl avTOV dp.apri'jpaTa (f)iX(i)v Kai (jvvi'jOwv 
dTreKpvTrre, KoyXvecv p,ev ?; KoXd^etv rov? ttovi]- 
pevopiivovi ov Tre(pvK(o^, avrov 8e TTape')(^u>v toi<; 
evrvyy^dvovcrt tolovtov ware Kat Ta<i eKeivwv 
TrXeove^ia<i Kal ^apvTr]Ta<; evKoXw; vTTopieveiv. 

XL. 'O 8e pkyiajov 8vvdpevo<i Trap avTw 
Ai]p,i]Tpio'i rfv dTTeXev6epo<i, ovk d^paiv eh rdXXa 

veavia<i, ayav 8e t^ t^XV XP^'^I^^^^^' """^pl o^ '^('■l 
ToiovBe Ti Xejerai. K-drcov <pLXoao(^os en pev 

216 



I 



POMPEY, XXXIX. i-xL. I 

he set out on his inarch, and when he came upon the 
still unburied bodies of those who, led by Triarius, 
had fallen in an unsuccesstul combat with Mithri- 
dates,! he gave them all an honourable and splendid 
burial. The neorlect of this is thought to have been 
the chief reason why Lucullus was hated by his 
soldiers. After his legate Afranius had subdued for 
him the Arabians about Amanus, he himself went 
down into Syria,- and since this country had no 
legitimate kings, he declared it to be a province and 
possession of the Roman people ; he also subdued 
Judaea, and made a prisoner of Aristobulus the 
king. Some cities he built up, others he set free, 
chastising their tyrants. But most of his time he 
spent in judicial business, settling the disputes of 
cities and kings, and for those to which he himself 
could not attend, sending his friends. Thus when 
the Armenians and Parthians referred to him the 
decision of a territorial quarrel, he sent them three 
arbiters and judges. For great was the name of his 
power, and not less tliat of his virtue and clemency. 
This enabled him to hide away most of the trans- 
gressions of his friends and intimates, since he 
was not fitted by nature to restrain or chastise 
evil doers ; but he was so helpful himself to those 
who had dealings with him tiiat they were con- 
tent to endure the rapacity and severity of his 
friends. 

XL. The one who had most influence with him 
was Demetrius, a freedman, a young man of some 
intelligence otherwise, but who abused his good 
fortune. The following story is told about him. 
Catothe philosopher, when he was still a young man, 



* Three years earlier. Cf. the Lucullus, xxxv. 1. 

* In the spring of 64 B.C. 



217 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

cbv veo<;, I'jSr) Se fjLeydXyv e\o)v ho^av koI fie^a 
(ppovMV, ave^atvev €L<i \\vTt6)(^eiav, ovk 6vto<; 
avToOi [lo/ji7T)jLou, ^ov\6fMevo<i laropijaai ttjp 

2 TToXiv. avTo^ /iiev ovv, wa-nep dei, Tre^o? i/Sdoi- 
^ev, 01 8e (f)tXoi avvoihevov iVTTot? ')(^p(tifievoL. 
/caTiScov 8e irpo Tr]<i TTvXrj^ o'yXov dvhpoiv iv 
iaOPjcrt \evKai<; koI irapa rrjv oSbi' evOev /xev tou? 
icpy'l/Bovi, evOev Se toi/? 7ratSa9 8iaKeKpip.evov<i, 
ehva')(epaLvev ol6p,evo<; e/? tl/j,i]p rwa icai depa- 
irelav kavrov pbt-jhtv Beo/xevov ravra 'yiveaOai. 

3 Tou? fxevTOL (f)iXov(; eKeXeuae Kara^rjvai kui 
TTopeveadai /j,€t avTov' j€vop.evoi<i Se TrXtiaLOv 
6 iravra SiaKocr/uLMV eKelva koI KaOiard^ '^X^^ 
(TTecpavov koI pd/38ov din^vrT^ae, irvv9av6p,evo'i 
Trap avTMV irov ^rj^njTpiov dTroXeXoiiraai Kat, 
rrore dcfii^erai. toi)? inev ovv <^/Xou9 rod Karoyvci 
7e\«9 eXa^ev, 6 he KaVwi' eLircov, "'fl rfj'i 
d6XLa<i 7ro\e&)<?," 'rrapijXOev, ovhev erepov diro- 
KpLvdpLevo^. 

4 Ov p.-t]v dXXd Kol Tot9 oXXok; tovtov tov 
A7]p,i]TpL0V rjTTOV i7ri(j)0ovov eTTOiei avTO<i o 
Ho /jimj'io'i ivTpv(pu>p,6P0'i iiir' avTOu Koi p-rj Bvctko- 
Xa'ivcov. Xejerai. ydp, on iroXXdKfi iv ra?? 
v'7Toho-)(^al<; tov TlopLTrrjiov Trpoap.evoi'TO'i koI 5e%o- 
p,evov TOV? dXXovi iK€Lvo<i ')]Sr] Kare/ceiTO ao/3apo<;, 
ex^av hi wrwv Kara tt}? Ke(paXri<i ro ip,dTiov. 

5 ov'TTw Se 619 ^IraXlav iTraveXrjXvOoo^ e/ce«T?;To 
T?79 'Pa)/^7;9 ra yjStara TrpodcTreia kol tmv i)/37]- 
Trjpicoi' rd KdXXtara, koi ktjttoi TroXvreXel'i rjaav 
6vop.a^6p,evoi ^t] p-rjr piov Kairoi rio/x7rj/(09 avTO^ 
dXP^ '''oi) TpiTov 6pidfxj3ov p-erplwi Kai dcfieXco^ 
wKfjaev. varepov he 'P(op.aLoi<i tovto 8r) to kuXov 



2l8 



POMPEY, XL. 1-5 

but had already great reputation and lofty purposes, 
went up to Antioch/ at a time when Pompey was 
not there, wishing to inspect the city. Cato him- 
self, the story goes, marched on foot, as always, but 
the friends who journeyed with him were on horse- 
back. When he beheld before the gate of the city a 
throng of men in white raiment, and drawn up along 
the road the youths on one side, and the boys on 
the other, he was vexed, supposing this to be done 
out of deference and honour to himself, who desired 
nothing of the kind. However, he ordered his friends 
to dismount and walk with him ; but when they 
drew near, the master of all these ceremonies met 
them, with a wreath on his head and a wand in his 
hand, and asked them where they had left Demetrius, 
and when he would come. The friends of Cato, 
accordingly, burst out laughing, but Cato said, " O 
the wretched city ! " and passed on without any 
further answer. 

However, Pompey himself made this Demetrius 
less odious to the rest by enduring his caprices with- 
out vexation. For instance, it is said that many 
times at his entertainments, when Pompey was 
awaiting and receiving his other guests, that fellow 
would be already reclining at table in great state, 
with the hood of his toga drawn down behind his 
ears.2 Before his return to Italy, he had purchased 
the pleasantest suburbs of Rome and the most beau- 
tiful places of entertainment, and very costly gardens 
were called " Demetrian " after him ; and yet 
Pompey himself, up to the time of his third triumph, 
had a simple and modest house. After that, it is 
true, when he was erecting the famous and beautiful 



* Cf. Cato the Younger, chapter xiii. 
^ A mark of slovenliness. 



219 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Kill TTepi^orjTOv dvKTTO.'i deaTpov, wairep icpoXKiov 
Ti, 7rapeTeK.T)']vaT0 Xap^irpoTepav OLKiav eKeLvrjq, 
dv€Tri(f)6ovov 8e Koi ravTrjv, uxne tov yevop^evov 
hecnroTrjv avrf]^ pera Ylopinyiov elcrekdoi ra 6au- 
pd^eiv Koi irvvOdveadai ttov ^o/x7^^yto9 Mdyvof; 
eSetTTvei. Taina pev ovv ovtw Xeyerai. 

XLI. Tov 8e ^acriXewf; rwv rrepl rrjv Uerpav 
^Apd^cov Trporepov pev ev ovBeid Xoyw ra Po)- 
pa'iMV TiOepievov, rore he heiaavTO'^ i(T')(yp(a'^ 
KOI ypd'^^avTO'i on irdvra ireiOecrOat Kal iroielv 
eyvwKev, eK/Se/SaKoaacrdai ^ovXopevo^ avrou ttjv 
Sidi'Oiav 6 Ilop,7n']io^ earpdrevaev eirl rrjv Herpav 
ou TTavu Tt TOc<i TToWolf dpepiTTOV arpaTelai'. 

2 dirohpacTLV yap ooovto Trj'^ yiiOpiSdrov Bico^eco^ 
elvat, KctX 7rp6<i eKetvov rj^iovv rpe-rrea-daL tov 
dpyjxiov dvraycovLcrrrjV, avdi<i dva^coTTupovvTa 
Kol rrapacTKeva^opevov, o)? dTrrjyyeXXero, Bid 
"EkvOmv Kal Ylaiovcov arpaTOv eXavveiv eVt rrp' 
^IraXiav. 6 Be paov olop^eva avrou KaraXvaeiv 
rrjV 8vvap.iv TroXepovPTd rj to ao)pa XtjyjrecrOai 
(f)evyovTo<;, ovk e^ovXero Tpi^eaBai paTtjv irepl 
Tr}v Sioi^iv, ere'/oa? Be tov iroXepov 'irap6v9i]Ka<^ 
eiroielro Kal tov y^povov eXXKev. 

3 'H Be TVXV '^W dTTopiav eXvaev. ovkctc yap 
avTOV Trj<; Xlerpa? TToXXyjv oBov aTre^oi/TO?, rjBr] 
Be T?}? rjpiepa'i e/cetz/?;? ^e^\i]pevov 'X^dpaKa Kal 
yvpvd^ovTO<i eavTov 'iTrrrtp irapd to tJTpaToireBov, 
ypap,paT'y](f)6poi, TrpoaijXavvov €k Hovtov KOpa- 
^ovTe<; evayyeXta. BrjXoi S' evdvi eccri Tal<i 
al\pal'^ TMV BopuTCov Bd(f)vat^ yap dvaaTe^ovTat. 
TOVTov^ LB6vTe<i 01 aTpaTLOiTat avveTpo)(^a^ov 7rpo<i 641 

4 TOV YlopTTijLOv. 6 Be TrpbiTOv p,ev e^ovXero to 



220 



POMPEY, XL. 5-xLi. 4 

theatre which bears his name, he built close by it, 
like a small boat towed behind a ship, a more splen- 
did house than the one he had before. But even 
this was not large enough to excite envy, so that 
when he who succeeded Pompey as its owner entered 
it, he was amazed, and inquired where Pompey the 
Great used to sup. At any rate, so the story runs. 

XLI. The king of the Arabians about Petra had 
hitherto made no account of the Roman power, but 
now he was thoroughly alarnaed and wrote that he 
had determined to obey and perform all commands. 
Pompey, therefore, wishing to confirm him in his 
purpose, marched towards Petra, an expedition 
which was not a little censured by most of his 
followers. For they thought it an evasion of the 
pursuit of Mithridates, and demanded that he should 
rather turn against that inveterate enemy, who was 
again kindling the flames of war and preparing, as it 
was reported, to march an army through Scythia and 
Paeonia against Italy. Pompey, however, thinking 
it easier to crush the king's forces when he made 
war than to seize his person when he was in flight, 
was not willing to wear out his own strength in a 
vain pursuit, and therefore sought other employ- 
ment in the interval of the war and thus protracted 
the time. 

But fortune resolved the difficulty. For when he 
was come within a short distance of Petra, and had 
already pitched his camp for that day and was 
exercising himself on horseback near by, dispatch- 
bearers rode up from Pontus bringing good tidings. 
Such messengers are known at once by the tips of 
their spears, which are wreathed with laurel. As soon 
as the soldiers saw these couriers they ran in throngs 
to Pompey. At first he was disposed to finish his 

22 I 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

yvfjivdaia avvreXelv, jBocovroiv 8e zeal heoixevwv 
KaraTrr^hrjcra'^ airo rou 'lttttov kol Xaficov ra 
'ypd^fxara Trporjei. j3)]jxaT0<i 8e ovk ovro^ ovSe 
Tov aTpaTicoriKou yevecrOai (f)dd(ravTO<; (o ttoiovctiv 
avTol T?}? jtj'i eKTO/xa<; ^aOeia'^ \aixj3dvovT€<; koI 
Kar dWrjXoiv crvvTidipTe^), iiiro rrj<i Tore a7T0vSi]<i 
KUL 7rpodvfxta<i ra crdy/xara tmv inro^vyicov au/u,- 
5 (bopi]aavT6<i vyjro'; ^ i^ijpav. eVt tovto Trpo/Sa? 
o no/i7r?;t09 aTTy'jyyeiXev auTol^ on Mi^^tSar?;? 
re9v7]Ke araaidaavTo^ ^apvdKOv tov vlov Sia- 
)(^py]ad/ji€vo'i avrov, to, Be CKel iravra Trpdyixara 
^apvuKf]^ Kar€K\ripu)craTO, Kol kavTU> kuI 'P&j- 
p,aiOL<i yeypacpe 7Toiov/j,evo<i. 

XLII. Ea: tovtov to /xev (Trpdrevfia rfj %«pa 
y^pdifxevov, &)? elK6<i, ev Oucriai^ koX (TVvovaiaLf; 
hirjyev, oj? ev tw ^ItOpihdrov adifiari fxvpUov 
Te$vr}K0Twv TroXepiifov. Wopirrfio^ he tuI^ irpd- 
^eaiv avrov koI Tal<; arpaTeiai'i Ke(f)aXi]i' eVixe- 
OeiKox; ov irdvv paBioo'i ovrco Trpoa-^OKTjOeLaav, 

2 evdv<; dve^ev^ev eK rf;? 'Apa/Siav Kal Ta^v rd^; 
ev pLeao) Sie^eXOcov eirapxia'i el<i ^A/aiabv dcpLKero, 
Kal KareXajBe jroXXd /xev hoypa irapd ^apvdKOv 
K€Kop.i(Tp,eva, TToXXd Se adip^ara tcov ^aacXiKcov, 
avTov 8e TOV MidpiSdrov veKpov ov irdvv yvd>- 
pip,ov diTo TOV TrpoadiTTOv {tov yap iyKi(f)aXov 
eXaOev eKTt)^at tou? depairevovTa^;)' dXXd Tat<i 
ovXal^ eTTeylyvcoaKOV at Seopievoi tov Oed/j,aTO<i. 

3 ov yap avro^ IIoyLt7r?;to? ISeiv vnepbeivev, dXX 
d(pocn(t)a-dfievo<; to vep.ea-qTov Ci? I^ivcoirriv dire- 
Tre/nyjre. t?}? S' e(jdrjTO<;, f]v €(f)6pei, Kal tcov oirXwv 
TO /jLeyeOo<i Kal ttjv Xa/j,7rp6T7]Ta e6avp.aae' KaiToi 

^ v^o% Coraes and Bekker have eis D'lfor, after Solanus. 
222 



POMPEY, XLi. 4-xLii. 3 

exercise, but at their shouts and entreaties he dis- 
mounted from his horse, took the dispatches, and led 
the way into camp. There was no regular tribunal, 
nor had there been time to erect the military sub- 
stitute, which the soldiers make with their own 
hands by digging up large clods of earth and heaping 
them one upon another ; but in the eager haste of 
the moment they piled up the pack-saddles of the 
beasts of burden and made an eminence of them. 
Pompey ascended this and announced to his soldiers 
that Mithridates was dead, having made away with 
himself because his son Pharnaces had revolted from 
him, and that Pharnaces had come into possession of 
all the power there, acting, as he wrote, in behalf ot 
himself and the Romans. '^ 

XLII. Upon this the army, filled with joy, as was 
natural, gave itself up to sacrifices and entertain- 
ments, feeling that in the person of Mithridates ten 
thousand enemies had died. Then Pompey, having 
brought his achievements and expeditions to such an 
unexpectedly easy completion, straightway withdrew 
from Arabia, and passing rapidly through the inter- 
vening pi'ovinces, came to Amisus. Here he found 
many gifts that had been brought from Pharnaces, 
and many dead bodies of the royal family, and the 
corpse of Mithridates himself, which was not easy to 
recognize by the face (for the embalmers had 
neglected to remove the brain), but those who cared 
to see the body recognized it by the scars. Pompey 
himself could not bring himself to look upon the 
body, but to propitiate the divine jealousy sent it 
away to Sinope. He was amazed at the size and 
splendour of the arms and raiment which Mith- 
ridates used to wear ; although the sword-belt, which 

1 This wag in 63 B.C. 

223 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Tov fxev ^i(f)iaT7]pa ire-no inqixevov airo reTpaKOcrlwv 
ToXdvTwv TTovrXfo? K\eyjra<i i'jrcoXijaev Wpiapadrj, 
Tr]V Se KiTapiv Faio? 6 rov MlOpiSutov (TvvTpo(^o<i 
€8(OK€ Kpv(f)a ZerjdevTL ^auaTM tw "ZvXXa TraiSi, 
6av/xaaTfj<i ovaav epyacria^. o rore rou Hofx- 
irrjlov hieXade, ^apvdici~i'i he yvov'; ixrrepov ert- 
/MCopjjaaTO TOt"? ucf)e\o/ji,6vovf;. 

4 ^LOtKtj(Ta<; 8e rd e'/cet Kal KaraaTrjaajxevo'i 
ovT(o<i i]8r] ■navriyvpiKLoTepov €)(prjTO rrj iropeia. 
KoX yap 6i9 y[LTv\'y]vi]V d(j)iKOfjL6vo<? rrjv re -ttoXiv 
ijXevOepaxre Std Heoc^dvrj, koX tov dyoiva rov 
irdrpiov idedaaro tmv 7roir)Tci)i>, viroOeaiv p.i,av 
e')(ovra rd<i eKe'ivov Trpd^ei^. i)(y6e\^ he tw 9ed- 
rpw TTepieypdyjraTo to eZSo? avTOv Kal tov tvttov, 
0)9 Ofioiov aTrepyaaopevo^ to ev Poopr], pel^ov Be 

5 Kal aep^voTepov. ev he 'PoSw ycvop-eva vdvToov 
pev rjKpodaaTO tmv cro0«TTcor, KaL hcopeav eKdcTTtp 
TuXavTov ehwKe' Yloaethcovio^; he Kal ttjv uKpo- 
acTLV dveypa-^ev r]v ecr^^v eV avTov tt/so? 'E/9- 
puayopav tov prjTopa irepl t?}? KadoXov ^^jTijaewi 
avTiTa^dpeva. ev he ^ K9)'ivaL<i to, pev tt/do? tou? 

6 (j)i,Xoau(pov<; opota tov TlopTTijiov ttj TToXei he 
eTnhov's el<; eTrccrKeurjv 7revTi]KovTa TdXavTa Xapb- 
TrpoTaTO'i dv6pu>7r(t)v iifXiri^ev eTTi/SyjcreaOai t?}? 
'IraXta? Kal ttoOmv 6(p0)]a€a0ai to?? ockoi ttoOov- 
aiv. M h' dpa tt/qo? T(z Xap,7rpd Kal p,eydXa Toiiv 
UTTO T»}'> Tv^7]<i dyaOcov del Tiva Kepavvvvai KaKOv 
polpav e7npeXe<i eaTi haipoviM, tovto vrroiKovpei 
TrdXai TrapacTKevd^ov avTw XvniipoTepav T-qv 

7 eirdvohov. e^v/3piae yap i] Moi'/c/a irapd ttjv 

224 



J 



POMPEY, xLii. 3-7 

cost four hundred talents, was stolen by Publius and 
sold to Ariarathes, and the tiara M'as secretly given 
by Caius, the foster brother of Mithridates, to 
Faustus the son of Sulla, at his request ; it was a 
piece of wonderful workmanship. All this escaped 
the knowledge of Pompey at the time, but Phar- 
naces afterwards learned of it and punished the 
thieves. 

After arranging and settling affairs in those parts, 

Pompey proceeded on his journey, and now with 

greater pomp and ceremony. For instance, when 

he came to Mitylene, he gave the city its freedom, 

for the sake of Theophanes, and witnessed the 

traditional contest of the poets there, who now took 

as their sole theme his own exploits. And being 

pleased with the theatre, he had sketches and plans 

of it made for him, that he might build one like it 

in Rome, only larger and more splendid. ^ And 

when he was in Rhodes, he heard all the sophists 

there, and made each of them a present of a talent. 

Poseidonius has actually described the discourse 

which he held before him, against Hermagoras the 

rhetorician, on Investigation in General. At Athens, 

too, he not only treated the philosophers with like 

munificence, but also gave fifty talents to the city 

towards its restoration. He therefore hoped to set foot 

in Italy with a reputation more brilliant than that of 

any other man, and that his family would be as eager 

to see him as he was to see them. But that divine 

agency which always takes pains to mingle with the 

great and splendid gifts of fortune a certain portion 

of evil, had long been secretly at work ])reparii)g to 

make his return a very bitter one. For Mucia his wife 

^ Cf. chapter xl. 5. The theatre was opened in 55 B.C., 
and acconiniodated 40,000 persona. 

225 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

aTToBrjfjuiav avrov. koI iropprx) fxev &v 6 IIo/xTrr^io? 
KaTe(f)p6v€i Tov \6yov' -rrXTjaiov 8e 'IraXia? yevo- 
fxevo'i Kol axo\a^ovTi rCo Xojiafiw p,dWov, co? 
eoiKe, rrj<i alriWi a^diJbevo<i, e-rre^i^ev avrrj ttjv 
a(f)€(nv, ouT€ Tore ypd-\\ra'^ ouO' va-repov e'^' oU 
d^TjKev e^enrMV iv S' i-maToXaU KiKepwuo^ rj 
al-rla yiypairraL. 

XLIII. KoyoL 8e iravrohaTrol irepl tov ITo/a- 
irrjiov TrpoKareTTtTTTOV ek rijv 'Fo)/x7]v, koX 6opv^o<i 
Tjv ttoXik;, &)<? evdv<i d^ovTO<i iirl rrjv iroXiv to 642 

aTpdreufia koI piovapXi'Ci'i ^e^a'ias iaofiev^]^. 

Kpda(TO<i Be TOV<i iralSa^ kol to, ;\;/3J//iaTa \a^o)V 

vire^rfkOev, etre S€lcra<i dX'rjdcbs, etVe /xaXkov, &)? 

ehoKet, TTiaTiv diroXeiiTOiv rfj Bia/SoXf) KUi tov 

2 (f)06vov TTOiwv TpaxvTepov. evOv'^ ovv imPaq 
'IraXta? 6 no/ATT^io? koX (Twayaycov €6<? e«- 
KXrjaiav tou? (jTpaTio)Ta<i kol to, TrpeTTOVTU 
SiaXex^eU fcal (f)L\o(f)povr]adfievo^, eKekevae 
hiaXveaOai kutcl ttoXiv e/cao-TOf? koX Tpe-ne- 
adai 7rpo<i to, oiKeta, p.e/u,vt]/ji€vov<i avOa eVt 
TOV dpiajx^ov avTw avveXO^lv. ovtw he ti}^ 
(TTpaTidf; aKeSaadeLai]^ kcll TrvvOavo/xevwv dirdv- 

3 Tcov Trpdj/xa crvve^y] 0av/.La(TT6v. opwcrai yap 
al TToXet? Hop,7n]'iov Mdyvov dvcnXov koI /xer 
ok'iywv Tcoi^ avv7]da>v wcnep i^ dWrj^; d'Trohriiiia'^ 
hiairopevoiievov, eKxeofievai St' evvoiav Kat irpo- 
TrefiTTOvaai jxeTa fiei^ovo'; hvvdfxeco^ avyKaTriyov 
eh Tfjv 'Fcofji7]v, et ti Kwelv SievoelTo koX vewTepi- 

226 



POMPEY, xLii. 7-xLiii. 3 

had played the wanton during his absence. While 
Pompey was far away, he had treated the report of 
it with contempt ; but when he was nearer Italy and, 
as it would seem, had examined the charge more at 
his leisure, he sent her a bill of divorce, although he 
neither wrote at that time, nor afterwards declared, 
the grounds on which he put her away ; but the 
reason is stated in Cicero's letters.^ 

XLIII. All sorts of stories about Pompey kept 
travelling to Rome before him, and there was much 
commotion there, where it was thought that he 
would straightway lead his army against the city, 
and that a monarchy would be securely established. 
Crassus took his children and his money and secretly 
withdrew, whether it was that he was really afraid, 
or rather, as seemed likely, because he wished to 
give credibility to the calumny and make the envious 
hatred of Pom})ey more severe. Pompey, accord- 
ingly, as soon as he set foot in Italy,'-^ held an 
assembly of his soldiers, and after he had said what 
fitted the occasion, and had expressed his gratitude 
and affection for them, he bade them disperse to 
their several cities and seek their homes, remember- 
ing to come together again for the celebration of his 
triumph. When the army had been thus disbanded 
and all the world had learned about it, a wonderful 
thing happened. When the cities saw Pompey the 
Great journeying along unarmed and with only a 
few intimate friends, as though returning from an or- 
dinary sojourn abroad, the people streamed forth to 
show their good will, and escorting him on his way 
with a larger force, brought him with them back to 
Rome, where, had he purposed any revolutionary 

^ Not in any which are extant. In a letter to Atticus 
(i. 12, 3) Cicero says that Pompey's divorce of Mucia was 
heartily approved. ^ In &2 B.C. 

227 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

^eiv Tore, fJbtjBev eKelvov heofievov rov arparev- 

XLIV. 'Evrel he o v6/u,o<; ovk eta irpo rov 
Opidfi^ov irapeXOeiv et? rr)v iroXiv, eirep-^tv 
a^LOiV els Tr]V ^ovXrjv ava^a\ea6ai ras rcov 
vTrdrrov dp')(aipeaias, fcal hovvai ravrrjv avTO) 
TTjv %dpiv 07ra)<? irapcov TleiaoovL avvap^^aipe- 

2 aidarj. Karwyo? he irpos tyjv d^iwacv ivcndvTos 
OVK eVf^e 70V ^ovXevparos. davpdcras he r-qv 
irappt-iaiav avrov kol tov tovov m ixovos ex^prjro 
(pavepws virep tmv hiKaiwv, eTreOvfxrjaep dfioix; ye 
TTcos KT)]aaa6ai rov dvhpa- kol hvelv ovacov dheX- 
<f)ih(t)v rw K^drMvi rrjv pev avros e/SovXero Xa/3elv 

3 yvvaiKa, rrjV he rw rrathl avvoiKicraL. rov he 
K.dr(ovos vmhopbevov rrjv irelpav, co? 8ia(p6opdv 
ovaav avrov rpoirov rivd heKa^opevov hid rrjs 
OLKeionjros, ^'] re dh€X(f>h koI r; 'yvvi] y^aXeTr ws 
e(pepoi' el Tlo/u7r)]iov ^Idjvov d7rorpLy\rerai /ojhea- 
ri'p>. ev rovrcp he ^ovXopievos vrrarov dirohel^ai 
Wop.Tn'fios 'A^pdviov dpyvpiov els rds c})vXds dv/]- 
XiaKev vTrep avrov, Kal rovro KarLovres els rovs 

4 TlopTTrjiov Ki'/TTOVs eXdpjSavov, ware ro rrpdypa 
rrepi^orirov elvai Kal rov Ylopiripov aKoveiv 
KaKMS, '>JS avros dp')(_rj<i e<p ols Karoopdwaev o)? 
pbeylarijs erv'xe, ravrrjv ojviov rroiovvra rols hC 
dperrjs Kn^aaaOai p,i] hvvapevois. " Tovrcov 
puevroi," Trpo^ rds jvvaiKas o K.dr(ov €(f)y](re, 
" rcov oveihSiv Koivu>v)]reov olKelois Ylopirrjiov I 
lyez'o/xei^oi?." al he aKovaacyai avveyvwaav ^eXriov I 



avrojv eKelvov Xoyi^eaOai rrept rov irpeTruvros. 
228 



4i 



POMPEY, XLiii. 3-XLiv. 4 

changes at that time, he had no need of the army 
that he had disbanded. 

XLIV. Now, since the law did not permit a com- 
mander to enter the city before his triumpli, Pompey 
sent a request to the senate that they should put off 
the consular elections, asking them to grant him 
this favour in order that he might personally assist 
Piso in his candidacy. But Cato opposed the request, 
and Pompey did not get what he wished. However, 
Pompey admired Cato's boldness of speech and the 
firmness which he alone publicly displayed in defence 
of law and justice, and therefore set his heart on 
winning him over in some way or other ; and since 
Cato had two nieces, Pompey wished to take one of 
them to wife himself, and to marry the other to his 
son. But Cato saw through the design, which he 
thought aimed at corrupting him and in a manner 
bribing him by means of marriage alliance, although 
his sister and his wife were displeased that he 
should reject Pompey the Great as a family con- 
nection. In the meantime, however, wishinii to 
have Afranius made consul, Pompey spent money 
lavishly on his behalf among the tribes, and the 
])eople went down to Pompey's gardens to get it. 
As a consequence, the matter became notorious and 
Pompey was in ill repute ; the office of consul was 
highest of all, and he himself had therefore re- 
ceived it as a reward for his successes, and yet he 
was making this office a thing to be bought by those 
who were unable to win it by merit. " In these 
reproaches, however," said Cato to the women, " we 
must have taken our share, if we had become 
allied to Pompey." And when they heard this, they 
agreed that his estimate of the fit and proper was 
better than theirs. ^ 

^ Cf. Cato the Younger, xxx. 1-5, 

229 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XLV. ToO Se dpidfi/Sov tm fMeyeOet, Kaiirep eU 
■fifiepw; Bvo jjLepiaOevro';, o 'x^povo'i ovk i^i]picea€v, 
aWa rwv irapea Kevaa fjLevwv iroWa t?}? 6ea^ 
i^eTTeaev, erepa^i cnroxpSiVTa '7rofi7rf]<; ci^Uo/xa /cal 
Koa/xo^ elvai. jpd/jLfiaa-i, 8e 7rpor)yov/ii€i>oL<; iSrj- 

2 \ovTO ra <yevr] Kad' (bv iOptdfi^evev. rjv Se rdhe' 
YlovTO<;, Ap/xei'La, Ka7r7raSo/cta, Y[a(f)\ayovia, 
M?7Sta, KoX;^t9, "I/377pe?, ^AX/Savol, "Stvpla, KiX,t- 
Kia, MecroTTOTa/tita, ra Trepl ^oivlk7]v koI Yla- 
XaiaTLvrjv, 'lovSaia, WpajSLu; to TreipariKov airav 
iv y^ Kol daXdcrar] KaTaTrerroXefn] p^evov . ev he 
TOVTOt<; (f)povpia fxev 7)X(OKOTa xi^lcjv ovk iXdr- 
rova, 7r6Xei<; Se ov ttoXv roiv evaKoatcov aTToSe- 
ovaai, TretpaTLKol Be vrje^ OKTaKocriac, KaroiKiat 

3 he TToXecov p,id<; heovaat TeTrapuKovTa. tt/jo? he 
TOVTOi<; €(j)pa^€ hid roiv ypa/bu/xdrcov on TrevTUKia- 
■)(l\Lat fxev p,vpidh€<; e/c ro)i> TeXcov vTrrjp-x^ov, eK 
he oiv auTO<i irpoaeKrrjcraTO rfj iroXei p,vpidha<; 
6KraKicr)(^tXia<; irevTaKocrLa^ Xap^^dvovaw, dva- 
(fyeperat he et<? to h'>]fi6aiov Ta/nielov ev rop,Lcrp,aTt 
Koi KaracrKevaif; dpyvpiov Kal 'x^pvaiov hiap^vpia 
rdXavra, irdpe^ tmv eiV tov<; aTpaTicora'i heho- 
p^evcdv, oiv o TOvXd-)(^L(TTOv alpuiv Kara Xoyov 

4 hpa')(^p,d<; etXrjcpe y^iXia'; trevTaKoaLa^. alxf^d- 
XwToi 5' eiTop.'nevOricrav, dvev tmv apxtTreipaTcov, 
u/o9 Tiypdvov Tov ^App^evlov /j-erd yvvaiKO^ koI 
Ovyarpos, avrov re Tiypdvov tov ^acnXeax; yvvrj 643 
Ticoalp^rj, Kal ^aaiXev<; ^lovhacwv ^ApicrTO^ovXo<;, 
MidpihdTOv he dheX<f)r} koi Trei^re TeKva, koi 
XKvdthe<; yvval/<€<;, 'AX/Sai'oJv he Kal 'l^i]pcov 
op.rjpoi Kal TOV Ko/jip.ay7]VO)V /SacrtXew?, Ka\ rpo- 
iraia 7rd/j,7roXXa kuI rat? fid^ai'i ladpiOp-a 



230 



POMPEY, XLv. 1-4 

XLV. His triumph had such a magnitude that, 
although it was distributed over two days, still the 
time would not suffice, but much of what had been 
prepared could not find a place in the spectacle, 
enough to dignify and adorn another triumphal 
procession. Inscriptions borne in advance of the 
procession indicated the nations over which he 
triumphed. These were : Pontus, Armenia, Cappa- 
docia, Paphlagonia, Media, Colchis, Iberia, Albania, 
Syria, Cilicia, Mesopotamia, Phoenicia and Palestine, 
Judaea, Arabia, and all the power of the pirates by 
sea and land which had been overthrown. Among 
these peoples no less than a thousand strongholds 
had been captured, according to the inscriptions, 
and cities not much under nine hundred in number, 
besides eight hundred piratical ships, Avhile thirty- 
nine cities had been founded. In addition to all 
this the inscriptions set forth that whereas the 
public revenues from taxes had been fifty million 
drachmas, they were receiving from the additions 
which Pompey had made to the city's power eighty- 
five million, and that he was bringing into the public 
treasury in coined money and vessels of gold and 
silver twenty thousand talents, apart from the money 
which had been given to his soldiers, of whom the 
one whose share was the smallest had received 
fifteen hundred drachmas. The captives led in 
triumph, besides the chief pirates, were the son of 
Tigranes the Armenian with his wife and daughter, 
Zosime, a wife of King Tigranes himself, Aristo- 
bulus, king of the Jews, a sister and five children of 
Mithridates, Scythian women, and hostages given 
by the Iberians, by the Albanians, and by the king 
of Commagene ; there were also very many trophies, 
equal in number to all the battles in which Pompey 

231 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

7rd(Tai<; a? ^ avro<; fj Bia tmv (TTparrj'ywv ivUtjae. 

5 fieyiarov 8e vTrrjpxe 7rpo<i ho^av Kal /njSevl twv 
TTcoTTore 'Vwjiaiwv yeyov6<;, otl tov rplrov 6pi- 
a/jL^ov airo Trj<; rpirr}<i -qTreipov Kam^'yayev. eVel 
T/319 76 KoX TTporepov rjaav k'repoL Tedptafi^evKore<i- 
€K€lvo<i Be TOV fjL€V TTpwTov €K Ai/Sui]';, TOV Be Bev- 
Tepov eP Evp(07T7]<;, tovtov Be tov TeXevTOtov airo 
T779 Acrta? eiaayaycov Tpo-wov Tiva TrjV oiKOVjie- 
VTjv iBoKei ToU Tpialv virrjX^aL Optdfi^oi'i. 

XLVI. 'HXifcia Be totc 7]v, &)9 fiev at kuto, 
irdvTa T(p ^AXe^cij'Bpw 'Trapa/3d\\ovTe<; avTov 
/cat 7rpo(T^i0d^ovTe<i d^iovat, veu)Tepo<i tmv Tpid- 
KOVTU Kol TeTTdpwv eTMV, dX^-jdeia Be rot? 
TeTTapdKOVTa Trpoaiiyev. &)<? mvtjto j dv evTavOa 
TOV ^Lov 7ravcrd/jL€vo<;, d^pt ov ttjv 'AXe^dvBpov 
TVYW eax^v' 6 Be eireKeiva XP^^^'^ avTw xa? /xev 
euTKXta? i]veyK€v e7ri<ji66vous, avrj/cecxTov^ Be tot? 

2 Bv(TTVX^CL<i. fjv yap e« TrpoarjKOVTUiv avTb<; eKTi]- 
aaTO Bvvap.iv ev ttj iroXei, TavTrj ^/jco/xevo? virep 
dXXcov ov BiKaiox;, oaov eKetvoi^; lax^o<; irpoae- 
Tidei Tr}<i eavTov Bo^rj'^ d^aipwv, eXade pcop^rj 
Kal fieyedei t% avTov Bvvdp,eQ)<; KaTaXv6ei<;. 
Kal KaOdirep ra KapTepooTara p^eprj Kal X«/)ta 
TMV TToXeMV, oTav Be^i]Tai 7roXep,iov<i, eKeivoi^ 
■Trpo(TTidi](Ti T^-jV avTWV icrX'^^'' ouTft)? Bid tt;? 
Uop^TTTjlov Bvvdp.eco'i Kaiaap i^apdeU eVl ti]v 
TToXiv, w KttTa TMV dXXo)v laxva-e, tovtov dve- 
Tpe^e Kal KaTe^aXev. eirpdxdl Be ovtw^. 

3 AevKoXXov, o)? eTravrjXdev e'| 'Acta? viro Uop,- 



232 



POMPEY, xLv. 4-XLvi. 3 

had been victorious either in person or in the persons 
of his lieutenants. But that which most enlianced 
his glory and had never been the lot of any Roman 
before, was that he celebrated his third triumph 
over the third continent. For others before him 
had celebrated three triumphs ; but he celebrated 
his fu-st over Libya, his second over Europe, and 
this his last over Asia, so that he seemed in a way 
to have included the whole world in his three 
triumphs. 

XLVI. His age at this time, as those insist who 
compare him in all points to Alexander and force 
the parallel, was less than thirty-four years, though 
in fact he was nearly forty.^ How happy would it 
have been for him if he had ended his life at this 
point, up to which he enjoyed the good fortune ot 
Alexander ! For succeeding time brought him only 
success that made him odious, and failure that was 
irreparable. That poUtical power which he had won 
by his own legitimate efforts, this he used in the 
interests of others illegally, thus weakening his own 
reputation in proportion as he strengthened them, 
so that before he was aware of it he was ruined by 
the very vigour and magnitude of his own power. 
And just as the strongest parts of a city's defences, 
when they are captured by an enemy, impart to him 
their own inherent strength, so it was by Pompey's 
power and influence that Caesar was raised up 
against the city, and Caesar overthrew and cast 
do\^'n the very man by whose aid he had waxed 
strong against the rest. And this was the way it 
came about. 

When LucuUus came back from Asia, where he 

^ In 61 B.C., when this triumph was celebrated, Pompe}' 
was in his forty-sixth j'ear. 

233 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TTijtov '7repi,v^pia/x6vo<i, avriKa re XafnrpM^; /; 
crvy/c\t]TO<; eSe^aro, koX /xaXXov en Uo/j,7rr]tov 
Trapajevofxevov KoXovovcra rrjv ho^av ijyeipev e-m 
TTjv TToXiretav. 6 Be TaWa fxev ufx^Xv^ 7]v rjhri 
Kcu Kare-^uKTO to wpaKTiKov, rjSovfj a-^oXri'^ koi 
Tai<i TTepl Tov irXovTOv SiaTpi^at^ eavrov evSeSw- 
Ka}<i, eVl Se Tiofxirrjiov ev6v<i aL^a<i Koi Xa/Bofievo'i 
ein6vco<i avTov irepi re tmv BcaTa^ecov a? eXvcrev 
eKparei, koX irXeov et%ey ev Trj ^ouXfj (rvvaycovi- 

4 ^ofievov KttTwi^o?. eKTriTTTCov Be Kal 7repL0)dou/x€vo<; 
6 no/x7r?;i'o9 rjvayKa^ero Bripap')(ovaL Trpoarcpevyeiv 
Kal Trpocraprdcrdai fi€ipaKioi<;' Siv o ^BeXvpMraro^ 
Kal 6 pacrvTaro^ KA,ct)Sio? dvaXa^cov avrov vrrep- 
pi^lre tQ> BrjfKp, Kal Trap ci^lav KyXivBovfievov ev 
ayopd e'X^wv Kal irepi^epwv exP^JTO tmv 7rpo<i x^P'-^ 
o^Xov Kal KoXaKeiav ypa(f)op,evci)v Kal Xeyop,evo)v 

5 ^e^aiwrfi, Kal Trpoaeri piaOov ^Vet, oyairep ov 
Karaiaxyvwy, dXXa evepyercov, ov varepov eXa/3e 
irapa Uo/jiTn]iov, irpoeaOai K-CKepoiva, (J)lXov bvra 
Kal irXelara Br) TreiroXcTevp.evov virep avrov. 
KivBvvevovTi yap avrw Kal Beop,ev(p ^oi-]deia^ 
ovBe et9 oyjnv TrpoijXOev, dXXa T0i9 ijKOvcriv 
inroKXeiaa^ rrjv avXeiov erepat,<; dvpai<i (ityero 
cnriciov. ]^iKep(ov Be (po/SijOel'i ttjv Kpiaiv vrre^- 
7]X6e tt}? 'Poi/ji7)(i. 

1 Cf. chapter xxxi. 1. 
234 



POMPEY, xLvi. 3-5 

had been outrageously treated by Pompey, the 
senate at once gave him a splendid reception, and 
after Pompey's arrival, wishing to obstruct that 
leader's reputation, it urged Lucullus all the more to 
take pai't in public life. In other matters Lucullus 
was already dulled and chilled past all efficiency, 
having given himself over to the pleasures of ease 
and the enjoyment of his wealth ; but he sprang at 
once upon Pompey and by a vigorous attack won a 
victory over him in the matter of those ordinances 
of his own which Pompey had annulled,^ and carried 
the day in the senate with the support of Cato. 
Thus worsted and hard pressed, Pompey was forced 
to fly for refuge to popular tribunes and attach 
himself to young adventurers. Among these the 
boldest and vilest was Clodius, who took him up and 
threw him down under the feet of the people, and 
keeping him ignobly rolled about in the dust of the 
forum, and dragging him to and fro there, he used 
him for the confirmation of what was said and pro- 
posed to gratify and flatter the people. He even 
went so far as to ask a reward for his services from 
Pompey, as if he were helping him instead of 
disgracing him, and this reward he subsequently 
got in the betrayal of Cicero, who was Pompey's 
friend and had done him more political favours than 
any one else. For when Cicero was in danger of 
condemnation and begged his aid, Pompey would 
not even see him, but shut his front door upon 
those who came in Cicero's behalf, and slipped away 
by another. Cicero, therefore, fearing tlie result of 
his trial, withdrew secretly from Rome.^ 

" Having been impeached for illegally putting Lentulus 
and Cethegus to death, he went into voluntary exile in 
58 B.C. See the Cicero, chaptera xxx. and xxxL 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XLVII. Tore 8e Kalaap eXdcov utto crrpaTela^ 
"]\}raro TToXiTevfiaTO'i o TrXelaTrjv fiev avru) X^P^^ 
ev TO) irapuvTi Koi Bvvafiiv eiaav6i,<i i]veyKe, 
fieyt(TTa Se Ylofi7rr]iov e/3Xa'^€ koL rrjv ttoXiv. 
viraie'iav fiev yap fjuer^ei, irpooTrjv opoiv oe on 
Kpdcraov 7rp6^ HofnT/fiov Sta(f)6po/JLevov Oarepu) 
TrpoaOep.evo'i i^OpM XPW^'^^^ '''V ^'^^PV> T/jeTrerat 
77/309 BiaXXaya<i a/j,(f)OLv, 7rpdyp.a koXov fxev 
dXXwi Kal ttoXltikov, alTLo, Be (pavXr) koI fxera 

2 heLv6Tr)T0<i v'n eKeivov auvreOev eVi/SouXft)?. ?/ 
yap coairep iv aKd(f)ei ra'i aTTo/cXtaet? i-TravLcrovcra 

rrj'i TToXeo)? lo'X^'^ ^^'^ ^^ avveXdovcra Kal yevofxevi] 644 
p.La T)]v TTiivra irpdynara KaTaaTaaidcraaap Kal 
KarajSaXovaav avavTayaoviarov poTTTjv iTroLVjaev. 
6 yovv KciTwi' Tou? XeyouTa^ vtto rf]<i vcnepov 
yevoixevrj'^ 7Tpo<i K.aicrapa HofiTrrjta) hiajiopd<i 
dvarpaTrP/vai, r-qv iroXiv dfiaprdveiv eXeyev alrno- 

3 fiivovi TO reXevTalov ov yap rrjv ardaiv ovBe 
TrjV ex^pav, dXXd rijv (TvaracTLV Kal rrjv o/xovoiav 
avTMv rfi TToXet KaKov irpoiTOv yei'eaOat Kal 
[xeytarov. i/pidrj fiev yap v7raT0<i Kalaap' evdv^ 
Be Oepairevcov top diropov Kal TrevrjTa Karoi.Kia'i 
TToXecov Ka\ vop.a<i dypdv eypacpev, eK^aivwv to 
tt)^ dpxv^ d^Lcofia Kal rpoTTov rivd Brjiiapxi^CLV 

4 r-qv vTrareiav KaOiaTd<;. ivavriov/jLevov Be tou 
avvdpxovTO^ avTO) Jiv/3Xov, Kal KuTcovof; eppoo- 
aevearara tw Bu/SAm irapeaKevaafievov ^oi-jdelv, 
TTpoayaydiv 6 K.a'iaap eirl tov /3i'j/JiaT0<i Tlop,7rr]iov 
ip.(f)av)] Kal 7rpo(Tayopeuaa<i rjpcoTrjo-ev el tou? 



236 



POMPEY, xLvii. 1-4 

aXLVII. At this time Caesar had returned froiu 
his province ^ and had inaugurated a pohcy which 
brought him the greatest favour for the present 
and power for the future, but proved most injurious 
to Pompev and the city. He was a candidate for 
his first consulship, and seeing that, while Crassus 
and Pompey were at variance, if he attached him- 
self to the one he would make an enemy of the 
other, he sought to reconcile them with one another, 
— a thinff which was honourable in itself and con- 
ducive to the public good, but he undertook it for 
an unworthy reason and with all the cleverness of 
an intriguer. For those opposing forces which, as 
in a vessel, prevented the city from rocking to and 
fro, were united into one, thereby giving to faction 
an irresistible momentum that overpowered and 
overthrew everything. At all events, Cato, when 
men said that the state had been overturned by tlie 
quarrel which afterwards arose between Caesar and 
Pompey, declared that they wrongly laid the blame 
on what had merely hapi^ened last ; for it was not 
their discord nor yet their enmity, but their concord 
and harmony which was the first and greatest evil 
to befall the city. Caesar was, indeed, chosen 
consul ; but he at once paid his court to the indigent 
and pauper classes by proposing measures for the 
founding of cities and the distribution of lands, 
thereby lowering the dignity of his office and 
making the consulate a kind of tribunate. And 
when he was opposed by his colleague Bibulus, and 
Cato stood ready to support Bibulus with all his 
might, Caesar brought Pompey on the rostra before 
the people, and asked him in so many words 

1 He returned from Spain iu 60 B.C. See the Caesar, 
chapters xiii. and xiv. 

237 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

v6fiov<i iTTaivoLT)' rod Be av/j^cpijcravTO^, "Oukovv^ 
elirev, " av Ti? rov<i v6fiov<; /Scd^Tjrai, et? rbv 

5 hr]fjiov acpi^r) ^ofjOoiv; " Yldvv fxev ovv," ec^rj o 
TiofiTTrjlo'i, " d(f)c^ofiat, Trpo? toi)? d7r€i\ovvTa<; to 
^ifpr] fiera ^(.(povi Kal dvpeov ko/xl^cov. tovtou 
YlofiTTtjios ovSev oine etTrelv ovre Troirjcrai fi^XP'' 
Trj<i i)ixepa^ eKeivrj'i (poprL/ccorepov eBo^ev, Mare 
Kal Toy? (piXov<; dTToXoyeladai cf)daKovTa<; ck- 
(f>vyelv avrov eVl Kaipov to prj/xa. T049 fxevroi 
yu,6Ta ravra 7rpaTT0fia'0i<; (pavepo^ rjv ijSr] Travrd- 
Traaiv eavrov ru) K^aiaapt ')(p/]aaadai irapaheho)- 

6 «&)?. 'lofXtav 'yap rrjv K.aiaapo'i dvyarepa, 
K.aiirLcovc KaSco/xoXoyyj/LtevrjV Kal ya/jceicrdai. /xeX- 
\ovaav oXiycov 7]p,ep(ov, ovSevb^; av TrpocrSoKt]- 
cravTO<; eyrjpe lIo/jL7r7]io<;, fieiXiy/xa Kairricoi'i t?^? 
6py>'j<i rr)V eavrov dvyarepa Karatveaa<;, ^avcrrw 
ra> iraiSl SvWa irporepov eyyeyvy/xevrjv. avrb<i 
he K.alaap eyi]iJL€ KaXirovpvLai' rrjv Helacovo^;. 

XLVIII. 'Ea: 8e rovrov Ylofnri]lo<; efiTTXyjaa^; 
arparioiroiv rrjv iroXiv drravra rd irpdypara /3ia 
Karel~)(e. Bv/3X(p re yap et9 dyopdv roi virdrw 
Kariovrt fierd AevKoXXov Kal K.dr(ovo<; d(fiva} 
TTpoaTTea-ovre^ KareKXaaav rd^ pd^oovi, avrov 
he ri<i KOTTpioiv KoipLVOv e'/c Ke(paXri<i rod liv/SXov 
KareaKehaae, hvo he ht'jixapyoL rwv crvprr poire [x- 

2 iTovrwy erpwdifcrav. ovrco he ruiv ivtcTTapevcov 
r7jv dyopdv ep7]fxo)(Tavr€<; eireKvpwaav rov irepl 
rPj'i hiavop,r]<; rcbv ')(^cop[(ov vofiov to heXeaaOel'i 
h)]fxo<; et? rrdcrav 'tjht] riOacro^ avroL<; eyeyovei Kal 
Kardvrrj<i Trpd^w, ovSev iroXvTrpayfiovoiv, aX\' 
eTrKpepcov aiwnfj roi<i ypacf)o/xevoi<; r)]V yjrtjcpov. 

3 iKvpct)6i]aav ovv TLo/xtdjcm fiev al hiard^et^ VTrep 



238 



POMPEY, xLvii. 4-xLviii. 3 

whether he approved the proposed laws : and when 
Fompey said he did, "Then/' said Caesar, "in case 
any resistance should be made to the laws, will you 
come to the aid of the people ? " " Yes, indeed," 
said Pompey, " I will come, bringing, against those 
who threaten swords, both sword and buckler." 
Never up to that day had Pompey said or done any- 
thing more vulgar and arrogant, as it was thought, 
so that even his friends apologized for him and said 
the words must have escaped him on the spur of the 
moment. However, by his subsequent acts he made 
it clear that he had now wholly given himself up to 
do Caesar's bidding. For to everybody's surprise he 
married Julia, the daughter of Caesar, although she 
was betrothed to Caepio and was going to be married 
to him within a few days ; and to appease the wrath 
of Caepio, Ponijiey promised him his own daughter 
in marriage, although she was already engaged to 
Faustus the son of Sulla. Caesar himself married 
Calpurnia, the daughter of Piso. 

XLVIII. After this, Pompey filled the city with 
soldiers and carried everything with a high hand. 
As Bibulus the consul was going down into the 
forum with Lucullus and Cato, the crowd fell upon 
him and broke the fasces of his lictors, and somebody 
threw a basket of ordure all over the head ot 
Bibulus himself, and two of the tribunes who were 
escorting him were wounded. When they had thus 
cleared the forum of their opponents, they passed 
the law concerning the distribution of lands ; and 
the people, caught by this bait, became tame at once 
in their hands, and ready to support any project, 
not meddling at all, but silently voting for what was 
proposed to them. Accordingly, Pompey got those 
enactments of his ratified which Lucullus contested ; 

239 



PLUTARCH'S Ln'ES 

o)v AevKoWo^ VP^^^> K.alaapi Se t)jv eVro? "AX,- 
irecov KOI rrjv eKTo^ e-)(^6Lv VaXaTiav koI ^XWvpiov^ 
et9 TrevTaenav kuI reaaapa rdy/xara reXeia 
arpaiLOiTOiv, vTrdrov<i 8e ei? to /xiXXov elvat 
Wei(ju>va tov Kataapo^; irevOepov koX Va^iviov, 
avopa Tcov YIofX7rt]i'ou koXukcov vTrepcfiviaraTOi^. 

4 T[parTo/bL€vcov Be tovtcop Bi!/5X.o9 /xev et? tt)v 
OLKLav KaTaK\eiad/xevo<; oktco pt^vMV ov TrporjXOev 
virarevcov, dXX i^e-nepbTre Siwypdp^p^aTa ^Xaa(f)rj- 
yuta? dpLcjiolv h)(^ovTa koI KaTi]^opia<;, Is^drwv he 
(oanep eTmrvovi koL (f)oi^oX'r]7rTO<i ev rfj ^ovXtj 
Ttt peXXovra rfj ttoXcc kuI tw YIopTTtji'w rrporj- 
yopeve, Aei/zcoWo? 8e direLTTOiv i)(Tvy^iav rj'yev co? 
ovKeri Trpof TroXcretav <i)palo<;' ore Si/ koI Tiop.- 
7rr]io<i ecprj, yepovTi ro Tpv(f)uv dcoporepov elvai 

5 TOV iroXiTeveaOai. Ta')(v fiivTOL koI avTo<i ejxa- 
XdaaeTo tw tj}? Koprj'i epcoTi kol 'irpo<Tel)(ev 
CKeLVT) Tu TToXXa Kol (TvvStypepevev ev d.ypot<i 
Kol K)'/TTot<i, 7]fMeXei 8e rcot' kut dyopav irpaTTO- 
p,ei'0)v, coaTe kol KXwSlov avTov KaTacbpovP/aai 
87}p,ap)(^ovvTa Tore koI dpaavTdTcov d'^aaOai 

6 irpayp-dTOiv. eirel yap e^e^aXe K-i/cepcova, kcu 
K.dT(ova 7rpo(J3daet crTpaTrjyia'i et9 Hvirpov dire 
Trep-yjre, Kato-a/309 etV raXaTcav e^eXrfXaKOTO^, 
avTw 8e 7rpoa€')(^ovTa tov 8f]fiov eoopa irdvTa QH 
TrpiiTTOVTL fcal 7roXiTevop,ev(p irpo^ ')(^dpt,v, ev9v<i 
eTTe'X^etpei tcov TiopLiriylov SiUTd^eoiv evia<i dvaipelv, 
Kal Tiypdvijv tov al'^pidXcoTOV d(pap7Tdaa*i el^e 
avv avTO), kul Tol<i (f)LXoi<i Bixwi iTrPjye, irelpav 



240 



POiMPEY, XLviii. 3-6 

Caesar received the two Gauls and lUyricum for five 
years, together with four complete legions ; and it 
was decided that the consuls for the ensuing year ' 
should be Piso, the father-in-law of Caesar, and 
Gabinius, who was the most extravagant of Pompey's 
flatterers. 

While this was going on, Bibulus shut himself up 
in his house and for the eight months remaining of 
his consulship did not appear in public, but issued 
edicts which were full of accusations and slanders 
against Pompey and Caesar ; Cato, as though inspired 
and possessed by a spirit of prophecy, foretold in 
the senate what the future would bring to the city 
and to Pompey ; while Lucullus renounced the 
struggle and led a life of ease, on the plea that he 
was past the age for political affairs ; whereat Pompey 
remarked that for an old man luxurious living was 
more unseasonable than political activity. However, 
Pompey himself also soon gave way weakly to his 
passion for his young wife, devoted himself for the 
most part to her, spent his time with her in villas 
and gardens, and neglected what was going on in 
the forum, so that even Clodius, who was then a 
tribune of the people, despised him and engaged in 
most daring measures. For after he had driven 
Cicero into banishment, and sent Cato off to Cyprus 
under pretence of giving him military command, 
and Caesar was gone off to Gaul, and when he saw 
that the people were devoted to him because all his 
political measures were undertaken to please them, 
he straightway attempted to repeal some of the 
arrangements which Pompey had made ; he took 
away his prisoner, Tigranes, and kept him about his 
own person ; and he prosecuted some of his friends, 

1 58 B.C. 

241 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

eV iKelvoLf; t?}? Yloixirr^tov Xafx^dvcov 8vvd/ji€(i)<;. 
7 Te\o9 Be, irpoeXdovTO'; avrov Trpo? riva Slktjv, 
e^&)v v(p' avToj ttXyjOo^ dvOpcoircov daeXyeia'i Kai 
oXijoopta^ pecTTov avT6<; pev etV eTn^avrj tottov 
Karacrrd^ epoiTr/puTa roiavTa irpov^aWe' " Tt? 
i(TTiv avTOKpdrcop aKoXaaro^i; rt? dvrjp dvSpa 
^TjTel; Tt? evl haKrvXw Kvarat rrjv Ke(f)aXt]v;" ol 
he, wanrep X^P^^ ^^^ dpoc^aia avjKeKpoTijpevo^, 
eKeivov tt^v ry/Sevvov dvaaeiovTO'^ e0' eKdarq) 
p,iya ^oo)VTe<i aTre/cplvavTO' " Tlop,TTt]io<i. ' 

XLIX. 'Hi/ta puev ovv koI ravra HopTrr'fiov 
drjdi'] Tov KaK5)<i dKoveiv ovra koI pdx^i<; roiavT')]^ 
aireipov rjxOeTo he pdXXov aladavopevo^ t7]v 
^ovXijv eTTixciipovaav avTO) TrpoiryjXaKi^opevai Kal 

2 hthovTi hiKrjv t?}? ls.iKepcovo<; 7rpohoa[a<;. eVet he 
Kal TrXrjyd^ ev dyopa pe\pi rpavpidroyv avve^ij 
yevecrOai, Kal KXcohtov rt? OLKeTr]<; 7Tapahv6p,evo<; 
iv o^Xro hid t5)v TreptecrTCOTCOV Trpo<; tov UopiTnjiov 
rjXeyxOv ^t^o? e^^iv, ravra 7roLOup,evo<; 7rp6(f)acnv, 
dXX(o<; he rov KXaihtou rrjv daeXyeiav Kal ra? 
6Xaa(f)i]p.ia<! hehi(t)<;, ovKeri irpofjXOev ei? dyopdv 
oaov eKeivo<; r/px^ ^po^oy, dXX' oiKovpcop hiereXei 
Kal aKeTTropLevo^ perd rSiV ^iX(ov oVw? dv e^a- 
Keaairo tT;? /SovXij^; Kal rwv dplcrrayv rrjv rrpo^ 

3 avrov 6py)]i'. K.ovXXecovi pev ovv KeXevovn ri]v 
'lovXiav d<peLvai Kal pera^aXeaOai rrpo'^ rip> 
crvyKXrjrov drro Ti]<i Katcra^oo? c^fXta? ov nrpoa- 
eax'^i Toi<i he K^iKepcova Karayayeiv d^iovaiv, 
avhpa Kal KXcohla) iroXepuioorarov Kal rrj /SovXfj 
TrpocrcpiXeararov, eirelcrdr]' Kal rrpoayayoov rov 

242 



POMPEY, xLviii. 6-XLix. 3 

making a test of the power of Pompey by his pro- 
ceedings against them. And finally, when Pompey 
appeared at a public trial,i Clodius, having at his 
beck and call a rabble of the lewdest and most 
arrogant ruffians, stationed himself in a conspicuous 
place and put to them such questions as these: 
. " Who is a licentious imperator ? " "What man seeks 
for a man ? " " Who scratches his head with one 
finger?" And they, like a chorus trained in respon- 
sive song, as he shook his toga, would answer each 
question by shouting out " Pompey." 

XI>IX. Of course this also was annoying to Pom- 
pey, who was not accustomed to vilification and was 
inexperienced in this sort of warfare ; but he was 
more distressed when he perceived that the senate 
was delighted to see him insulted and paying a 
penalty for his betrayal of Cicero. When, however, 
it had come to blows and even wounds in the forum, 
and a servant of Clodius, stealing along through the 
crowd of bystanders towards Pompey, was found to 
have a sword in his hand, Pompey made this his 
excuse, although he was also afraid of the insolent 
abuse of Clodius, and came no more into the forum 
as long as Clodius was tribune, but kept himself con- 
tinually at home, where he was ever debating with 
his friends how he might appease the anger of the 
senate and the nobility against him. To CuUeo, 
however, who urged him to divorce Julia and ex- 
change the friendship of Caesar for that of the 
senate, he would not listen, but he yielded to the 
arguments of those who thought he ought to bring 
Cicero back, who was the greatest enemy of Clodius 
and most beloved in the senate, and he escorted 

1 The trial of Milo, in 56 b.c. Cf. Dio Cassius, xxxix. 
19. 

243 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

aB€\<p6v avTov Seofjievov avv xetpi TToWfj, Tpav- 
/xdroyu ev dyopa yevofxevcov Kai tlvwv dvaipeOev- 

4 rwv, €KpdTT]ae tov UXojSlov. koI voixtp KureXOcov 
6 HiKepcov r7]v re ^ovXrjv evdix; tw Ylop,7rr]i(p 
SirjXXaTTC, Kol T&) criTiKO) v6p,M avvriyopoiv rpoirw 
Tivl irdXiv 7779 Kat OaXdrTi)^;, ocrrjv €KeKTr)vro 
'Vcdpaioi, Kvpiov eiroUi HojuiDiiov. eV avrm 
yap eylvovro Xifi€V€<;, efiTTopta, Kapiroiv hia0€a-ec<;, 
€in Xoycp, TO. Tcbv irXeovTwv Trpdy/xaTa, ra tmv 

5 yewpyovvTMv, K.Xm8io<; 8e ^Ttdro p,i] yeypd^dat 
70V vopov Bid TTjV (TiTuheiav, dXX ott&j? vopo<=; 
ypa^eirj yeyovevat ttjv atroSeLav, oyairep e« Xltto- 
Ovpia>i avTOV papnLVopbevrjv ri]V hvvapiv dpxfj 
via irdXiv dva^oiTTvpovvros teal dvaXap^dvovTO<^. 
eTepot 8e rov vTrdrov %Tnv6yjpo<; diroc^aivovcn 
TOVTo (T6<f>i(T/xa, KaraKXelaai'TO'^ ei? dpx^v pet- 
^ova Hop7ri]'Lov, otto)? auTO? eKirepcfyOfj IlroXe- 

6 p,ai(p rCp ^aaiXel ^OT]d(iov. ov prjv dXXd Kal 
KaviSio<; elarjveyKe hiipap^wv vopov, avev arpa- 
Tta? Wopinpov eyovra pajBhov'x^ov'i Bvo SiaXXaT- 
reiv 'AXe^avBpevcri rov ^aaiXea. Kal Ilop7r7]io<; 
pev iSoKei ru) v6p,(p p^i] Sva'^epaiveiv, rj Be 
avyKX7jro<; e^e^aXev, evirpeTTOi^; cTK')]'\lrap€vi) Be- 
Bievai Trepl TdvBp6<i. rjv Be ypdpbpLaaw ivrvx^u' 
BieppippevoL'^ Kar dyopdv Kal irapa to ^ovXev- 
Ti'jpiov ft)? Bt) IlToX€p,aiov Beop,€vov IIop.7r/]iov 
avTO) o-Tparr]yov dvrl tov Z'mv6r]po<; BoOi]vai. 

7 Tipayevr]<; Be Kal dXXco<i tov IlToXepalov ovk 

^ In 57 B.C. 

^ The law made Pompey Prae/ectus Armonae for five years. 

244 



POMPEY, xLix. 3-7 

Cicero's brother, who was a petitioner for his re- 
turn, with a large force into the forum, where, 
though some were wounded and some killed, he 
nevertheless got the better of Clodius. And when 
Cicero returned to the city ^ by virtue of the law 
then passed, he immediately reconciled Pompey 
to the senate, and by his advocacy of the corn law 
he in a manner once more made Pompey master of 
all the land and sea in Roman possession. For under 
his direction were placed harbours, ti-ading-places, 
distributions of crops, — in a word, navigation and 
agriculture. 2 Clodius alleged that the law had not 
been proposed on account of the scarcity of grain, 
but the scarcity of grain had arisen in order that the 
law might be proposed, a law whereby the power of 
Pompey, which was withering away, as it were, in 
consequence of his failing spirits, might be rekindled 
again and recovered in a new office. But others de- 
clare that this was a device of the consul Spinther, 
whose aim was to confine Pompey in a higher office, 
in order that he himself might be sent out to aid 
King Ptolemy. 3 However, Canidius, as tribune of 
the people, brought in a law providing that Pomj)ey, 
without an army, and with two lictors only, should 
go out as a meditator between the king and the 
people of Alexandria. Pompey was thought to re- 
gard the law with no disfavour, but the senate re- 
jected it, on the plausible pretence that it feared 
for his safety. Besides, writings were to be found 
scattered about the forum and near the senate-house, 
stating that it was Ptolemy's wish to have Pompey 
given to him as a commander instead of Spinther. 
And Timagenes actually says that Ptolemy left home 

^ Ptolemy had taken refuge from his dissatisfied subjects 
in Rome, and wished to be restored. Cf. Dio Cassius, xxxix. 
12-17. He is referred to again in chapter Ixxvi. 5. 

245 
VOL. V X 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ovcrr]^ avdyKtr^ cnreXOelv <f)r]ai, Koi KaraXnrelv 
X'tyvirTou VTTo S€0(f)di'OV^ ireiadevra TrpdrTovro'i 
Yio/jLTrrjio) -^prj ^ar La ^ov<; kol aTpaT7]yia<; KaLvfj<i 
VTTodecriv. aWa tovto fiev oi)^ ourco? 77 0eo- 
(pdvov^ /xo)(dt]pLa TTtdavov to? ciTriaTov i) Uo/xirrjtov 
TTOiel (pvai^, ouK e)(^ovaa KaKor]de^ ovh^ dveXevOepov 

OUTO) TO (f)l\0Tip.0V. 

L. 'KTricTTadeU Se ttj irepl to aiTiKOV OLKOVOfxia 
Koi Trpayp.areLa, 7roWa)(^ou /xev direcrreiX.e Trpea- 
^evTd<; Koi (^L\ov<i, auTo<i Be TrXeuaa^ €('<? %iKe\iav 
Kol "EapBopa Kol Ai./3w]v 'i]OpoL^e (tItov. dvdye- 646 
adai he p^eXXcov TrvevfxaToii fxeydXov Kara OdXar- 
rav ovTo^ koI tmv Kv/Sepvi^TMf okpovvtcov, TrpcoTO^ 
ifi^d'i Kol KeXevaa^ rrjv dy/cvpav atpetv dve^6i](T€' 

2 " HXeiv dvdyKt], ^fju ovk dvdyfcr).'' TOiavTij Se 
roXfij) KoX TTpoOvfiLa -^pcofievo^ p,erd rv)(7^<i dya6))<i 
eveTfXrjae alrov rd epLTvopia KoX ttXolcov ttjv 
OaXaaaav, Mcrre koi to?? e'/CTO? dvdpcoiroi'i iirap- 
Kecrai ri-jv TTepiovaiav eVetV??? t?}? irapacTKeur]^, 
KoX yeveaOat KaOdirep e'/c TDjy)}'^ dcpOovov dirop- 
poi]v et9 TrdvTWi. 

LI. 'Ei' TOVTO) 8e Tw y^povM p.eyav ijpav ol 
KeXT<«oi TToXe/xoi Kaiaapw koX Sokmv iroppoi- 
raTO) Tf/9 'PoL)/i,7;9 drrelvaL Kol avvyjpTpjcrOai BeX,- 
yaa Koi '^oviiJ3oL<i Koi \^peTTavol<i, eXdvdavev vtto 
heivoTrjTO^ iv peao) tco Si]p,o) Kol TOt<f KvpicoTUTOiii 
TTpdyp.acri KaTairoXiTevop^evofi top Tlop.7n]iov. 

2 auTO? p^€v yap cof ao)p,a ti^v (tt paTLWTtKrjv hv- 
vapbiv TTepiKelpevo^, ovk eirl Toi)^ ^ap^dpovi, dXX^ 
oiarrep ev 6i']pai,'^ koI KvvriyeaLOL<^ TOt? tt^o? eVei- 
i'oi'9 dywcn yvp,vdt,wv, Sieirovet, koI KUTeaKeva^ev 
dp,a)(^ov /cal (pofiepdv, '^(^pvaov he kuI dpyvpov kol 

246 



POMPEY, xLix. 7-Li. 2 

without sufficient reason and under no necessity, 
and that his abandonment of Egypt was owiiio- to 
the persuasions of Theophanes, who was aiming to 
give Pompey profitable occupation in the holding 
of a new command. But this is not made credible 
by the baseness of Theophanes as much as it is made 
incredible by the nature of Pompey, in which am- 
bition was not of such a mean and base order. 

L. Having thus been set over the administration 
and management of the grain trade, Pompey sent out 
his agents and friends in various directions, while he 
himself sailed to Sicily, Sardinia and Africa, and 
collected grain. When he was about to set sail with 
it, there was a violent storm at sea, and the ship- 
captains hesitated to put out ; but he led the way on 
board and ordered them to weigh anchor, crying 
with a loud voice : " To sail is necessary ; to live 
is not." By tliis exercise of zeal and courage at- 
tended by good fortune, he filled the sea with ships 
and the markets with grain, so that the excess of 
what he had provided sufficed also for foreign peoples, 
and there was an abundant overflow, as from a spring, 
for all. 

LI. Meanwhile, his Gallic wars raised Caesar to 
greatness ; and though he was thought to be very 
far removed from Rome, and to be occupied with 
Belgae, Suevi, and Britanni, he secretly and cleverly 
contrived to thwart Pompey's designs in the heart 
of the city and in the most important matters. For 
he himself, with his military force clothing him as 
the body does the soul, was carefully training it, not 
against the Barbarians merely, nay, he used its com- 
bats with these only to give it exercise, as if in 
hunting and the chase, — and was making it in- 
vincible and terrible ; but all the while he was 

247 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

raWa Xd(f)vpa koI tov aWov ttXovtov tov e'/c 
TToXe/jicov TOcrovTcov Treptyivo/jievov Gt? rrjv 'Pcofirjp 
aTToareSXcdv, koI BtaTreipcov rat? Scopo8oKLai<; koI 
crvy^oprjycov dyopai>6p,oi<; Kol aTpartjyol^ koI 
uTrarof? kcu yvvac^lv avrayv, wKeiovTo iroWov'i' 

3 oxTTC v7r€p^aX6vTo<i avrou Ta<; "AXTret? Kal Bia- 
yeifidi^ovToii ev Aovkt], tmv p,ev dWo)p dvhpoi)v 
KUL yvvaiKOiv d/uLiW.(i)/j,ev(i)v Kal ^epopuevoiv ttoXu 
irXrjOo'i yeveadai, avyKXrjrtKOv<; Se 8taKoaLOV<i, ev 
oh Kol Ilofj.7n]lo<; rjv Kal Kpdcrao<;, dpOvTrdrcou 
8e Kal (TTparrjyMV eKarov ecKoai pd^8ov<; eirl 

4 Tat9 Kaiaapo<; dvpai^ 6(f)dP]vai. tou? fj,€V ovv dX- 
Xov<i d7TavTa<i ep^irXrjaa^ eXirihdiv Kal '^pijpdToyp 
direaTeXXe, Kpdcrao) Bk Kal Ylopirriio) Trpoii avrov 
iyivovTO avvOrjKai, fierievai pev virareia'i eKei- 
vov<; Kal K.aL(Tapa avXXap,/3dveiv avrols, tripbiTov- 
ra TOiV crrpaTiwTtov av)(VOV'i eirl ttjv yjrP^cjiov, eirdv 
he alpeOdaL rd'^iaTa, Trpdrreiv pev eavJol<i iirap- 
Xi-^v Kal (TTparoirehcov r)yep,ovia<i, Kataapt. Be Td<; 

5 ovaa^ /3e/3aiovp et? dXXi]v irevTaeTtav. eirl rov- 
TOt<i i^eve-)(9elcnv et<? rov<i 7roXXov<i %aX67rcos 
€(f}€pov 01 irpwrot' Kal ^apKeXXlvo<i ev tw Bi]pa) 
KaracTTafi dp,(jiolv evavriov jjpcoTijaev el p,eri,aaiv 
virareLav. Kal twv ttoXXmv d-noKpivacrdaL KeX- 
evovTwv, TTyowTO? ITo/i7r/;io9 eliTev (ji)<i rd^a p.ev dv 
p,€T€XOoi, Td^a Be ovk dv pereXOor Kpdaao^; Be 
TroXiTLKcorepov ovtw yap €(p'r] Trpd^ecv OTroTepco^ 

6 dv OLrjrac tu> koivo) crvvoLcreiv. eTn(pvop,evov Be 



248 



POMPEY, LI. 2-6 

sending back to Rome gold and silver and the other 
spoils and the rest of the wealth which came to him 
in abundance from his numerous wars, and by 
tempting people with his bribes, and contributing 
to the expenses of aediles, praetors, consuls, and 
their wives, he was winning many to his side. There- 
fore when he crossed the Alps and spent the winter 
in Luca, a great crowd of ordinary men and women 
gathered there in eager haste to see him, while two 
hundred men of senatorial rank, among whom were 
Pompey and Crassus, and a hundred and twenty 
fasces of proconsuls and praetors were seen at Caesar's 
door.^ Accordingly, he filled all the rest with hopes 
and loaded them with money, and sent them away; but 
between himself, Pompey, and Crassus the following 
compact was made : these two were to stand for the 
consulship, and Caesar was to assist their candidacy 
by sending large numbers of his soldiers home to 
vote for them ; as soon as they were elected, they 
were to secure for themselves commands of provinces 
and armies, and to confirm Caesar's present provinces 
to him for another term of five years. When all this 
was publicly known, it gave displeasure to the chief 
men of the state, and Marcellinus rose in the as- 
sembly and asked Pompey and Crassus to their faces 
whether they were going to be candidates for the 
consulship. As the majority of the people bade 
them answer, Pompey did so first, and said that 
perhaps he would be a candidate, and perhaps he 
would not ; but Crassus gave a more politic answer, 
for he said he would take whichever course he 
thought would be for the advantage of the common 
wealth. 2 And when Marcellinus persisted in his 



^ This was in 56 b.o. Cf. the Caesar, chapter xxi. 
^ Cf. the Crassus, xv. 1 f. 



249 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Ho^Tnjto) ^lapKeWivov koX a^ohpo)<i Xeyeiv Sok- 
ovvro<i, 6 Yio/xTnjio'i e(pr] ircivTOiv dSiKcoraTOv elvai 
Tov M.apKeXXivoi', o? ■)^dpiv ovk e\ei Xoyio'i fxev e^ 
d(f)(t)vov Bi' aurou, fyneTiKo? Se eV TretuaTiKov yeuo- 

LIL Ot' fxrjv dXXa tmv aXXwv dTTocrravKov 
TOV irapwyyeXXeiv vrraTeiav, AeuKiov Aoyu.6Tioj/ 
KaTcof CTTCLae Kal irapeOappvve fxrj direiTrelv ov 
yap vTrep d.p')^i]<;, aW virep iXevOepia'^ elvai rov 
dyoiva Trpo? tou? Tvpdvvov;. oi Se irepl tov 
T\oiJi,'TTr)lov cfyo^rjdevre'i tov tovov tov KaTWfo?, pbrj 
TTjv ^ovXrjv ^X^^ uTTaaav d7ro<nrdcrr) kuI p,eTa- 
^dXr) TOV hr^fiov to vyiaivov, ovk eiaaav et<? dyo- 

2 pdv KUTeXOelv tov Ao/xeTcov, dXX eTrtire/JLyjravTe^ 
ivoTiXov; avhpa<; direicTeLvav fiev tov Trpoi^yovp-evov 
\vxi'0(f)6pov, iTpeyjravTO Be tov<; dXXov^' ec7;Y^T09 
8e KdTCov dvexoiprjae, TpwOeU tov Be^cov Trrj^vv 
dfjivvo/xevo^ TTpo tov Ao/.tertou. 

'YoiavTrj he ohw TTapeX96vT€<i evrl ttjv dp-)(})V 
ovhe ToXXa Koa/xiciiTepov eirpaTTov. aXXa irpo)- 
Tov p-ev TOV K.dTcova tov 8)]p,ov crTpaTrjyov alpov- 
p.evov Kal TTji' ■\^rj(^ov e7rt(p€povTO<i, Hop-Tnjio^ 
eXvae ti-jv eKKXrjcriav olwvov^ acTicopevo^, uvtI Be 
Kareoyo? BaTLViov dvrjyopevaav, dpyvpiw rdii 

3 ^vXd<i Bia(f)det,pavTe<;. eireiTa vofxov^ Bid Tpe- 
jBwvLOV Bi]papxovvTO<; elaecpepov, Kaiaapi p,ev, 64 
Mairep u>p,oX6yr]TO, BevTepav e7np,€Tpovi'ra<; rrevia- 
CTiav, }s.pda<J(p Be "l^vplav Kal ttjv eVt YldpOov^ 
GTpaTeiav BiBovtu^, avTW Be IIo/u,Trr)t(p Ai(3w]v 
drraaav Kal ^I/3t]piav cKaTepav Kal Teacrapa Tay- 
/Ltara aTpaTLWTWv, oiv iirexpv^^ ^^^ Kalcrapt 

4 Be'i]6evTi irpo^ tov ev FaXaTta iroXep-ov. dXXa 
Kpdaao<; p.ev e^rjXdev eh ttjv eirapxiav UTraX- 

250 



POMPEY, LI. 6-Ln. 4 

attack upon Pompey and was tliought to be making 
a strong speech, Pompey remarked that MarceUinus 
was of all men most unjust, since he was not grate- 
ful to him for making him eloquent instead of 
speechless, and full to vomiting instead of famished. 

LI I. However, thougii all the rest declined to be 
candidates for the consulship, Cato encouraged and 
persuaded Lucius Domitius not to desist, for the 
struggle with the tyrants, he said, was not for office, 
but for liberty. But Pompey and his partisans, 
seeing the firmness of Cato, and fearing lest, having 
all the senate with him, he should draw away and 
pervert the sound minded among the people, would 
not suffer Domitius to go down into the forum, but 
sent armed men and slew the link-bearer who was 
leading his company, and jnit the rest to flight ; 
Cato was the last to retire, after being wounded in 
the right arm while he was fighting to defend 
Domitius. 

By such a path they made their way into the 
office they sought, nor even then did they behave 
more decently. But first of all, while the people 
were casting their votes for the election of Cato to 
the praetorship, Pompey dissolved the assembly, 
alleging an inauspicious omen, and after corrupting 
the tribes with money, they proclaimed Vatinius 
praetor instead of Cato. Then, by means of Tre- 
bonius, a tribune, they introduced laws, which, ac- 
cording to the agreement, continued his provinces to 
Caesar for a second term of five years, gave Crassus 
Syria and the expedition against the Parthians, and 
to Pompey himself the whole of Africa, both Sj)ains, 
and four legions ; of these he lent two to Caesar, at 
his request, for the war in Gaul. But although 
Crassus went out to his province at the expiration of 

251 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XajeU T?7<? VTraTeia^, Tlo/ji7n]io^ Se to dearpov 
di'aBei^a<i aywpa'; rj'ye yvfiviKov'^ Kai /xovaiKOV^ 
eVi Tj] KaOiepcoaei, Kal 6r)po)v afxi\Xa<; iv oU 
■nevraKoaioL Xeovra avr]pe6i](jav, eVi -naai 8e rrju 
€\€(f)apTO/j,a)^Lav, eKTrXyjKTiKforarov Bea/ua, irape- 

LIII. 'EttI TovToc<i Be Oav/xaaTcoOeU kuI aya 
7r>/^et?, avdi<; ovk eXdrTOva (f)96i'Ov ea)(^€v, on 
7rp€(T/3€VTal<; (f)iXoi'i irapaSoixi rd orparevfiara 
Koi Ta<; errapxia^, avro'i iv Toi<i irepl rrjv 'IraXiav 
t]/3t]Tripioi<;, /jL€TI(ov dXXore dXXa)(^6a€, /juerd Trj<; 
yvvatKo<i 8ii]yev, etVe ip6i)v avrfj^, el're epcocrav 
ou^ vTrofMevoov diroXnrelv koi yap Kal tovto 

2 Xiyerai. Kal Trepi^oijrov rfv rr}<i Koprjf; to (piXav- 
hpov, ov Kad wpav Tro6ovar]<i top Tlo/jLTT'^iov, dXX 
atriov eoiKev rj re aw^poavvq tov dvSpo^ elvai 
ixovrjv yivcoaKOVTO'i rrjv yeya/.i,ri/u.€vr)if, r; re (re/u,- 
j'OT?;? OVK aKparov, aXA,' cv\apiv e^ovaa rrjv 
ofiiXiav Kal jxaXiara yvvaiKwv dycoyov, el Set 
fijjSe *i>Xd)pav dXcovai rrjv eraipav yjrevSo/jLaprv- 

3 pio)v. iv S' ovv dyopavofJLLKol'^ dp-^aipeaioLf; ei<> 
'^€tpd<; rivoiv eXdovrcov Kal 4>ovev6evr(t)v irepl 
aurov OVK dXiywv dvairXrjaOel'i aifxaro^ rfXXa^e 
rd l/xdria. iroXXov 5e dopv^ov Kal hpopiov irpo^ 
rr)V olKiav yevo/xevov roiv ko/xi^ovtwv rd ifidria 
depaiTOvrwv, eru-^e fxev rj Kopr] Kvovaa, Oeacra/jbevrj 
Se Kadpfiay/xevrjv rrjv rr'j/Sevvov i^eXiire Kal /j,6Xi<; 
dvyjveyKev, iK he rrj<i rapa-^^fji; iKeivij'^ Kal rov 

4 7i'd6ov<; diryjix^Xwaev. 66ev ovSe oi [xaXicrra 
/j£/ji4)6/x€VOi rrjv irpo^ Kaicrapa Tio/jLTrrji'ov (fyiXiav 
Tfjrioivro rov epcora t/}9 yvvaiK6<i. av6i<; jxevroL 
Kvi'jaaaa Kal rsKovaa OPjXv iraihtuv e'/c rwv 



252 



POMPEY, Lii. 4-Liii. 4 

his consulship,^ Ponipey opened his theatre and held 
gymnastic and musical contests at its dedication, 
and furnished combats of wild beasts in which five 
hundred lions were killed, and above all, an elephant 
fight, a most terrifying spectacle. 

LIII. All this won him admiration and affection ; 
but on the other hand he incurred a corresponding 
displeasui-e, because he handed over his provinces 
and his armies to legates who were his friends, while 
he himself spent his time with his wife among the 
pleasure-places of Italy, going from one to another, 
either because he loved her, or because she loved 
him so that he could not bear to leave her ; for this 
reason too is given. Indeed, the fondness of the 
young woman for her husband was notorious, al- 
though the mature age of Pompey did not invite 
such devotion. The reason for it, however, seems 
to have lain in the chaste restraint of her husband, 
who knew only his wedded wife, and in the dignity 
of his manners, which were not severe, but full of 
grace, and especially attractive to women, as even 
Flora the courtesan may be allowed to testify. It 
once happened that at an election of aediles people 
came to blows, and many were killed in the vicinity 
of Pompey and he was covered with their blood, so 
that he changed his garments. His servants carried 
these garments to his house with much confusion 
and haste, and his young wife, who chanced to be 
with child, at sight of the blood-stained toga, fainted 
away and with difficulty regained her senses, and in 
consequence of the shock and her sufferings, mis- 
carried. Thus it came to pass that even those who 
found most fault with Pompey's friendship for Caesar 
could not blame him for the love he bore his wife. 
However, she conceived again and gave birth to a 

* In 54 B.C. 

253 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

0}Bivu>v eTeXevrr/ae, kuI to TraiSiov ov TroXXaf 
T]fA,epa<; iTre^rjcre. TrapeaKevaafierou 8e rod Ooyu,- 
irrjcov TO aSifia daTrreiv ev AX^ava>, ^iaadfi€vo<; 
6 Brj/xo'; et? TO "Apeiov irehiov Karrjve'yKev, ocktw 
tt}? Kopr/'i paWov i) lIo/ATTT/ift) kul Kacaapi 

5 '^(^api^opevo^. avrcov Se eKeiVcov pel^ou iSoKet 
fiepo<i atrovTi K.aiaapi vepew o 8i]po<i i) TlopTrrj'uo 
irapovTi T% Tf/i?}?. evdv<i yap eKvpaivev rj 7roX,f?, 
Kal Trdvra tu Trpdj/jLara ad\ov ei^e koI X6yov<i 
hiacnaTLKov^, (w? rj irporepov Trapa/caXvirTovaa 
fxaWov rj Kareipyovaa roiv dvSpwv rrjv (^LXap-)(^iav 

6 olK€i6r7)<i dvrjprjTai. p,€T ov ttoXu Se Kal Kpd(T<TO<; 
ev YldpOoi<i ttTToX&'Xcb? 7]yyiX\eT0' Kal tovto 
K(t)\vpa ov fieya tov avpTrecreiv rbv e/x(f)vXLov 
iroXcfxov eKTTohoiv iyeyovei- SeBLOTd yap eKelvov 
dfi.(f)6Tepoi roif Trpo<i aXXrjXovi a/xw? ye ttoj? 
evejxevov BiKaioi'i. eirel 8e dvelXev i) ru^r^ rov 
e^ehpov TOV dycovo<i, evOu<; ijv elireiv to kco/mi- 

KOV, ft)9 

arepo? Trpo? tov eTepov 
v7raXei(f>eTai toj %etpe viroKoi'ieTai, 

7 0VT(0<i rj TV^V P'lKpov ecTTL 7rpo<; Ttjv (puaiv. ov 
yap diroTrifiTrXrfcnv avTij's ti-jv eTri0v/xiav, ottov 
TocrovTOV ^d9o<; rjye/novia^ Kal fxeyedo^ evpv- 
^copia^ Svolv dvSpoLv ovk eTre(T')(ev, dXX! ukov- 
ovTe<i Kal dvayiv(O(TK0VTe<i oti " Tpi')(Oa Be TrdvTa 
SeSacfTai " TOi? deols, " e/ca(7T09 5' eppope Tf/xj}?/' 



254 



POMPEY, Liii. 4-7 

female child, but died from the pains of travail, and 
the child survived her only a few days. Pompey 
made preparations to bury her body at his Alban 
villa, but the people took it by force and carried it 
down to the Campus Martius for burial, more out of 
pity for the young woman than as a favour to 
Pompey and Caesar. But of these two, it was thought 
that the people gave a larger share of the honour 
to Caesar, who was absent, than to Pompey, who 
was present. For the city became at once a tossing 
sea, and everywhere surging tumult and discordant 
speeches prevailed, since the marriage alliance which 
had hitherto veiled rather than restrained the am- 
bition of the two men was now at an end. After a 
short time, too, tidings came that Crassus had lost 
his life in Parthia, and so what had been a great 
hindrance to the breaking out of civil war was re- 
moved ; for through fear of him both Pompey and 
Caesar had somehow or other continued to treat 
one another fairly. But when fortune had removed 
the third champion who waited to compete with the 
victor in their struggle, at once the comic poet's 
words were apt, and 

" each wrestler against the other 
Anoints himself with oil and smears his hands 
with dust. " ^ 

So slight a thing is fortune when compared with 
human nature ; for she cannot satisfy its desires, 
since all that extent of empire and magnitude of 
wide-stretching domain could not suffice for two 
men. They had heard and read that the gods ^ 
" divided the universe into three parts, and each 
got his share of power," and yet they did not think 

1 Cf. Kock, Com. Grate. Frag. iii. p. 484. 
* Zeus, Poseidon, and Pluto ; Iliad, xv. 189. 

255 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

eai'TOt? OVK evofxi^ov npKecv Svcrlv oven rrjv 'Vro- 
Haiwv ap')(y']v. 

LIV. Ka/rot TTo/XTTT^to? elfre ttotc BTj/xrjyopuiv 
on TTCiaav ap-)(riv Xd^oi irporepov rj TrpoaeSoKrjae 
KOI KardOotTO Odrrov i] TrpoaeBoKrjOT). koI vrj 648 
Ata p.aprvpovaa<; €l')(ev del rd^ SiaXvaei^ twv 
arparoTTeScov. Tore Be tov Haiaapa Sokmv ov 
irporjaeaOai. rrjv Svva/xtv e^i']rei rai^ iroXnLKal^; 
dp'X^ac'i 6')(vpo'i eivai tt/so? avrov, dWo Be ouBev 
eveoyrept^ev, ovBe e/SovXero BoKelv dirLcrrelv, dX)C 

2 virepopdv fidXXov Kal KaTa(f>povelv. iirel Be Td<i 
dp')(id'^ ov Kurd yvdy/xrjv ecopa ^pa^evofxeva^, 
BeKa^o/jbevwv rcov iroXirMv, dvap'^iav ev rfj iroXet 
TTepielBe yevofjLevrjv Kal X0709 evOv<; exd>pet ttoXu? 
vTTep BiKTdropo^, ov rrponTo^ et? peaov i^evejKelv 
eToXfirjae Aoi'«tXA,to9 o Bi]/xap)(^0'i, rq> B)]fXM 
irapaivMv eXeaOai BiKrdropa YiopbTrrjlov. eVt- 
Xa^Ofxevov Be Karwro? ovto<; fxev eKivBvvevoe 
Trjv Bj]/j,ap')^Lav aTro^aXeiv, virep Be TiopLrryflov 
TToXXol rcov ^lXcov aTreXoyovvro 7rapiovre<i &)? ov 
Beojxevov ri)^ dp')(ri<; eK€iVT]<; ovBe ^ovXo/xevov. 

3 K.drQ)vo<; Be TlofiTn'fiov e7raive(Tavro<i Kal rrpo- 
rpe-^apevov t% evKoaixia<; eTnfieXrjO'ijvai, rare 
fiev alBe<Tdel<; eTrefieXijOr], Kat KareardOi^aav 
vrraroi Aofxerio<; Kal MecrcraXa?, varepov Be irdXtv 
dvapxi'fi'i yivopevrj'; Kal TrXeiovMv ijBi] rov irepl 
rov BcKrdropo<; Xoyov eyeipovrcov irafjLcorepov, 
(f)o^')]devre<; 01 irepl Kdrwva /x?) /SiaaOcoaiv, 
eyvooaav dp-)(r)v nva rw Ilo/j,7rrjt(p Trpoe/jievoi 



256 



POMPEY, Liii. 7-Liv. 3 

the Roman dominion enougli for themselves, who 
were but two. 

LIV. Still, Pompey once said in addressing the 
people that he had received every office earlier than 
he had expected, and had laid it down more quickly 
than others had expected. And in truth his dis- 
banding of his armies was a perpetual witness to 
the truth of his words. But at this time he thought 
that Caesar was not going to dismiss his forces, and 
therefore sought to make himself strong against 
him by means of magistracies in the city. Beyond 
this, however, he attempted no revolutionary 
changes, nor did he wish to be thought to distrust 
Caesar, but rather to neglect and despise him. But 
when he saw that the magistracies were not bestowed 
according to his wishes, because the citizens were 
bribed, he suffered an anarchy to arise in the city ;^ 
and forthwith there was prevalent much talk in 
favour of a dictator, which Lucilius the popular tribune 
first ventured to make public, when he advised the 
people to elect Pompey dictator. But Cato attacked 
him, and Lucilius came near losing his tribunate, 
and many of Pompey's friends came forward in 
defence of him, declaring that he neither asked nor 
desired that office. And when Cato applauded 
Pompey and urged him to devote himself to the 
cause of law and order, for the time being he did 
so, out of shame, and Domitius and Messala were 
installed in the consulship ^ ; but afterwards an 
anarchy ai'ose again, and more people now agitated 
the question of a dictatorship more boldly. There- 
fore Cato and his party, fearing lest they should be 
overborne, determined to allow Pompey a certain 



^ That is, uo consuls were elected. 

* In 53 B.C., seven months after the regular time. 



257 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

vo/JLi/xov aiTOTpe-^ai Trj<i aKpdrov koX rvpavviKrj^; 

d7re(f)7]paT0 yvoo/jLrjv iv avyKX/jrw Uop,7rT]Lov fiovov 
eXeaOat virarov r) yap diraWayt^aeaOaL t?}? 
Trapovcnj<i rr^v iroXiv dKocr/jLLWi, rj SovXevcreiv tw 
KparlaTO). (fyavevTO^ Se irapaho^ov rov Xoyov 
Sia TOP eLTTOvTa, Kartur avaara^ kol 'Trapaa')((iov 
SoKijaiv ft)? dvTiXe^oi, yevoixevrj^ (Ti(07r'fj<; elire 
Trjv 7rpoK€i/u,evi]v <yvco/iiriv ai^TO? fiev ovk dv ela- 
eveyKelv, elaev-qvey/j-evp Se uc^' erepov •neiOeaOai 
KeXeveiv, jraaav p,€V dp)(^r}v /xdXXov aipovp,6VO<; 
dvap'xio'^) TIo/uLTTrjtov 8e firjSeva ^cXtiov dp^ecv 

5 iv rapa^^al'i TTjXiKavraa vofil^cov. Se^a/^eviji; 8e 
Trj<i /3ouX?}9, Kal ■\lrr](f)caap,evy]<; ottw? viraro'^ 
alpeOel'i 6 IIop,7rt]io<i cip)^oi /x6vo<i, ei Se avTO<i 
avvdp'^ovTO'i her^deirj, fxr] ddrrov Bvolv fiijvolv 
BoKifidawi eXotro, KaraaTa6ei<i ovTW'i koI diro- 
hei')(de\<i hid XovXiriKLov p,ecro/3aat,X€(o<; viraro^ 
7)a7rd^€To (piXo(pp6v(o<; tov J^dreova, ttoXXtjv o/xo- 
Xoyijov y^dpiv e')(eLv koX irapaKaXoiv yiveadai 

6 (rvfi/SovXov IBia t/}? dp^y]<i. Kdrcov Be X^P'-^ H'^^ 
e^j^Lv avTM TOV JlofiTnjlov ovk rj^iov Bi^ eKelvov 
yap Siv elirev ovBev elrreiv, Bid Be rrjv iroXiv 
eaecrdai Be (Tvp.j3ovXo^ IBia 7rapaKaXov/j,evo<;, edv 
Be /XT) TrapaKaXrJTai, Brj/xoaia (ppdaeiv to (f)CHv6- 



■» 



Kdi 



p.evov. ToiovTa fiev ovv }\.ar(av ev iraai 

1 In 52 B.C. 
258 



POMPEY, Liv. 3-6 

legalized office, and so to divert him from the un- 
mixed tyranny of a dictatorship. Consequently, 
Bibulus, who was an enemy of Pompey, was first to 
propose in the senate that Pompey be chosen sole 
consul ; for thus, he said, the city would either be 
set free from the prevailing disorder, or would 
become the slave of its strongest man. The pro- 
posal seemed strange, considering the man who 
made it ; but Cato rose, leading everybody to think 
that he was going to speak against it, and when 
silence was made, said that he himself would not 
have introduced the proposed measure, but that 
since it had been introduced by another, he urged 
its adoption, because he preferred any government 
whatever to no government at all, and thought that 
no one would govern better than Pompey in a time 
of such disorder. The senate accepted the measure, 
and decreed that Pompey, if elected consul, should 
govern alone, but that if he himself desired a col- 
league, he might choose whom he thought fit after 
two months had fully expired. Having in this way 
been made consul ^ and so declared by Sulpicius, 
the Interrex,'^ Pompey addressed himself in a 
friendly manner to Cato, acknowledging that he 
was much indebted to him, and inviting him to 
give advice in a private capacity on the conduct of 
the government. But Cato would not admit that 
Pompey was indebted to him, declaring that none 
of his words had been spoken in the interests ot 
Pompey, but in the interests of the city ; and that 
he would give him advice in a private capacity if he 
were invited, and in case he should not be invited, 
would publicly make known his opinion. Such, 
indeed, was Cato in everything. 

^ One who held supreme power in the absence of regularly 
elected consuls. 

259 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

LV. TLofXTrrjio^ Be irapekOcov els rrjv ttoXlv 
efyrj/jie Kopv^jXlav dvjarepa MeTeWov'S.KrjTricovo'i, 
ov TrapOevov, aWa -x^i'ipav citt oXeXei fifievrjv vewari 
WoTcXiov rov Kpdaaov iTaiB6<;, (L avvcoK'qcrev €K 
Trapdeviai;, ev IldpOot<; TedvriK6T0<i. iprjv Be ttj 
KopT] TToXXa (f)LXTpa Bi-^a rcov d(p' u)pa<i, Kai 'yap 
Trepl ypdp,p,aTa /caXw? ■)]aKr}TO Kav irepi Xvpav 
KoX yeo) fierptai', Koi Xoycov (piXo<TO(p(ov eWiaro 

2 'X^ptjaL/xay'i aKOvetv. koX irpoarjv rovToa r)6o<; 
di]Bia<; Koi TrepiepyLWi KaOapov, a Br) veai<i Trpoa- 
Tpi^erai yvvai^l rd roiavra fxa9>']/u,ara' iraTqp 
Be Kal y€vou<; eve/ca kuI B6^i]<; a/xe/xTrros'. dXX^ 
6p,(i)<i Tov ydfjLOV Toi^ fiei' ovk ■ijpeaKe to /xt) kuO 
r'jXiKiav vlw yap avrov avvoLKelv (opav ei^ev tj 

3 K.opvr]XLa /xaXXov ol Be KOfiyfrorepoi to ttj<{ 
7r6Xeoi)<i r^yovvro TrapecopaKevat tov Ho/u,7n']iop ev 
TU^at? ovarj<;, oiv eKslvov laTpov rjprjTat KUt p,ov(p 
irapaBeBco/cev avT^v o Be crTe(^avovTai Kal dvei 
ydp.ov<;, avTrjv Trjv v-naTelav o^eiXwv rjyetaOat 
crvfx(f)opdv, OVK dv ovtw irapavop.wi Bodelaav 649 

4 evTV^ovcn]ii t?}? TraTplBo^. eirel Be Tal^ 8iKai<i 
Tcov BwpoBoKiwv Kal BeKaapLcov e7n(TTd<i, Kal 
vofjLOv; ypd-^^a^i Kad^ ov^ ai Kptaei'^ eywovTo, ra 
pi.ev dXXa aep,vco<; e/Bpd^eve Kal Ka6ap(t)<i, da(f>d- 
Xeiav djxa Kal Koapov Kal tjav^^tav avrov irpoa- 
Kadi]p,evov p^ed' ottXcov toi<; BiKaaTrjpioi^ Trape^cov, 
'S.KrjTTLMVo'i Be tov TTevOepov Kpivop.evov, /Liera- 
'rrep,yp'dp,evo^ otKaBe tov<; e^r'jKovTa Kal TpiaKoaiov^ 
8iKa(nd<; eveTV')(€ ^orfdeiv, o Be KaTrjyopof direcTTT} 
T/}? BiKrjfi IBoov TOV XKi]7riO)va 7rpo7rep,7r6p,€vov 
260 



POMPEY, Lv. 1-4 

LV. Pompey now entered the city, and married 
Cornelia, a daughter of Metellus Scipio. She was 
not a virgin, but had lately been left a widow by 
Publius, the son of Crassus, whose virgin bride she 
had been before his death in Parthia. The young- 
woman had many charms apart from her youthful 
beauty. She was well versed in literature, in playing 
the lyre, and in geometry, and had been accustomed 
to listen to philosophical discourses with profit. In 
addition to this, she had a nature which was free 
from that unpleasant officiousness which such ac- 
complishments are apt to impart to young women ; 
and her father's lineage and reputation were above 
reproach. Nevertheless, the marriage was displeasing 
to some on account of the disparity in years ; for 
Cornelia's youth made her a fitter match for a son 
of Pompey. Those, too, who were more critical, 
considered that Pompey was neglectful of the un- 
happy condition of the city, which had chosen him 
as her physician and put herself in his sole charge ; 
whereas he was decking himself with garlands and 
celebrating nuptials, though he ought to have re- 
garded his very consulship as a calamity, since it 
would not have been given him in such an illegal 
manner had his country been prosperous. Moreover, 
although he presided over the suits for corruption 
and bribery, and introduced laws for the conduct 
of the trials, and in all other cases acted as 
arbiter with dignity and fairness, making the 
court-rooms safe, orderly, and quiet by his j)resence 
there with an armed force, still, when Scipio, his 
father-in-law, was put on trial, he summoned the 
three hundred and sixty jurors to his house and 
solicited their support, and the prosecutor abandoned 
the case when he saw Scipio conducted from the 

261 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

€^ a<yopa<i vtto tmu SiKacTTCov, ndXiv ovv ijKOve 

5 KaKo)^, €Ti Be fiaWov on Xvaa^: v6fia> tou? ytvo- 
fjizi>ov<i irepl TOiv Kpivo/xevcov eTran'OVi, avTO<; 
elarjkOe TWd'yKov iTracpeao/xevo'i. koI Kdrcov 
(erv^e yap Kplvcov) €7ria-^6p6vo<; to, wra rai<; 
^(^epalv ovK €(f)rj A-aXw? e'xeiv avrS) irapa rov 

G vo/LLOV cLKOveiv TOiv eiraivoiv. oOev o pev Kdrcov 
dire^Xyjdr] irpo rov (f)ep€iv ttjv yjri^cjiov, edXw Se 
TOL^ aWai<i o Tl\dyKO<i crvv ala'xyvr) tov IIop,- 
Trrjiov. Kol yap oXlyai^ vcrrepov r}p,epai^ 'Ti/rato?, 
dvTjp u7raTt«09, hiKt^v (jyeuycov /cat 7rapa(f)v\d^a<i 
rov Hop,7r7]lov iirl helirvov diriovra Xekov^evov, 
iKereve rcov yovdroiv Xa^opevc;. 6 8e TraprjXOev 
uTrepoTTTiKMi; elrrwv hiai^delpeLv ro helirvov avrov, 
dXXo Be pi]B€v irepalveiv. ovrcoi; ovv dvLao<i elvai 

7 SoKcbv aiTta? et%e. rd S' dXXa /taXw? aTravra 
Karearrjaev el<i rd^iv, Kal irpoaelXeTO (Twdp-y^ovja 
TOV TTevOepov et? tov<; vttoXoIttov; irevre p,rjva'^. 
ey\ry-i<^La Or] Be avru) xa? eirapxias e^^iv 6t9 dXXriv 
TerpaeTLUV, Kal y^iXia rdXavra XapjBdvetv Kad' 
e/caaTov eviavrov, d^ wv Ope^jret Kai Bioi/crjaei 
TO (jTpariwriKov. 

LVI. Ot Be Kaiaapo<i (piXot ravTrjv dpy^rjv 
Xa^ovTe'i Tj^LOvv rivd yeveaOai Kal Katcrapo? 
Xoyov, dy(i)vi^op,€Vou ToaovTov<i dyoiva^ virkp ttjs 
i)yep,ovia<i' rj yap uTrareta? d^tov elvat Tvx^elv 
eTepa<i, 17 7rpoaXa/3etv if] arpaTela y^povov, ev w 
TMV ireTTOvripevoiv ovk dXXo^ eireXOiov df^aipy'i- 
aerat rrjv Bo^av, dXX avTo<i ap^et Kal Tifxrjaerai 

2 Kad^ 't]av)(iav Karepyaadp,evo<i, ova7]<; Be irep] 

262 



POMPEY, Lv. 4-Lvi. 2 

forum by the jurors. Once more, therefore, Pompey 
was in ill repute, and this was still further increased 
because, although he had put a stop by law to 
encomiums on persons under trial, he himself came 
into court to pronounce an encomium on Plancus. 
Cato, who happened to be one of the jurors, clapped 
his hands to his ears and said it was not right for 
him, contrary to the law, to listen to encomiums. 
Cato was therefore set aside before he could cast his 
vote, but Plancus was convicted by the other votes, 
to the disgrace of Pompay. For, a few days after- 
wards, Hypsaeus, a man of consular dignity, who was 
under prosecution, lay in wait for Pompey as he was 
returning from his bath for supper, clasped his knees, 
and supplicated his favour ; but Pompey passed along 
contemptuously, telling him that, except for spoiling 
his supper, he was accomplishing nothing. In this 
way he got the reputation of being partial, and was 
blamed for it. Everything else, however, he suc- 
ceeded in bringing into good order, and chose his 
father-in-law as his colleague for the remaining five 
months of the year. It was also decreed that he 
should retain his provinces for another four years, 
and receive a thousand talents yearly, out of which 
he was to feed and maintain his soldiers. 

LVI. But the friends of Caesar took occasion 
from this to demand that some consideration be 
shewn for Caesar also, who was waging so many con- 
tests in behalf of the Roman supremacy ; they said he 
deserved either another consulship, or the prolonga- 
tion of his command, so that no one else might suc- 
ceed to his labours and rob him of the glory of them, 
but that the one who had performed them might 
himself continue in power and enjoy his honours un- 
disturbed. A debate arose on these matters, during 

263 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

rovTcov dfii\Xy^<i, co? Brj 7rapairov/j.€vo<; virep rov 
KaL<Tapo<i tV evvoia rov (pdovov o IIo/XTrTyto? €(f)T] 
ypdfjifiaTa Kalaapo'; €)(6iv ^ovXofievov Xa^elv 
BidSoy^ov KOL Travcraadat. r^9 aTpareiWi- uTraTtta? 
fievTOi Koi p,r) Trapovn Ka\o)<; e-)(^eiv a'iTrjacv avro) 
3 ho6r]vai. Trpo'i ravra ivicTTafxivwv TOiv irepl 
Yidrwva kol KeK-evovrwv ISicoTrjv yevofievov Kat 
TO, oirXa KaraOepbevov evpiaKecrOai re irapa twv 
TToXiroJv djadov, ovk i^€pLaa<i, dX)C olov rjTT'>]66l<i 
6 Ilop7T7]io<i yTTOTTTO? rju paWov oiv i(f)poP6L irepi 
Kaiaapo'i. eVe/x-v/re Se kol ra? 8vvdpet<; aTraiTMu 
a<i e'X^prjaev avrw, rd TlapBi/cd 7roiovpevo<i irpo- 
(f)a(Tiv. 6 Be, KaiTTep elhu)<i e(f oh dirrjTelro rov? 
a-rpari('oTaq, direTrep^Ire kuXm^ 8oipr]adp€vo<;. 

LVII. 'E/c TOVTOV 8e TToyu-TTjyto? ii' NeuTToXei 
vo(Tr)aa<i €'Tria(f)aXo}<; dveppcoae, Tipa^ajopov 8e 
nreia-avTO'i toi"? NeaTroXtra? edvaav virep aurov 
aa>Ti]pLa. p,ipovp.evu)v he rovrovi rcov irpoaoLKwv 
Kol Tou Trpdyp.aTO'i ovrco TrepiiovTO^ rt]v IraXiav 
irdaav, koi piKpd, kol pieydXr] ttoXi^ e<^' r]p6pa<; 

2 TToXXd'i icopra^e. tou? 8e d7ravTcovTa<i Travraxo- 
dev ovheU e^oopei totto?, dXXd ohoi re Karernp.- 
■wXavTo Koi KOipai koL Xipeve<i evcoxovpivcov Kal 
dvovTCdv. iroXXol Be koX arecpavtjcfiopouvTe^ viro 
Xaprrdhwi' eSexovTO /cal 7rape7rep,7Tov dvOo^oXov- 
pei'ov, ware rrjv Kop-iSr]v avrov kul TTopetav 

3 deapa KoXXiarov elvai Kal XapirporaTov. oii- 
Bev6<i pivTOi TovTO Xeyerai rcou direpyaaapevcov 



264 



POMPEY, Lvi. 2-Lvii. 3 

which Pompey, giving the impression tliat it was 
goodwill towards Caesar that led him to deprecate 
the odium in which Caesar stood, said he had letters 
from Caesar wherein he expressed a wish to have 
a successor and be relieved of his command ; he 
thought it right, however, that he should be per- 
mitted to stand for the consulship even in his absence. 
Opposition to this was made by Cato and his party, 
who urged that Caesar must lay down his arms and 
become a private citizen before he could obtain any 
favour from his fellow-citizens ; and since Pompey 
made no contention, but as it were accepted defeat, 
there was more suspicion about his sentiments towards 
Caesar. He also sent and asked back the troops 
which he had lent him,^ making the Parthian war 
his pretext for doing so. And although Caesar knew 
the real reasons for asking back the soldiers, he sent 
them home with generous gifts. 

LVIl. After this Pompey had a dangerous illness 
at Naples,- but recovered from it, and on the advice 
of Praxagoras the Neapolitans offered sacrifices of 
thanksgiving for his preservation. Their example 
was followed by the neighbouring peoples, and so 
the thing made its way throughout all Italy, and 
every city, small and great, held festival for many 
days. No place could contain those who came to 
greet him from all quarters, but roads and villages 
and ports were filled with sacrificing and feasting 
throngs. Many also with garlands on their heads 
and lighted torches in their hands welcomed and 
escorted him on his way, pelting him with flowers, 
so that his progress and return to Rome was a most 
beautiful and sjilendid sight. And yet this is said to 
have done more than anything else to bring about 

^ Cf. chapter Hi. 3. « In 50 b,c, 

265 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Tov TToXe/xov aiTLcov eXarrov '^evecrdai. (fypovrjfia 
yap elarjkdev vTrepalpov cifia tm /xeyedei rij^ 
j(apaii TOv<i cLTTo rSiv Trpay/xdrcov \oyicr/j,ov<;' koI 65( 
Tr}v eh a(T<^a\e<i ael ra €vrv)(7JfiaTa kuI Ta<; 
Trpd^ei'; avrov Oe/mevjjv €v\d/3tLai> 7rpoep,evo<; et? 
aKparov i^eTrecre Opdcro^ koI TvepK^povqcnv r7]<i 
}^aiaapo'i Bwd/xewi, co? ovre ottXcov eV aiirov 
ovre Tivo<i epy(ohov<; repay p,aT€la<i Seijao/xevo^, 
dXkd TToXv paov Ka0aipi]acov rj TrpoTepov t^v^i^cre 

4 rov dvhpa. 7rpo<i Be TOvroi<; "ATTTTio? d(f}iKero 
KO/jLi^cov €K TaXariaf; rjv e)(p7]ae IIo/LiTrT/io? 
K.ai,aapi crrpaTidv Kal TToXXd jxev i^€(f)XavpL^e 
ra<i eKel Trpa^et? Kal \6yov<; i^ec^epe fiXaacf)/]/xovs 
irepX K.aLaapo(;, avrov Be HofXTrrjiov dTreipoi'^ e\6LV 
eXeye rrj<i avrov Bwdfiew^ Kai Bo^r]<;, erepoi'i 
o7rXoi<; TT/oo"? Kaiaapa ^payvvfxevov, ov avrol^ 
KarepydcreraL rol^ eKelvov arparevfxacnv, orav 
rrpSirov o^Ofj- rocrovrov Kal fXL(Tov<; irpo^ Kataapa 
Kal TToOov 7rpb<i Uofjurrjiov evvirdp'^eiv avrol<;. 

5 ovro) 5' ovv 6 TIo/xTTT^to? emjpOr], Kal roiavrT]<i 
Kal roaavrrj^ 6Xiycopia<; Bid ro Oappelv eyevero 
fjL€(rr6<; ware Kal rSiv BeBtorcov rov iroXefxov 
KareyeXa, koI tou? Xeyovra<i dv eXavvp Kalaap 
ijrl rrjv ttoXlv, ov^ opdv BvvdfieL<i ah avrov dfiv- 
vovvrai, /xeiBLcov rw TrpoacoTro) Kal BtaKe^vfievo^ 
afieXetv eKeXevaev Uttov yap av, e(pT], rrj<i 
'IraXia? 670) Kpovao) r5> rroBl rrjv yfjv, dvaBv- 
aovrai Kal -ne^iKal Kal imriKal Bwdfiet^,^ 

LVIII. "WBrj Be Kal Kalaap erre^vero rah 
Trpdy/xaaiv eppoyfievearepov, avrof fiev ovKeri 
fiaKpdv T% 'IraXta? diratpcov, eh Be rrjV iroXiv 
del T01/9 arparicora'i drroareXXcov dp-xaipeaui- 



266 



POMPEY, Lvii. 3-Lviii. I 

the war. For while the public rejoicing was so great, 
a spirit of arrogance came upon Pompey, which 
went beyond the calculations based upon facts, 
and, throwing to the winds that caution which 
had thus far alwaj's given security to his successful 
achievements, he indulged himself in unlimited con- 
fidence and contempt for Caesar's power, feeling that 
he would need neither an armed force to oppose him 
nor any irksome labour of preparation, but that he 
would pull him down much more easily than he had 
raised him up. Besides this, Appius came, bringing 
from Gaul the troops which Pompey had lent Caesar. 
He said much to belittle Caesar's achievements there, 
and gave out scandalous stories about Caesar. He 
also said that Pompey knew not his own power and 
reputation if he surrounded himself with other troops 
against Caesar, for he could put down Caesar with 
Caesar's own soldiers as soon as he appeared on the 
scene, so great was their hati-ed of Caesar and their 
warm affection for Pompey. In this way, then, 
Pompey was elated, and his confidence filled him 
with so great a contempt for his adversary that he 
mocked at those who were afraid of the war ; and 
when some said that if Caesar should march upon 
the city, they did not see any forces with which to 
defend it from him, with a smiling countenance and 
calm mien he bade them be in no concern ; " For," 
said he, " in whatever part of Italy I stamp upon 
the ground, there will spring up armies of foot and 
horse." 

LVIII. And now, too, Caesar devoted himself 
to public affairs with greater vigour. He no longer 
kept himself far away from Italy, was alwa3's send- 
ing his soldiers back to the city to take part in 
the elections, and by means of his money was 

267 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

(rovTa<i, ')^p'^/jiacn Se ttoWou? uiroiKovpoyv koX 
8ia(f)0tLpo)V ap^ovras' wv Koi TlaOXo? r)v o 
vTraro^ iirl ^iKioi's koi irevTaKoaloi'^ ra\dvroi<i 
/j.eTa/3aX6/jLevo<;, Kal Kovplcov 6 8/]p,ap)(0<i a/mrj-y^d- 
vwv Tr\y']d€i, Savelcov €\€v0epu>6€l<i vtt avrov, kuI 
M«/7«:o9 ^Avrci)vio<; Bid (piXiai' K.ovpiwvo<i mv 

2 diCpeXeiTO fiere^wv. €\.e')(6rj p.€V ovv oTi tmv 
a(j)iy/u,e¥o}v Tt? drro Kaiaapo<i TU^iapxfov ecrrcb? 
■napci TO ^ovXevTTjpiov, Kal TruOo/xevo^ cb? ov 
BiBcoa-iv T) /3ov\r) Kaiaapi j(^p6vov ri)<; ap-)(r)(;, 
elirev iiriKpovayv rfj %et/9l to ^i(f>o<;, " AWd tovto 
Scocref." Kal ra TrpaTTOfieva Kal to, TrapacrKeva- 
^ofxeva ravTTjv et^^e rrjv htdvoiav. 

3 At fievroi }^ovpL(OVO<; d^i(i)a€L<; Kal TTapaKXrj- 
a€i<; VTTep K.aiaapo<; i(f)a[vovro Srj/uiOTiKcorepai. 
Svelv yap tj^lou Odrepov, rj Kal Hop,7rr]iov dirai- 
relv rj firjBe KatVapo? d(f>atp€i(xOai to crTpaTico- 
TLKOV rj lydp lBi(iOTa<; y€vo/ut.€Vov<; iirl rot? hiKaioi^ 
rj fji€VOVTa<; dvTnrdXov^ ec^' ot? exovcrip aTpepbrj- 
(T€iv 6 Be Tov €T€pov dddevrj ttoimv rjv (po/3elTai 

4 8vi'a/j,tv BirrXacrid^ei. 7Tpo<; TavTa ^iapKeXXov 
TOV vTvdTov XrjCFTriv d'TTOKaXovvTO'i TOV KatVapa, 
Kal yjryjcpL^eaOai iroXep^iov KeXevovTO^; el p-i] KaTa- 
0r)cr€Tai ra OTrXa, Kovpioiv 6pa><; i(T)(^va€ p^eTa 
WvTcovLov Kal UeiCTcovo^ i^eXey^aL ttjv cruyKXrjToi'. 
iKeXevae yap p-eTacrTrjvai tov^ J^alaapa p,6vov 
Ta oirXa KaTuOeaBai KeXevovTa<i, ]}o/ut,7rr}iov Be 

5 dp^^^eiv Kal p-ereaTtjaav oi TrXetou?. avOi<; Be 
p.€Ta(TTr)vai KcXevaai'Td oaoif dp,(f)OTepov<i dpi- 
268 



I 



POMPEY, Lviii. 1-5 

secretly working upon many of the magistrates and 
corrupting them. Among these was Paul us the 
consul, who was won over by a bribe of fifteen 
hundred talents ; and Curio the popular tribune, 
whom Caesar set free from innumerable debts ; and 
Mark Antony, whose friendship for Curio had in- 
volved him in Curio's obligations. It was said, 
indeed, that one of Caesar's centurions who had 
come back to Rome and was standing near the 
senate-house, when he heard that the senate would 
not give Caesar a prolongation of his term of office, 
struck his hand upon his sword and said : " But this 
will give it. " And Caesar's intrigues and prepara- 
tions had this purpose. 

And yet the requests and demands which Curio 
made in behalf of Caesar seemed to be very popular 
in their character. For he demanded one of two 
things : either that Pompey also should be required 
to give up his soldiery, or else that Caesar's should 
not be taken away from him ; for whether they 
became private persons on just and equal terms, or 
remained a match for each other with their present 
forces, they would make no disturbance ; but he who 
weakened one of them doubled the power of which 
he stood in fear. To this Marcellus the consul 
replied by calling Caesar a robber, and urging that 
he be voted a public enemy unless he should lay 
down his arms ; nevertheless, Curio, aided by Antony 
and Piso, prevailed so far as to have the opinion of 
the senate taken. He therefore moved that those 
should withdraw to one side who wished that Caesar 
only should lay down his arms and that Pompey 
should remain in command ; and the majority with- 
drew. But when he moved again that all those 
should M-ithdraw who wished both to lay down their 

269 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

aKei ra o-nXa KaraOiaOai Kal /xrjSeTepov ap)(^€iv, 
llo/jiTrrjLM fxev c'Ikocti Kal Svo fxovov, Kovpioypt Se 
Travra o'l XolttoI TrpoaeOevro. K()Keivo<; /xev to? 
veviKTjKU)^ Xa/xirpb'i vtto '^apa.'i el<i top 8rj/j.ov 
€^)]\aTo, Kporqi Kal ^oXal'i (rTe(j)di'u)i> Kal avOwv 
8e^i(>u/uL€vov avrov. iv he rfi /3ov\f/ n.o/jL7n]lo<; ou 
iraprfv' o'l yap ap)(^ovT€<; arparoTreBcov etf tt]v 
6 TToXiv ovK elaiaai. MapKeXXo'i 5e dvaaTO.'i ovk 
€(f)7] Xoycoi' uKpodaeaOaL Ka9i]p€v<)<i, aXX opo)v 
vire p^aivofieva TOiv "AXireoiv ijBr] heKa rdypLara 
^aSi^eiv, Kal avTb<i eKirefji'^eiv top dvTLTa^ofxevov 
avTols inrep tt}? Trarpiho^. 

LIX. 'E/c TOVTov rci^ ea6i]Ta<i cl)? eVi irevOei 
^ere^aXoino. ^ldpKeXXo<i he irpo^ rio/xTDJlov hi' 
dyopd<; ejSdhi^e tt;? ^ovXrj<; eTro/ieV?;?, Kal Kara- 
(TTa<; evavrio'i, " Ke\evw ere" elirev, "m Uo/u.TT'^ie, 651 
^orjdelv T-fj TTarpihi Kal ')(^p?)a6ai Tal<; irape.- 
(TKevacjpuevai^ hvvdfxeac Kal KaToXeyeiv krepa^T 
ra S' avTO, ravra Kal AevrXo<; eXeye, tcov dirohe- 

2 heiyfievcov et<? to peXXov vTrdrcov drepo'^. dp^a- 
fievou he rov YIo/jhttjiou KaraXeyetv oi p-ev ov^ 
vTn]KOVov, oXlyoi he yXlaypwi Kal dirpoOvpbw^ 
avvrjeaav, ol he irXeiov; hiaXvaeL'i e^ocov. Kal 
yap dveyvw tlvcl }Laiaapos eiTiaTdXrjv 'AvTCoz'to? 
iv TO) hi]fX(p, ^Laadp,€i'OS ttjv ^ovXr'-jv, exovcrav 
i7rayo)yov<; 6-)(Xov TrpOKXijaei^. rj^iou yap ap.- 
(f}OT€pov<; eK^di'Ta<i tmv eirap'X^iMV Kal Ta<; arpa- 
TicoriKa'i huvdp.et<; d<^evTa^ eVt tw hi]/j,o) yeveaOai 

3 Kal TMV 7re7rpayp,ev(ov ev6uva<i v'rrocr'x^elv. ol he 
irepl AevrXov vira-revovTe'i i'^hi) ^ovXijv ov avvrj- 
yov dpri he e« KiXi/f/a? d^Lyp.€VO<; Js^iKepcov 
CTrpaTTe hiaXXayd<i, 67rco<i Kalaap, i^eXOwv 



270 



POMPEY, Lviii. 5-Lix. 3 

arms and neither to remain in command, only 
twenty-two favoured Pompey, while all the rest 
sided with Curio. Curio, therefore, felt that he had 
won the day, and with a joyful countenance rushed 
before the people, who clapped their hands in 
welcome and pelted him with garlands and flowers. 
Pompey was not present in the senate, since com- 
manders of armies cannot enter the city ; Marcellus, 
however, rose and declared that he would not sit 
there listening to speeches, but since he saw ten 
legions already looming up in their march over the 
Alps, he himself also would send forth a man who 
would oppose them in defence of his country. 

LIX. Upon this, the city went into mourning, as 
in the presence of a public calamity ; and Marcellus, 
followed by the senate, marched through the forum 
to meet Pompey, and standing before him said : " I 
bid thee, Pompey, to defend thy country, to employ 
the forces now in readiness, and to levy others." 
Lentulus also said the same, being one of the consuls 
elected for the coming year. But when Pompey 
began to levy recruits, some refused to obey the 
summons, and a few came together reluctantly and 
without zest, but the greater part cried out for a 
settlement of the controversy. For Antony, in defiance 
of the senate, had read before the people a letter of 
Caesar containing propositions which were attractive 
to the multitude. He asked, namely, that both 
Pompey and he should give up their [)rovinces, dis- 
band their armies, put themselves in the hands of 
the people, and render an account of what they had 
done. But Lentulus, who was by this time consul, 
would not call the senate together ; Cicero, however, 
who was just returned from Cilicia, tried to effect a 
settlement of the dispute on these terms, namely, 

271 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

FaXaTta? koI ttjv aWtjv arpoTiav a0ei9 Trdaav, 
€7rl hva) rajfiaa-i Kal to) ^iXXtfiiKM tt^v Bevrepav 
4 vTrmelav Tvepiixevr). ITo/xTr^jtou he SvaKoXai- 
vovTO<i €7reiaOt]aav ol KatVa/oo? (piXoi Odrepov 
d(j)eLvar AevrXov Be dvTiKpovaavTO'i Kat Karwro? 
avdi<; dfiaprdveiv rov WopiTrrjlov e^aTrardipievov 
^od)VTo<i ovK eay^ov al StaXvaei^ irepa<i. 

LX. ^¥jV TovTfp he dirayyeWeTat Kalo-ap 'Api- 
fjLivov, TToXiv fj,eyd\7]v t?}? 'IraXia?, KaTei\r](f)co<; 
Kal ^ahi^wv dvriKpv^ eVi TT]v'Vd)p,r]V pbera Tracrry? 
T>7<? Bvvdp,€(o<i. TOVTO Be rjv yfr€vho<;. ej3dhi^e yap 
ov 7r\eL0va<; e^f^v linreoov rpiaKoalcov Kal Trevra- 
Ki,ax''^i'(^v 6rrr\nd)V rrjv he dWriv hvvap.iv eire- 
Keiva TMV "AXireayv ovaav ov irepiepevev, ep^-neaelv 
d(f)va> TerapaypLevoi<; Kal fir] TrpoahoKwcTL ^ov\o- 
p£vo<; fidWov Tj ^(^povov hom eK TrapacrKevrj^; p-d-^e- 
2 aOai. Kal yap eirl rov 'Fov/3iKa)va Trorapbov 
e\Od)v, 09 d(f)d)piX€V avra> rrjv hehopevrjv eirapx^oiv, 
ecrrr] aicoTrfj Kal hiep.eX\y]aev, avT6<; dpa 7rpo<; 
eavTov crvXX.oyi^6/jievo<; to p.eye6o<; rov toX/x^- 
p.aTO<i. elra, oxjirep ol 7rpo<; ^ddo<; dcpievTC'; 
dx(ivh diro Kprjpivov Ttvo<; eavTOix;, pLvaa'i tw 
\oytap,d) Kal irapaKaXv^^dpievo^ 7rp6<; to heivov, 
Kal TocrovTov puovov EXXrjvia-Tl 7Tpo<; rovf irapov- 
Ta? eK/3o^(Ta<;, " 'Aveppccpdo) kv^o^;" hie^i^a^e 
70V (TTparov. 
3 'n? he 7rpd)T0v rj (^^/t?? irpocTetrecre Kal Karecxe 
Tr}V 'Pd}pbr]V p.erd eKirXri^eca Oopv^oq Kal (f)6^o^ 
old ovTTO) irporepov, evOv^ p.ev rj ^ovXt] (f)epop.evr] 
77/309 Tov Uop,7rr]iov avveTpex^ x^cCi Trapya-av ai 
272 



POMPEY, Lix. 3-L\-. 3 

that Caesar should renounce Gaul and dismiss the 
rest of his forces, but should retain two legions and 
Illyricum, and wait for his second consulship. And 
when Pompey was dissatisfied with this, the friends 
of Caesar conceded that he should dismiss one of the 
two legions ; but since Lentulus still opposed, and 
Cato cried out that Pompey was blundering again in 
allowing himself to be deceived, the settlement 
came to naught. 

LX. And now word was brought that Caesar had 
seized Ariniinum,^ a large city of Italy, and was 
marching directly upon Rome with all his forces. 
But this was false. For he was marching with no 
more than three hundred horsemen and five thousand 
men-at-arms ; the rest of his forces were beyond the 
Alps, and he did not wait for them, since he wished 
to fall upon his enemies suddenly, when they were 
in confusion and did not expect him, rather than to 
give them time and fight them after they were pre- 
])ared. And so, when he was come to the river 
Rubicon, which was the boundary of the province 
allotted to him, he stood in silence and delayed to 
cross, reasoning with himself, of course, upon the 
magnitude of his adventure. Then, like one who 
casts himself from a precipice into a yawning abyss, 
he closed the eyes of reason and put a veil between 
them and his peril, and calling out in Greek to the 
bystanders these words only, "Let the die be cast," 
he set his army across. 

As soon as the report of this came flying to Rome 
and the city was filled with tumult, consternation, 
and a fear that was beyond compare, the senate at 
once went in a body and in all haste to Pompey, and 

^ In January, 49 B.C. See the Caesar, chapter xxxii. 

273 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ap\ai, TTvOo/jLevov 8e tov TvWov irepl a7paTid<i 
Kal 8vvd/jL€Ci}<; koI rod IIo/xTTrjiov fxera rivo<; /xeX- 
\i]a-€(i)<; d6apcr(o<; elirovro^ oti toix; irapa Kaiaapo'i 

4 7]K0vra<; eroi/xof? ^X^^> ^op,l^ei he Kal tov? Kurei- 
\€'yfj,evov<; Trporepov iv Td^et avvd^eiv rpiap,vpiov<i 
6vTa<i, 6 fiev TvWo<; dva^oy']cra^, " ^E^')]7rdT')]Ka'i 
vp,d<;, 0) Uo/jLTT'yjle," avve^ovXevev &)<? Kalaapa 
7r/3ecr/3ei? dirocTTeWeLv, ^aoivio^ he tis, dvrjp rdX- 
\a fxev ov 7rov'r}p6<;, avOahela he Kal v/3pei ttoX- 
XdKi<i Tr]v Karwi^o? ol6/J,€vo<; uTro/jii/JLeladaL nap- 
pjjalav, iKeXeve tov Ylop7n]iov ru> irohl TvnTeiv 
Trjv yrjv, a<? inTi(Ty(velro hvvd/ji6i<; dvaKaXov/xevov. 

5 6 he ravrrjv puev ijvejKe ttjv aKaiptav Trpday'i' tov 
he KaT<i)i/o9 vnTopifxvqaKovro<i wv iv dp'^fj irepl 
K.ai<Tapo<; avrw TrpoetTrev, aTreKpLvaro fiavrLKw- 
repa fxev eivai to. Kutcovi \e\^devra, (^iXiKwrepa 
he utt' avTOv 7Te7rpd)((^ai. 

LXI. Kdrcov he avve^ovXevev alpeiaOai arpa- 
Tt^yov avTOKpdropa WopTrr^tov, eTreiircov oti tmv 
avTO)v ecTTL Kol TTOielv ra p^eydXa kukcl Kal iravetv. 
ovro<i pev ovv evdv<i e^rjXdev et? ^iKeXlav (e\a;^e 
yap avTTjv TOiv eirap^^LOiv) Kal tcov dXXfov eKaaro^ 
ei? a? eKXi]p(ody]. r//? S' 'IraXta? a)(^eh6v 6Xt]<; 
2 dviaTapev7]<i diropLav 6t%e to yivopuevov. ol pev 
yap e^wdev (^epopevoi (pvyfj 7ravTa')(^o6ev et? Tr)V 

'VmP7]V iveTTLTTTOV, 01 he TTJV V(iipi]V oiKOvvre^ 

e^eimnov avrol kol direXeLTTov t)]v ttoXlv, iv 652 
')(6Lp,(avt, Kal Tapd')(^cp rocrovrco to pev ')(^p7]aipov 



274 



POMPEY, Lx. 3-Lxi. 2 

the magistrates came too. And when Tullus asked 
Pompey about an army and a military force, and 
Pompey, after some dehiy, said timidly that he had 
in readiness the soldiers who had come from Caesar, 
and thought that he could speedily assemble also 
those who had been previously levied, thirty thou- 
sand in number, Tullus cried aloud, " Thou hast 
deceived us, Pompey !" and advised sending envoys 
to Caesar ; and a certain Favonius, a man otherwise 
of no bad character, but who often thought that his 
insolent presumption was an imitation of Cato's 
boldness of speech, ordered Pompey to stamp upon 
the gi'ound and call up the forces which he used to 
promise. But Pompey bore this ill-timed raillery 
with meekness ^ ; and when Cato reminded him of 
what he had said to him at the outset about Caesar, 
he replied that what Cato had said was more pro- 
phetic, but what he himself had done was more 
friendly. 

LXI. Cato now advised that Pompey should be 
elected general with unlimited powers, adding that 
the very men who caused great mischief must also 
put an end to it. Then he set out at once for Sicily, 
the province which had fallen to his lot, and the other 
senators likewise departed for the provinces which 
had severally been allotted to them. But since 
nearly all Italy was in commotion, the course ot 
things was perplexing. For those who dwelt out- 
side the city came rushing in hurried flight from all 
quarters into Rome, and those who dwelt in Rome 
were rushing out of it and abandoning the city, where, 
in such tempestuous comlision, the better element 

^ In Appian, Bell. Civ. ii. 37, Pompey replies : " You will 
have them if you follow me, and do not think it a terrible 
thing to leave Rome, and Italy too, if it should be necessary." 

275 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

acT^eye? e^ovaav, to he airetOh la-)(ypov koX Sva- 
fieTa'^eipiarov toI<; dp')(^ovcnv. ov yap rjv iravaai 
Tov (f)6^ov, ovSe ecaae Tt? ')(^priadai tol^ eavrov 
\oyta/xoi<; Ho/xTryjlov, aXX,' to Tf? eveTV'y')(av6 ird- 
6ei, (po/Btjdel'i 17 \u7rrjdeh rj hiairoprjaa'i, tovto) 

3 (pepwv eKelvov dveiri/jLTrXr]' koI rdvavria t^9 av- 
Trj<; 7)/ji€pa<i eKparet ^ouXevfiara, koX Trvdeadai 
irepl roiv TToXe/uncov ovSev rjv d\7]6e^ avrw Bid to 
7roX\ov<i dirayyeXXeiv 6 Ti TV'^oiev, eWa dirccr- 
TovvTi ')(a\67raLV6LV. ovTQ) 8r) ■\jrrj(f}iadp,evo<i Tapa- 
')(riv opdv KoX Ke\€vca<i aTTavTa<i CTreaOat avTW 
Tov<i diTO ^ovXrj^, Kol Trpoenrcov otc KatVapo? 
Tjiy^aeTai tov diroXeK^Oevra, Trepl SelXrjv 6\fr[av 

4 aTreXiTre Ttjv ttoXiv. o'l he viraToi fXTjhe OvaavTe^ 
d vopLi^eTUL irpo iroXepbwv e^vyov. rjv he koI irap 
avrd TU heivd ^'>]Xu)T0^ dvijp t?}? 7rpo<; avTov 
evvoia<; twv dvOpoorrcov, otl ttoXXmp ti'jv cTTpaTi]- 
yi'av fie/Li^o/jLevcov ovhelf; r)v 6 fiiacov tov crTpaTyj- 
yov, dXXd TrXeiova^ dv rt? evpe tmv hid Trjv 
iXevdeptav (fievyovTcov tov^ aTroXcireiv IJofnrijiov 
fiT) hwafxevov^. 

LXIL 'OXLyat<i he ixJTepov I'jp.epat^ Kalcrap 
elaeXdaa<i Kol KaTaa')(aiv ttjv 'Fco/bLrjv roi? fxev 
dXXoi,<i iTrieiKox; eveTv^e koI KaTeirpdvve, tmv he 
hr]p.dpxo}v evl MereXXo) kcoXvovti '^p)]fj.aTa Xa/Seiv 
avTov eK TOV TapneLOv OdvaTOv T/ireiXTjae, koI 
7rpoae6r]Ke ttj aTreiXfj Tpax^T^pov Xoyov e(f)r) ydp 
0)9 TovTO (f)7]aai '^aXenov rjv avTW p^dXXov y 

276 



I 



POMPEY, LXI. 2-LXII. I 

was weak, and the insubordinate element strong and 
hard for the magistrates to manage. For it was 
impossible to check the reigning fear, nor would any 
one suffer Pompey to follow the dictates of his own 
judgement, but whatever feeling each one had, 
whether fear, or distress, or perplexity, he promptly 
infected Pompey's mind with this. Therefore oppo- 
site counsels prevailed in the same day, and it was 
impossible for Pompey to get any true information 
about the enemy, since many reported to him what- 
ever they happened to hear, and then were vexed if 
he did not believe them. Under these circumstances 
he issued an edict in which he recognized a state ot 
civil war, ordered all the senators to follow him, 
declared that he would regard as a partisan of Caesar 
any one who remained behind, and late in the 
evening left the city. The consuls also fled, without 
even making the sacrifices customary before a war. 
But even amid the actual terrors of the hour Pompey 
was a man to be envied for the universal good will 
felt towards him, because, though many blamed his 
generalship, there was no one who hated the general. 
Indeed, one would have found that those who fled 
the city for the sake of liberty were not so numerous 
as those who did so because they were unable to 
forsake Pompey. 

LXII. A few days after this, Caesar entei-ed and 
took possession of Rome. He treated everybody 
with kindness and calmed their fears, except that 
when Metellus, one of the tribunes, attempted to 
prevent him from taking money out of the public 
treasury, he threatened to kill him, and added to 
the threat a still harsher speech, namely, that it was 
easier for him to execute it than to utter it.^ Havino- 

' Cf. the Caesar xxxv. 4. 

277 
VOL. V K 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

2 wpd^at. Tpeylrafxevof Be top ^eieWov ovtw, kui 
\aj3cDV wv €XPV^^^> ^Bt,o}K€ llo/jiTTyjiov, eK^BaXdv 
(77r€uB(ov eK Trjs IraXtas Trpiv dfpiKeaOai [rjv e| 
'\^iipia<i avTO) Bvvafxiv. 6 Be to Speujcaioi' 
Karacy)(^MV koI ttXolwv ev7ropt]aa<i 7ov<i fxev 
UTrarof 9 evdv^ eyu-ySt/Sacra? kol /x6t' avioiv airelpaK 
TpiaKOura Trpoe^eirefxyjrev €t9 Avppdxiov, Sf??- 
TTLoyva he rov -nevdepov koI Tvaiov rov ulov els 
%vpiav direcrreiXt vavrLKov KaraaKevdaovras- 

3 avTO<; he (^pa^dp,evo<i rd<i iri/ka'^ kol toiv re'L)(eat, 
TOV<i eXa(f)poTdTOv<i arpaTiMra^ emaTrjoa<;, Tov<i 
he BpevTeaivov<; drpep^elv kut olKuav KeXevawi, 
6Xr]v e'fTo? rr]i> noXiu ave(TKa\fre kui hierdcppeuae, 
Koi aKoXoirtov eueirXrjcTe tou? aTevwTrovi ttXtju 
hvelv, hi oiv eir\ ddXarrav auro? Karr/Xdev. 

4 r]p,epa he Tpirj} tov /xev dXXov o^Xov ev ral^ 
vavcrXv ely^ev rfhrj kuO' rjavx^iav e/jL^e^rjKora, T0t9 
he TO. Tei^ri (f)uXdrrnvatu i^aiipur)'^ arjpelov dpa<; 
Kal Karahpafxovja^ 6^e(i)<; di'aXa/3u)v d-neirepaaev. 
6 he Kalcrap, oos- elhev eKXeXeip-peva rd relxV' '''W 
^vyrjv alad6/xevo<i fXiKpov p.ev eherjae hiooKCov Tot<r 
(7Tavpol<i Kal T0i9 opvyp,acn 7repi7TeTT]<; yeveaOai, 
Tcor he BpevrecTLVfov (ppacravrwv (puXaTropevof; 
TYjv TToXiv Kal kvkXo) TTepuwv dvrjypevov^ evpe 
Trdvrai; rrXriv hvetv TrXoiwv crTparKora^ rtvd'i ov 
TToXXoiif; exovroiv. 

LXIII. Oi p,ev ovv dXXoi rov n.op,7rrjiov tov 
diroirXovv ev rot? dpiaroL'^ ridevTai aTpaTrjyi]- 
fiacnv, avTo^; he K.aiaap edavpua^tv on koI ttoXlv 



278 



POMPEY, LXII. 2-LXIII. I 

thus driven away Metellus, he took what he wanted, 
and tlien set out in pursuit of Pompey, being anxious 
to drive him out of Italy before his forces came back 
from Spain. But Pompey, having taken possession 
of Brundisium, where he found plenty of transports, 
immediately embarked the consuls, and with them 
thirty cohorts of soldiers, and sent them before him 
to Dyrrachium ; Scipio his father-in-law, however, 
and Gnaeus his son, he sent to Syria to raise a fleet. 
He himself, after barricading the gates and manning 
the walls with his lightest-armed soldiers, ordered 
the Brundisians to remain quietly in their houses, 
and then dug up all the ground inside the city into 
trenches, and filled the streets with sunken stakes,^ 
all except two, by which he himself finally went 
down to the sea. Then on the third day, when he 
had already embarked the rest of his host at his 
leisure, he suddenly raised a signal for those who 
were still guarding the walls to run swiftly down to 
the sea, took them on board, and set them across to 
Dyrrachium. Caesar, however, when he saw the 
walls deserted, perceived that Pompey had fled, and 
in his pursuit of him came near getting entangled in 
the ditches and stakes ; but since the Brundisians 
told him about them, he avoided the city,- and 
making a circuit round it, found that all the trans- 
ports had put out to sea except two, which had only 
a few soldiers aboard. 

LXIII. Other people, now, count this sailing 
away of Pompey among his best stratagems, but 
Caesar himself was astonished that when he was in 

' Ditches were dug across the streets, sliarpened stakes 
planted in the ditches, and the whole work lightly covered 
so as to look undisturbed. Cf. Caesar, Hell. Civ. I. xxvii. 

* He had besieged it for nine days, and had also begun to 
close up tlie harbour (Caesar, Bell. Civ. I. xxv.-xxvii.). 

279 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

€')(^a)V 6')(ypav kol TTpoahoKOiV ra^ e^ 'I/Sr/pia^ 
8vvd/x€i<; KoX da\aacroKpaTO)v i^eXnre Kal Trpoij- 
Karo TTjV ^IraXiav. alriarai Kot K^iKepoyv on 
rrjv ^e flier roKXeov^ i/xi/xvcraTO arpaTrijiav fidWov 
rj Tr]v TIepLK\€ou<;, tmv Trpay/jbdraiv tovtoi,<; 

2 o/jlolcov ovtwv, ovk €K€Lvoi'i. iSjjXwas 8e Kataap 
epyai a(p68pa <^o(BoufX€VO<i tov ')(^p6vov. eXcov yap 
^ovfiepiov Uofimjiov (f)i\oi' cnrecrreLXev el<; Bpev- 
Teaiov eVt Tot9 i'croi? d^iwv SiaWayrjvar Nou- 
/xepio^ 8e Tio/u.TT'Tjtw avve^errXevaev. evrevdev o 
/iiev ev 7)/u.€pai<; ^ e^yjKOvra KvpLO<i yeyovoo'^ dvat- 
fMwrl Trj<; 'IraXta? o\>;9 e^ovXero fiev €uOv<; 
Y\ofM7T}](ov 8i(t)Keiv, TrXoiwv Be fiij irapovTwv 
dTToaTpeyjraf; elf 'I/Srjplav ijXavve, ra? eKel 8vud- 
fiei<; irpoaayayeaOat ^ouXofievof. 

LXIV. 'Ei/ 8e TO) ^p ova) tovtm fieydXrj avvicrTt] 
Ho fiTrrjup 8vva/j.i<i, i) fxev vavTiKrj Kal iravreXoi'^ 653 
dvavTaycovL<no<; (rjaav yap ai fid')(^LfjLOi irevra- 
KocriaL, Xi^vpvihwv he Kal KaraaKOTrwv inrep- 
^dXXwi' dpiOfio'i), iTTTret? 8e, 'Pco/xaicov Kal 
^IraXcov to dvdovv, einaKia^iXioi, yeveai Kal 
ttXovtw Kal (f>pov)]/jLa<Tt hia^epovre^;' rrjv 8e Tre^rjv i 

av/jifitKTOv ovaav Kal fieXerrjii 8eo/jLevi]v iyv/nva^ev ' 

ev Bepoca Kadr)ixevo<i ovk dpyo<;, dXX oiairep 
aK/id^ovrt ^^pco/xevof; avTW 7rpo<; rd yvpvdaia. 

2 p-eydXj] yap y)v poirr] tt/qo? to Oappelv toI<; opoxri 
WopLTTi'iiov ls\dyvov e^/]fcovra fiev errj 8uelv Xei- 
TTOVTU yeyevt'ip.evov, ev 8e Tol<i OTrXoi<; dfiiXXco/xevov 
ire^ov, eira iTnrorrjv avdi<; eXKofievov re to ^t^o? 
aTrpayfiovoyi deovTt t(o Ittttw Kal KaTaKXeiovTa 
irdXiv ev')(^epoy<i, ev 8e Tnl<; dKovTL(Tfiol<i ov fiovov 

^ iv rj/uLfpats Bekker, after Emperius : rmtpais. 
280 



POMPEY, Lxin. i-Lxiv. 2 

possession of a strong city and expected his forces 
from Spain and was master of the sea^ he gave up 
and abandoned Italy. Cicero also blames him ^ for 
imitating the generalship of Themistocles rather 
than that of Pericles, although he was situated like 
Pericles, and not like Tliemistocles. Moreover, 
Caesar had shown by what he did that he greatly 
feared a protraction of the war. For after capturing 
Numerius, a friend of Pompey, he sent him to 
Brundisium with a request for a reconciliation on 
equal terms. But Numerius sailed away with 
Pompey. Then Caesar, who in sixty days had be- 
come master of all Italy without bloodshed, wished 
to pursue Pompey at once, but since he had no 
transports, he turned back and marched into Spain, 
desiring to win over to himself the forces there. 

LXIV. In the meantime a great force was 
gathered by Pompey. His navy was simply irre- 
sistible, since he had five hundred ships of war, 
while the number of his light galleys and fast 
cruisers was immense ; his cavalry numbered seven 
thousand, the flower of Rome and Italy, preeminent 
in lineage, wealth, and courage ; and his infantry, 
which was a mixed multitude and in need of training, 
he exercised at Beroea, not sitting idly by, but 
taking part in their exercises himself, as if he had 
been in the flower of his age. And indeed it was a 
great incentive to confidence when they saw Pompey 
the Great, who was now sixty years of age less two, 
but who nevertheless comj)eted in full armour as a 
foot-soldier, and then again, as a horseman, drew 
his sword without trouble while his horse was at a 
gallop and put it back in its sheath with ease ; while 
in hurling the javelin he not only displayed accuracy, 

^ Epist. ad Att. vii. 11. 

281 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

LLKpl^eiav, aXXa koX pco/nrjv €7riBetKvvfjievov eif 
/j,rJKo<i, o TToWol ro)v vewv ov'X^ inrepe^aWov, 

3 e7re(poiTcov 8e koX /SacrtXet? iOvoiv Kal hvvaarai, 

Kol TO)P UTTO 'VdilXTj^ j)'yeflOViKOiV apiOfJLO^ ?)V 

ivT€\ov<i /3oL'A,r)9 irepl auTOV. r)\de he aal 
Xa^tr]v6<i ^ aTToXiTrcov Kaiaapa </)tX-o9 yejoi'co'^ 
Kal avveaTparevp,evo<i iv raXaria, kol BpoOro?, 
vlo'^ Oiv ^povTOv Tov 776/91 VuXaTiav (T(^a'yevro<i, 
dvr]p p6'yaX6(ppcoi' Kal p,rjSe7roTe YlopTTTjiou rrpoa- 
ecTTcbu /iirjBe daTraad/xevo'i rrpoTepov &)<? (povea 
TOV TTaTp6<i, Tore Se ft)? iXevOepovvrt rrjv Fuijurju 

4 vrrera^ev kavrov. KiKepcov 8e, Kanrep dXXa 
yeypuipw^ Kal j3e^ovXevp.evo<;, o/xw'i KaTrjSecrOrj 
jxrj yeveaOai tov it poKivhuvevovTO<i dpiO/xov t/}s 
TrarptSo?. •^XOe Se koi TihtO'^ Se^xio?, ecr;^a- 
Toyrjpwi di'rjp duTepov TreTrrjpoipeuo'i cr/ceXo?, et? 
iSlaKeSoviav ov rcov aXXcov yeXoovTcov Kal ')^Xeva' 
i^Qvrwv, IIoyaTrr^to? Ihujv e^avearrj Kal irpoae- 
Spap,€, peya vopul^wv paprupiov eivai Kal rov<i 
■nap yXiKiav Kal irapa Suvapiv alpovpevov^ tov 
fjbET avTov KLvhvvov uvtI Tf]<i da(f)aX€ia(;. 

LXV. 'KttcI Se /3ouXr]<; y€vop,evr]>i Kal yvcoprjv 
Karcoyo? etVoyTO? e^yi^iaavTO p.rjBiva Vwpia'iwv 
avev TrapaTa^eoxi dvaipetv pi]8e SiapTrd^eiv ttoXlv 
vTTy'jKOov 'VcopLaioi^, €ti p^aXXov rj Uop-mjiov fi€pl<i 
r^yaTrrjOiy Kal yap oh prjSev rjv irpdyp^a tov 
TToXepLOv TToppw KaToiKovcTiv TJ Bi' daOevsiav 
dpeXovp,evoi<i, Ta> ye /SovXecrOat avyKaTeTiOevTO 
Kal T(p X6y(p (Tvvepjd')(ovv virep tS)v BiKaloiv, 

^ Aa&iriyhs with Coraes and Bekker : Aa^ewv. 
282 



POMPEY, LXIV. 2-LXV. I 

but also vigour in the length of his cast, which many 
of the young men could not surpass. There kept 
coming to him also kings of nations and potentates, 
and of the leading men from Rome there were 
enough about him to form a full senate. Labienus 
also came, having deserted Caesar, though he had 
been his friend and had served under him in Gaul ; 
and Brutus, a son of the Brutus who had been put to 
death by Ponipey in Gaul,i a man of lofty spirit, who 
had never spoken to Pompey nor even saluted him 
before, because he held him to be the murderer of 
his father, but now he put himself under his com- 
mand, believing him to be a deliverer of Rome. 
Cicero, too, although he had advocated other 
measures in his writings and his speeches in the 
senate, nevertheless was ashamed not to be of the 
number of those who risked all for their country. 
There came also Tidius Sextius, a man of extreme 
old age and lame of one leg, into Macedonia. The 
rest laughed and jeered at him, but when Ponipey 
.saw him, he rose and ran to meet him, counting it a 
great testimony that men past the years and past 
the power of service should choose danger with him 
in preference to their safety. 

LXV. When their senate convened and a decree 
was passed, on motion of Cato, that no Roman 
should be killed except on a field of battle, and that 
no city subject to Rome should be plundered, the 
party of Pompey was held in still greater favour. 
For those even who took no part in the war, either 
because they dwelt too far away, or were too weak 
to be regarded, attached themselves to it in their 
wishes at least, and, as far as their words went, 
fought with it in behalf of the right, considering 

^ Cf. cliapter xvi. 3 f. ; Brutus, iv. 1 f. 

283 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

r^'yovixevoi, Oeot^ elvai koL dv6p(07roi<; i')(6pov w 
/xj] KaO' rjSoiyv eVrt vikuv YlofXTDfiov. 

2 Ov jjL7]p dWa Kal Kalaap eujucofxopa Trapetx^ev 
eavTOV €v ra> Kparetv, o? kuI rdf ev 'l^rjpla rov 
Ylofiirijiou Svvdfjiei'i eXcov koI /caTaTroXe/x/yaa? 
d(f))]K€ T01/9 arpari^yov^, Toc<i Se arpajLooraL^ 
ixp)]TO. Kal irdkLv inrep^akoov ra? "AXTrei? Kal 
hiahpapLcov Trjv IraXiav etV Bpevrecnov rjKev iv 

3 rpoTTal^ ijS)] rov ')(et,iJLMvo<i ovto^- Kal hiairepdaaf; 
TO TTeXa^o? atiTo? fxev et? 'flpiKov Trapeve/SaXev, 
Ovi^ovXXiov ^ 8e Tov Ho/XTrijiov (piXov al')(^p-dX(i)- 
Tov ex^cov avv eavrco irpo^ IlofiTrtjiov dpeareiXe, 
7rpoKaXou/xevo<i ei? ev auveX96vTa<i dfK^orepov^ 
y/j.epa rpiTr] iravra SiaXvaai ra arpaTev/xara 
Kal yevofxevov; (f)bXov<; Kal 6p,6aavTa<i inraveXdelv 

4 ei? IraXiav. ravra TiofMTrrjio'i av6i<i ivehpav 
rjyeiTO' Kal KaTa^d<i 6^eco<; eirl ddXarrav Kare- 
Xa^e ^(opla Kal tottou? e'Bpa^i re rol^ Tre^ot? 
arpaTOTreSoi^ v7repaXK€l<i e-x^ovra, Kal vavXo^a 
Kal KaTdpcr€i<i i7n(f)6pov<} Toi<i eirKpoircoai Bid 
daXaTTTj'^, oiare -Travra irvelv dvepbov Ilo/xTrqio) 
oirov rj arpaTidv rj )^pi]para KOfxl^ovra, Kaiaapa 
Be Svcr)(epeLai<; Kara yrjv o/xov Kal Kara OdXarTav 

5 Trepies^ofievop e^ dvdjKr]^ (fiiXofMa')(^etv, Kal irpocr- 
jSdXXovra tol<; epvp^aai Kal irpoKaXovfievov 
eKaa-rore rd fiev TrXelcrra viKav Kal Kparelv toi^ 
dKpo^oXicrfiol^, ajra^ Be puKpov avvrpi^rjvaL Kal 
TTjv aTparidv diro/SaXeh', tov YlopLTrrjiov Xa/xTrpco'i 
dycoviaa/xevov p^eXP'' '^poTrrj'i aTravTOiV Kal (povov 
Bia^t^^i'f^v, /BiuaaaOaL Be Kal avi'dairea-eci' /xr] 654 
Bvvrj6evT0<f rj <^o^r]6evTO^, ware el-rrelv Kaiaapa 

^ Ovt^ovKKiov after Caesar, Bell. Civ. iii. 10 : 'luv^tov. 
284 



POMPEY, L.W. 1-5 

him a foe to gods and men who did not wish 
Pompey to be victorious. 

However, it is also true that Caesar showed him- 
self merciful as a conqueror ; after defeating and 
capturing the forces of Pompey in Spain, he sent 
away their commanders, and took the soldiers into 
his service.! Then he re-crossed the Alps, marched 
rapidly through Italy, and came to Brundisium 
shortly after the winter solstice. ^ Crossing tlie sea 
there, he himself put in at Oricum, but he dis- 
patched VibuUius, the friend of Pompey, who was 
his prisoner of war, to Pompey, with a proposition 
that they should hold a conference, disband all 
their armies within three days, and after renewing 
their friendship under oath, return to Italy. This 
Pompey thought to be anotlier snare, and marching 
swiftly down to the sea, he took possession of the 
posts, regions, and sites which offered strong posi- 
tions for land forces, as well as of the naval stations 
and landing-places which were favourable for those 
who came by sea, so that every wind that blew 
brought Pompey grain, or troops, or money ; while 
Caesar, on the other hand, reduced to straits by sea 
and land, was forced to seek a battle, attacking 
Pompey's defences and challenging him to come out 
all the while. In these skirmishes Caesar was for 
the most part victorious and carried the day : but 
once he narrowly escaped being utterly crushed and 
losing his army, for Pompey made a brilliant fight 
and at last routed Caesar's whole force and killed 
two thousand of them. He did not, however, force 
his way into their camp with the fugitives, either 
because he could not, or because he feared to do so, 
and this led Caesar to say to his friends : " To-day 

^ See Caesar, Bell. Civ. I. xli.-lxxxvii. * Of 49 B.C. 

285 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TTyoo? Tou? (piXovf on "^rjixepov av 17 viKrj Trapa 
Tot<f TToXe/Lttot? 771/, ei rov viKcovra €l-)(^ov. 

LXVL Etta tovtw /xeya (j)pov}'](Tavr€^ ol Ylop,- 
7rr)iov Sia /jLd^ri<i eairevBov Kpi6f]vai. Ilo/j,irr]lo<; 
Be TOt? p.ev e^u> ^aaiXevai Koi (TrpaT7)yol<i Kal 
TToXecriv &)<> vevLKrjKM'i ejpacpe, rov Se t?}s- /iaT^?;? 
Kivhvvov oyppoo^ei, tm ■)(^pov(p koi ral^ aTropiai^ 
KaTaTToXefiijaeiv vopiit^wv avBpa^ a/xa^oL'? p.ep ev 
Tot? 07r\of9 Kal avveidLa/jLeiovi vikuv fxer uWrj- 

2 Xuiv TToXvv TjBrj "^povov, tt^o? he Trjv ciXXrjv 
arpareiav Koi'nXdva'i koi p,6Ta(BdaeL^ Kal rdc^pwv 
opv^ei^ Kal T€i')(^(ji)v oiKoBop,ia<i d7rayopevovTa<; 
inro 7?;/3&)9, Kal Bid tovto ral'=; ')(ep(Tlv epcjiuvat 
Ta^trrxa Kal avpLTrXaKrjvai (nrevBovTa.<;. ov fiijv 
dXXd irporepov ayLtw? ^e ttw? irapijye ttclOwv tou? 
irepl avTov drpep^elv o T\oixtt)']io<=;- irrel Be fierd 
Ti]i> fxd')(^p> o K^alaap vtto roiv diropicov dvaard<; 
i^dBi^e Bi' 'Adapidvcov ei? ©erraXiav, ovKeri 

3 KadeKTOV rjv to (f^povrj/xa tmv dvBpnjv, dXXd 
(f)evyeiv J^aiaapa ^o(t)i're<i 01 /xev uKoXovOelv Kal 
Blwkclv eKeXevov, ol Be BiajSalveLV et? ^IraXiav, 
ol Be 9epd'TTovTa<i et? 'VdipLi-jv Kal (f)iXou<; e7re/j,7rov 
oLKia^i 7TpoKOTaXr)\lrojjLevov<i e77i'9 dyopd<i oo<t av- 
TLKa fieriovTe'i dp^a'i. iOeXovral Be ttoXXoI Trpo? 
KopvijXtav errXeov et? Keaj3ov evayyeXi^ofievoi 
TTepa^i e'^etv rov TroXe/xov eKel yap avrrjv iiire^e- 
irefi'^ev Uo/j,7r}]co<;. 

4 WdpoiaOeiar]<i Be ^ovXrj<i Wcfyp/tvio^; /xev dire- 
(f)aLvero yvco/jirjv €')(^ea0ai tP]<; 'IraXta?, ravrrjv yap 
elvac ToO 7roXep,ov to fieyiaTOv dOXov, Trpoari- 
286 



POMPEY, Lxv. 5-Lxvi. 4 

victory would have been with the enemy if tliey 
had had a victor in command." 

LXVI. At this success the followers of Pompey 
were so elated that they were eager to have the 
issue decided by a battle. Pompey, however, al- 
though he wa-ote to distant kings and generals and 
cities in the tone of a victor, feared the risk of such 
a battle, thinking that by imposing delays and 
distresses upon them he would finally subdue men 
who were invincible in arms and had been accus- 
tomed to conquer together now for a long time, but 
who for the other duties of a campaign, such as long 
marches, changes of position, the digging of trenches, 
and the building of walls, were incapacitated by old 
age, and therefore eager to come to close quarters 
and fight hand to hand without delay. Notwith- 
standing their over-confidence, Pompey had hitherto 
somehow or other succeeded in inducing his followers 
to keep quiet ; but when after the battle Caesar 
was compelled by his lack of supplies to break 
camp and march through Athamania into Thessaly, 
their spirits could no longer be restrained, but, cry- 
ing out that Caesar was in flight, some of them were 
for following in pursuit of him, others for crossing 
over into Italy, and others were sending their 
attendants and friends to Rome in order to pre- 
occupy houses near the forum, purposing at once to 
become candidates for office. Many, too, of their 
own accord sailed to Cornelia in Lesbos with the 
glad tidings that the war was at an end ; for Pompey 
had sent her there for safety. 

A senate having been assembled, Afranius gave it 
as his opinion that they should make sure of Italy, 
for Italy was the greatest prize of the war, and 



287 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

devai 8e rot? Kparovcriv €vdv<i 1.iKe\iav, ^aphova, 

Kvpvov, 'l^7jp[av, VdXaTiav airaaav rj<; re 8rj 

7rA,et(TTo? 6 X070? UofXTTTjio) iraTplho^ opeyovarjii 

'^elpa's i'yyvOev, ov KaXw'i e')(^eiv irepLopav TrpoTrrj- 

XaKi^ofxevijv koX SovXevovaav olKeTai<; Kal KoXa^t 

5 rvpdvvoov. avro^ he IIo/iTrjjio? ovre Trpo? ho^av 

rjjetTo KaXov ainm Sevrepav (pv'yi]v (f)evyeip 

¥>^aiaapa Kal SiwKeaOai, tt}? t"i/^>/9 hicoKeiv Bc- 

8ov(Trj<i, ovre oaLOv eyKaraXiTrelv ^Kii-nLwva koX 

Toy? irepX rrfv 'EXXaSa koI %eTTaXiav avhpa<i 

vTrariKov^, ev6v<i viro K.aiaapi yevrjaofievov^; /xera 

')(pT)fidTO)v KOI Buvap^ecov p,€ydXa)v, t?;? Be V(ap,7]<i 

fidXiaTU KrjheadaL rov dirwrdTW TToXep^ovvra 

irepl avrrj<i, 67ro)<; diraOrj'^ KaKwv ovaa Kai dvjj- 

Koo<; TTepip^evjj rov Kparovvra. 

LXVII. Tavra ylr7](j)iadp,evo<; ehiwKe Kaiaapa, 
p,d')(rj<i fxev eyv(OK(i)<; dire'^ecrdaL, iroXiopKelv Be 
Kai rpi^ecv Tal<; d-iropiai<i eyyvOev eiraKoXovOMv. 
Kal yap dXXco<; ravra crvfx(f)epetv r)yeiTo, Kal 
X0709 Tt9 ei? avTov rjKev ev rol<i iTTTrevai (f)ep6- 
p,evo(;, (09 'x^pt) Ta^iara Tpe-^afxevov^ Kalaapa 
2 (TvyKaraXveiv KUKeivov avrov. evioi Be cf)aai 
Bia Tovro Kal KaTwi't firjBev d^iov (T7rovBf]<; XPV' 
aaaOai Ylop.7n]'iov, dXXa Kal iropevofxevov iirl 
K.aLcrapa 7r/309 daXaaarj KaraXtTrelv errrl T779 
aTToaKevi]^, (po^rjdei'Ta fir] KaL(rapo<i dvaipedev- 
T09 dvayKaat) KUKelvov ev6v<i diroOeadai, ttjv 
dpxv^' ovTco Be irapaKoXovOoiv drpefia Tot9 
7roXe/xcoi<; ev alTiai<; rjv Kal Kara^otjaecriv 0)9 ov 
Kalaapa KaTaarpartjycov, dXXd tt]v iraTpiBa Kal 
288 



1 



POMPEY, LXVI. 4-LXVII. 2 

would at once put also into the hands of her masters 
Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, Spain, and all Gaul ; and 
since his native land, which was of the greatest 
concern to Pompey, stretched out suppliant hands 
to him close by, it was not right to allow her to be 
enslaved and insulted by servants and flatterers of 
tyrants. Pompey himself, however, thought it 
neither well for his own reputation to run away 
a second time from Caesar and to be pursued by 
him, when fortune made him the pursuer, nor right 
before Heaven to abandon Scipio and the men of 
consular rank in Thessaly and Hellas, who would 
at once come into the power of Caesar together with 
their moneys and large forces ; but that he cared 
most for Rome who fought for her at the farthest 
remove, in order that she might neither suffer nor 
hear about any evil, but quietly await her master. 

LXVI I. Having decided the matter in this way, 
Pompey set out in pursuit of Caesar, determined to 
avoid a battle, but to keep him under siege and 
harass him with lack of supplies by following close 
upon him. He had reasons for thinking this the 
best course, and besides, a saying current among the 
cavalry reached his ears, to the effect that as soon as 
they had routed Caesar they must put down Pompey 
himself also. And some say this was also the reason 
why Pompey called upon Cato for no service of any 
importance, but even when marching against Caesar 
left him at the coast in charge of the baggage, 
fearing lest, if Caesar should be taken off, he him- 
self also might be forced by Cato to lay down his 
command at once. While he was thus quietly 
following the enemy he was loudly denounced, and 
charges were rife that he was directing his campaign, 
not against Caesar, but against his country and the 

289 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Tr)v ^ovXrjv, ottox; hia 'iTavTo<; ap'Xji koI /xrjSiTroTe 
TravatjTai roi<i d^iovai rrj'i olKOVfievr]^ dp')(€cv 

3 ')(^pcofi€vo^ v7rT}peTai<; koI 8opu(f)6poi^. AofX€TLO<; 
Be avrov ^At]v6/3apl3o^ ^Aya/ue/xvova koXcov koI 
jBaaiXea ^aaiXecov i7ri,<p6ovov iiroUL. koI ^aco- 
vio<i 01)-^ rjTTOv rjv arjhrj'^ tmv irappijaia^ofxevoyv 
a.Kacpco'i ev to) aKcoTTTeiv, ""AvdpcoTroi," /Bowp, 
" ovSe Ti]r€<i earai roiv ev TovaKXdvo) ctvkcov 
fieTa\a/3eu' ; " AeuKio? 8e ^A(f)pdvio<; 6 rd<i ev 65 
^YjBrjpia Svvd/xei'i drro^akoov ev alrLa tt pohoaia^ 
yeyovoo'i, rore he rov HofjbTTtjiov opcbv (pvyo/xa'X^- 
ovvra, Pav/j,d^€iv eXeye Tov<i KarriyopovvTa<i avrov, 
TTw? 7r/)09 rov efirropov tmv €7rap')(i(bv ov /xd')(^ovTaL 
TrpoeXOovre^. 

4 TavTU Koi rd roiavTU iroXXd \eyovT€<; dvhpa 
86^1]'? rjTTOva Kol rfj'i vrpo? Tov<i ^lXov<; alSov^ 
rov HofiTTtjiov e^e^idaavro kol avveirecnrdaavro 
rai<; eavrcov eXTrlai koX opfxal^ eiraKoXovOrjaaL, 
7rpoep,evov rov<i dpiarov^ \oyi(T/u,ov<;, oirep oiihe 
ttXolou Kv^epvrjrri, firjriye^ roaovrcov eOvwv Kal 
Svvdfiecov avroKpdropi orparrjyw iraOelv rjv irpoa- 

5 rjKOV. 6 Be rcov puev larpcov rovf /x^jSeTrore 
')(^api^op,evov'i ral<i e7ri9v/xiat<i eivrjvecrev, avrb^i 8e 
ru) voaovvri rrj<; arparid<i eveScoKe, Seiaa^ eVt 
(Tari-jpia XvTrrjpo^ yevecrdai. ttw? yap dv rc<; 
(j)7jaeiev vytaiveiv eKeivov^ roix; dvSpa<i, &v oc 
fiev VTrareta'; r]hrj koi (jrpariiyia<i ev rw arparo- 
ireSu) Trepivoarovvre^i ifivcovro, XTrivOijpi 8e Kal 
AofjberiQ) Kal '^kyittlcovl rrepl t?}? ^^aiaapo<; ''PX- 
lepwavvT]^ epi8e<? rjcrav Kal (fnXoveiKiai Kal 

6 S€^tc6crei9; (ocnrep avroi<i Tiypdvov rov ^ Apfieviov 

' pi.T)Tiye Bekker reads ft^roiye, with 0. 
290 



POMPEY, Lxvii. 2-6 

senate, in order that he might always be in office 
and never cease to have for his attendants and guards 
men who claimed to rule thie world. Domitius 
Ahenobarbus, too, by calling him Agamemnon, and 
King of Kings, made him odious. And Favonius 
was no less displeasing to him than those who used 
a bolder speech, when he bawled out his untimely 
jest : " O men, this yeai', also, shall we eat no figs of 
Tusculum } " And Lucius Afranius, who lay under 
a charge of treachery for having lost his forces in 
Spain,^ on seeing Pompey now avoiding a battle with 
Caesar, said he was astonished that his accusers did 
not go forth and fight this trafficker in provinces. 

With these and many similar speeches they forced 
Pompey from his settled purpose, — a man who was a 
slave to fame and loath to disappoint his friends, — 
and dragged him into following after their own 
hopes and impulses, abandoning his best laid plans, 
a thing which even in the master of a ship, to say 
nothing of a general in sole command of so many 
nations and armies, would have been unbecoming. 
Pompey himself approved of those physicians who 
never gratify the morbid desires of their patients, 
and yet he yielded to the diseased passion of his 
followers, for fear of offending if he tried to heal and 
save them. For how can one say that those men were 
sound and well, some of whom were already going 
about among the soldiers and canvassing for consul- 
ships and praetorships, while Spinther, Domitius, 
and Scipio were quarrelling, scheming, and conspir- 
ing over the pontificate of Caesar,^ just as though 
Tigranes the Armenian were encamped over against 

^ He was accused of taking a bribe from Caesar for the 
surrender of the Spains (see the Catsar, xli. 2). 

* Since 63 b c, Caesar had been pontifex maximus. Cf. 
Btll. Civ. in. 83. 

291 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

irapaarpaTOTrehevovTO^ rj rov ISl a/3aTai(ov ^a- 
cnX€a><;, dX,X' ou KuLaapo^; i/celvov kuI tt}? Svi>d- 
/xew? ^ ^iXta? fxev i;p/]K€i 7roXe(9 Kara Kpdro<i, 
eOvr) he rrXeiova rpiaKoaicov vTrrJKTO, TepiJLai>ot<; 
Be Kal Ta\dTai<; ^6fia-)(^ifievo<; di'^rri^To^ oawi 
ovK dv Ti<; dptO/u.7]o-at /jLd)^a<f eKarov /xvpidSa^ 
al')(^[xaXu)T(i3v eXa/dev, eKUTOv 8e direKreive Tpeyjrd- 
fjLevo<; eK 7rapaTd^eco<;. 

LXVIII. 'Aw' o/Aftx? eyKelfxevot Kal 6opv- 
^ovvTe<i, eirel KaTe^i^aav et? to ^apcrdXiov 
irehiov, rjvdjKacrav ^ovXrjv TrpoOeivai top Hofi- 
TTifiov, iv fj Aa/Sirjvb'i 6 rcov iTnrecov dp^cov 
TrpwTO? dvaa-rd^ (Ofioae /ir; dva^wpy'^aeiv eK tt)? 
^d'^rj<i, el ixrj Tpey\rai,ro tou? TroXe/itou?* rd he 

2 avrd Kal Trdvre^ Mfii'vaav. t?;? he vvKTO<i eho^e 
Kara toi"> virvov^ Ilo/iTrj^to? el^ rb Oearpov 
elai6vT0<i avrov Kporelv rov hfjfiov, avTo<; he 
Koafieiv lepov 'A(f)pohlrr]<; viKt](f)opov TroWoif; 
\a(pvpoi<;. Kal rd fiev eddppet, ra he vTreO parrev 
avTOV 1] d\ln<;, hehoiKOTa /xt) rro jevei t« K.aLaapo<i 
et? ^A<f)pohLTT]v dvrjKOVTi ho^a Kal XafjL7rp6Tr]<; 
aTr' avTov jevi]Tar Kal TraviKol rive's Obpv^oi 

3 htdrTovT€<; e^avearrjaav avrov. €Q)9ivi]<; he 
(pvXaKrj'i VTrep rov Katcra/309 CTTparoirehnv ttoX- 
\r]V i)(TV)(lav dyovTO<i e^eXa/x->//"e /.Leya (f)M^, eK he 
TOVTOV Xa/ATra? dpOelaa (f)\oyoeihr]<i eirl to ^ Ho/j,- 
TTTjtov KareaKijyIre' Kal tovto Ihetv (pr](7i Kalaap 
avTO<; eTTioov ra? cf)v\aKd<;. dfxa he r]jj,epa fieX- 
\ovTo<; avTOv TTpo^ "StKOTovaav dva^evyvveiv Kal 
Ta? aK7]vd<; twv aTpaTicoToov KadaipovvTwv Kal 
TrpoTT€/jL7r6vTQ)V VTTO^vyia Kal 9epu7rovTa<;, rjKov o'l 
aKOTTol (f)pd^ovTe<i oifKa ttoXXo. KaOopav iv rw 

^ in] rb Coraes and Bekker, after Reiske : 4irl. 
292 



POMPEY, Lxvii. 6-LxviiT. 3 

them, or the king of the Nabataeans, and not that 
Caesar, and that army, who had taken by storm a 
thousand cities, subdued more than three hundred 
nations, and fought unvanquished with Germans and 
Gauls in more battles than one could number, taking 
a hundred times ten thousand prisoners, and slaying 
as many, after routing them on the battle-field. 

LXVIII. But notwithstanding, by their importuni- 
ties and agitations, after they had gone down into 
the plain of Pharsalia, they forced Pompey to hold a 
council of war, where Labienus, the commander of 
the cavalry, rose first and took an oath that he would 
not come back from the battle unless he routed the 
enemy ; then all likewise swore the same oath. 
That night Pompey dreamed that as he entered his 
theatre the people clapped their hands, and that he 
decorated a temple of Venus Victrix with many 
spoils. On some accounts he was encouraged, but 
on others depressed, by the dream ; he feared lest 
the race of Caesar, which went back to Venus, was 
to receive glory and splendour through him ; and 
certain panic tumults which went rushing through 
the camp roused him from sleep. Furthermore, 
during the morning watch a great light shone out 
above the camp of Caesar, which was perfectly quiet, 
and a flaming torch rose from it and darted down 
upon the camp of Pompey ; Caesar himself says he 
saw this as he was visiting the watches.^ At break 
of day, Caesar was about to decamp and move to 
Scotussa, and his soldiers were taking down their 
tents and sending on ahead the beasts of burden and 
servants, when the scouts came in with a report that 
they saw many shields moving to and fro in the 

' Cf. the Caesar, xliii. 3. It is not mentioned in the 
Commentaries. 

293 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

')(^dpaKL ro)v TroXe/xLcov oia<p€p6fjb€pa, koI Kivqcnv 
eivai KoX dopv^ov avhptov eirl p.d'y^rjv e^ioprcov. 

4 fxera Be rovrovf; erepoL iraprjo-av eh rd^LV ?;S>7 
KaOiaraaOat, Tovf TrpcoTOv; Xeyovra. o fxev ovv 
Kalaap eliroov rrjv TrpoaSo/cco/jLivtjv 7]K€iv rj/jtepav, 
iv 77 Trpo'i dv8pa<i, ov Trpo? \cp.bv ovSe ireviav 
fiaxovvrai, Kara Ta;^o? Trpo tt}? aKrjvfj'i e/ce'Xeucre 
TTpoOeivai top (poiviKovv ^nSiva- tovto ydp 

5 /id')(^r)<; 'Vwixaiois icrrl avfi/SoXov. 01 Be arpa- 
Ticorai deaadfMevoi p,erd /So?}? Kal ')(^apd<; rd<i 
(TK7]vd<i d(f)evTe^ e(f)epovTo tt/oo? to. oirXa. Kal 
rS>v ra^iap-^oiv d'yovroiv et? rjv eSei, rd^iv, eKacr- 
T0<;, waTrep ')(op6<i, dvev dopvfiov pep^XerrjpevoK; 
eh rd^iv^ Kal irpdwi KaOiaraTO. 

LXIX. no/LtTTJ^fo? he TO fxev Se^iov avrb^ ^X^^ 
e/xeXXev di'dlaraaOai tt/jo? 'Avtcoviov, ev he tS) 
/xe'cTft) 'StKrjiTicova jov Trevdepop dvrera^e K.aX^iP(f 
AeuKto), TO Be eucow/xov el^^ P'CV AevKio^ Aofie- 

2 Tio<;, eppwaOr) Be rqy TrX-qdei tmv iTnreoiV. einavOa 
jap oX'i'yov Belv diravTe'i eppw]aav &)? Kaiaapa 656 
^laaopevoc Kal to BeKarov rdypa BiaKoyfrovTe^, 

ov TrXelaro^ rjV X0709 &)? p^axiP'fOTdTov, Kal 
K.a2(7ap iv iKeivai TaTTopeva el'Jjdei pudx^aOaL. 
KaTiBoiv Be Trecppaypevov Itttto) Toaavrrj tmv 
TToXepiLwv TO eucovvpov, Kal 4>o/3y]deh Ty]v Xap- 
TrpoTtjTa Tov birXicrpov, pereTTepyjraTO arreipa^ e^ 
aTTO TOiv eTTiTiypdTcov Kal KaTeanjaev OTTicrOev 

3 TOV BeKdTov, KeXevcra^ ijavx^cii dyetv dht]Xov^ 
Toh 7roXe/.u'ot? ovTas' OTav Be irpocreXavvwaiv ol 
iTTTreh, Bid Tcbv TTpopd^wv eKBpapbvra^ prj irpoe- 
a6ac TOv<i vaaov<;, warrep elcoOaaiv 01 KpdriaTOi 

^ fls Td^tv bracketed by Bekker. 
294 



POMPEY, Lxviii. 3-Lxi.v. 3 

enemy's camp, and that there was a noisy movement 
there of men coming out to battle. After these, 
others came announcing that the foremost ranks 
were already forming in battle array. Caesar, there- 
fore, after saying that the expected day had come, 
on which they would fight against men, and not 
against want and hunger, quickly ordered the purple 
tunic to be hung up in front of his tent, that being 
the Roman signal for battle. His soldiers, on seeing 
this, left their tents with shouts of joy, and hurried 
to arms. And when their officers led them to the 
proper place, each man, as if in a chorus, not tu- 
multuously, but with the quiet ease which training 
gives, fell into line. 

LXIX. Pompey himself, with the right wing, 
intended to oppose Antony ; in the centre he sta- 
tioned Scipio, his father-in-law, over against Lucius 
Calvinus ; his left wing was commanded by Lucius 
Domitius, and was supported by the main body of 
the cavalry.i For almost all the horsemen had 
crowded to this point, in order to overpower Caesar 
and cut to pieces the tenth legion ; for this was 
generally said to fight l)etter than any other, and in 
its ranks Caesar usually stood when he fought a 
battle. But Caesar, observing that the left wing of 
the enemy was enclosed by such a large body of 
horsemen, and alarmed at their brilliant array, sent 
for six cohorts from his reserves and stationed them 
behind the tenth legion, with orders to keep quiet 
and out of the enemy's sight ; but whenever the 
cavalry charged, they were to run out through the 
front ranks, and were not to hurl their javelins, as 

^ Both Plutarch (not only here, but also in his Caesar, 
xliv. ] f.) and Appian (Bell. Civ. ii. 76) differ in tlieir accounts 
of the order of battle from that which Caesar himself gives 
{Bell. Civ. iii. 88 f.). 

295 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

airevBovTe^ iirl Ta<? ^i<f)Ov\Ki,a<;, aXXa iraieiv avw 
tTvvTLTpcodKOVTa'i o/jLfiaTa Kal Trpoacoira rcdv 
TToke/Mbcov ov yap jievelv rov^i KaXom tovtov<; 
Koi dvdtjpom vvppi^iaTU'i 8ia tov (hpaiafiov, 
oiSe dvTL^Xeyfreiv Trpo^ tov aiSypov iv 6(f)da'\,fiot<i 
yivofievov. iv tovtoc^ fjuev ovv o K.aiaap rjv. 

4 'O he Tio fXTrr]iO<i d(p^ tinrov ttjv irapdra^LV 
eTnaKOiroiv, oi<i kdypa roix; fiev dvTi7rd\ov<; fieO^ 
rjffvyia'i rov Kaipov iv rd^ec 7rpoafievovTa<;, t^? 
S' v^^ avTM (TTpaTid<i to irXelaTov ovk aTpe/xovv, 
dWd Kvpalvov dTreipta Koi dopv^ovfievov, eSeiae 
fiT) hiaairaaOfi iravTdfracrLV iv dp'x,f} rr}? /xd-^rji;, 
Kot TrapdyyeX.fxa rot? TrpOTeTaj/Jiivotf; eBcoKev 
eo-TcoTa? iv irpo^oXfj koi fi€V0VTa<i dpap6T(o<; Se- 

5 -yeadai tov<; TroXefiiov^. o Be K.al(Tap atTidTai 
TO (7T paTrjyrjp.a tovto' t&v re yap ir\riyo)v tov 
i^ iTriBpofjifj'i Tovov dfiaupcocrai, Kal ttjv p^dXicna 
Tov<i 7roXXov<i iv t& crviK^epecrdaL toIs 7ro\e/iioi? 
TrXrjpovaav ivdovaiaafiov Kal (f)opd<; avTe^op/jbr)- 
aiv, d/xa Kpavyfj Kal Bpopiw tov Bvp,6v av^ouaav, 
d(f)€X6vTa Tcrj^ai Kal KUTa-^v^ai tou9 dvhpa<i. 
rjaav Be oi pev p,eTd KaLaapo<; BLa')(^iXioL tt/jo? 
Bi(Tp,vp'iOL<s, oi Be p,eTd liopirrjiov ^pa')(el TrXeiore? 
Tj BiirXdcnoi, tovtcov. 

LXX. "HSt; Be crvvOrjpaTO'i BiBop,evov irapa 
dp.(f)OTep(ov Kal t% a-aXtnyyo^ dpxopevr]<; iyKe- 

296 



POMPEY, Lxix. 3-Lxx. I 

the best soldiers usually did in their eagerness to 
draw their swords, but to strike upwards with them 
and wound the faces and eyes of the enemy ; for 
these blooming and handsome war-dancers (he said) 
would not stand their ground for fear of having 
their youthful beauty marred, nor would they face 
the steel when it was right at their eyes. Caesar, 
then, was thus engaged. 

But Pompey, who w^as surveying on horseback 
the battle array, when he saw that his antagonists 
were standing quietly in their ranks and awaiting 
the moment of attack, while the greater part of his 
own army was not at rest, but tossing about in 
waves of tumult, owing to its inexperience, was 
afraid that his array would be completely broken up 
at the beginning of the battle, and therefore ordered 
his front ranks to stand with their spears advanced, 
to remain fixed in their places, and so to receive the 
enemy's onset. Now, Caesar finds fault with these 
tactics ^ ; he says that Pompey thereby robbed the 
blows of his weapons of that impetus which a rapid 
charge would have given them ; and as for that 
rushing counter-charge, which more than any thing 
else fills most soldiers with impetuous enthusiasm as 
they close with their enemies, and combines with 
their shouts and running to increase their courage, 
Pompey deprived his men of this, and so rooted 
them to the spot where they stood, and chilled their 
spirits. And yet Caesar's forces numbered twenty- 
two thousand, while those of Pompey were a little 
more than twice as many. 

LXX. And now at last the signal was given on 
both sides and the trumpet began to call to the 

* Bell. Civ. iii. 92. Appian {Btll. Civ. ii. 79) says Caesar 
does this in hi» letters. 

297 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

\eveaOai Trpbf rrjv avcrracTLv, twv fxev iroWwv 
CKaaro^ eaKoirei to KaO avrov, oXljol Be P&)- 
jxaidov oi /SeXriarot Kai rive^ 'KX\r]V(oi' 7rap6vT€<i 
e^co T/7S" fi,d)(^y]'i, 009 ijyu'i rjv ro Beivov, iXoyi^ovro 
T7]p TrXeove^lav koI (pi\ov€iKi.av, ottov ^epovcrd 

2 Tr]i> /jjefioviav €^eO>]Kev. oirXa yap avyyeviKa 
Koi rd^ei^ a8e\cf)al Kal KOtvd arjfieia koI fiid<i 
iroXeox; evavhpia roaavrr} koX Bvpa/jLa avrr) Trpo^j 
eavT7]v a-vveTmrrev, €7riBeiKvv/j.evt] Trjv dvOpco- 
"TTivqi' (f>v(Tiv, &)9 iv irdOei yevofxevi] Tv<pXov eari 
Kal paviojBe'i. rjv pev yap i'jBt] /caO' rjav^iav 
')(_pr)^ovaiv dp)(^eiv Kal diroXaveiv rcov Kareipyaa- 
fjuevcjov TO TrXetaTov Kal KpdTiaTOv npcTfj 7?)? Kal 
6aXda(Trj<; vttijkoov, tjv 8 €TL TpoTraicov Kal dpia/x- 
^cov epcoTL ^ovXop,evov<; ■^(^api^ea-Oai Kal Sii/rwrra? 
ifXTTLirXaaOaL UapdiKMV iroXep-cov rj Tepp^aviKMv. 

3 TToXv he Kal ItKvOia Xenro/xevov epyov Kal IvBoi, 
Kal Trp6(f)a(Ti<i ovk ciBo^of; eVl ravTa Tr]<; irXeov- 
e^Ui^i iip,ep(oaat, to, /Sap/SapiKd. Tt9 B' dv rj 
"ZkuOcov 'iTnTd rj TO^evp.aTa YldpOcov rj 7rXouro<i 
^IvBmi' eiTe(7')(^e pLupt.dBa<i eiTTa 'V(op,aLcov ev oirXoi^ 
e7r€p^op,eva<i Ilop,7r')]tov Kal Kaiaapo<i 7]yovp,evo)V, 
oiv 6vop,a TToXv Trporepov ijKovcrav r/ to Voip^aicov; 
ovT(0<i d/xiKTa Kal TTOLKiXa Kal drjpicoBi] cfjvXa 

4 viKWVTe^ €7rPjX6ov. TOTe Be dXXi]Xoi<; p^axov/xevoi 
avvr]ecrav, ovBe TrjV Bo^av avTCOV, Bi fjv tt)? 
TrarptSo? ?)(p€tBovv, olKTCLpavTe^, ctxpc t?}? t^pepa^; 
eKeivrj'^ di'iKt]TO)V irpoaayopevopevfov. ?) p,ev yap 
yevofievr) avyyeveia Kal to, lofXta? tpiXTpa Kal 
yapbd eKelvo<i ev6v<; rjv aTTaTifKa Kal viroTTTa 
KoivcovLWi enl ;!^p6ta (TVviaTapLevrj<i 6p,rjpev/jiaTa, 
(ftiXiai; B' dXrjdipij'i ov pieTea)(ev. 



298 



I 



POMPEY, Lxx. 1-4 

conflict, and of that great host every man sought to 
do his part; but a few Romans, the noblest, and some 
Greeks, men who were present without taking part 
in the battle, now that the dreadful crisis was near, 
began to reflect upon the pass to which contentious- 
ness and greed had brought the sovereign Roman 
state. For with kindred arms, fraternal ranks, and 
common standards, the strong manhood and might 
of a single city in such numbers was turning its own 
hand against itself, showing how blind and frenzied 
a thing human nature is when passion reigns. For 
had they now been willing quietly to govern and 
enjoy what they had conquered, the greatest and 
best part of earth and sea was subject to them, and 
if they still desired to gratify their thirst for trophies 
and triumphs, they might have had their fill of wars 
with Farthians or Ciermans. Besides, a great task 
still remained in the subjugation of Scythia and 
India, and here their greed would have had no 
inglorious excuse in the civilization of barbarous 
peoples. And what Scythian horse or Parthian 
archery or Indian wealth could have checked seventy 
thousand Romans coming up in arms under the 
leadei'ship of Pomjiey and Caesar, whose names 
those nations had heard of long before that ot 
Rome, so remote and various and savage were the 
peoples which they had attacked and conquered. 
But now they were about to join battle with one 
another, nor were they moved even by a compassion 
for their own glory to spare their country, men 
who up to that day had been called invincible ! For 
the family alliance which had been made between 
them, and the charms of Julia, and her marriage, 
were now seen to have been from the first suspicious 
and deceptive pledges of a partnership based on 
self-interest ; there was no real friendship in it. 

299 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

LXXI. n<? S' ovp TO ^apadXiov Trehiov avSpcov 
Kai nnrcov koL ottXcov aveTreTrXijaTO kol fid')(ri<i 
rjpdi] Trap dfxcpoTepwv aij/jLela, tt/owto? ix r?}? 
Katcra/30? (f)d\ajyo<; i^i8pa/j,6 Faio? Kpaaaiav6<;, 
dvBpcou 6Karov eiKoai Xo^a'yoyv, pbeydXtju dnoSi- 

2 Sov<; UTTOcr^eo'ti/ Kauaapi. Trpwrov yap aiirov 657 
i^icov rov 'X^dpaKO^ elhe, koI 7rpocrayop€ucra<; i)p6To 
TToi? <f)povoir} irepl t?}? /ia;^?/?. o Se rrjv he^Mv 
7rpoTeiva<i dve/Sotjae- " l>liK^a€i<; Xap,7rpo)<i, o) 
KaZcra/O" i/J-e Se rj ^Mvra ryj/xepov y) veKpov eiraive- 
aei^. ' TOVTcov tmv Xoywv /jiep,V7]/jievo<i i^Q}p/j,7ja€ 

Kol (TweTTecrirdararo TroXXoi/ii koI Trpoae/SaXe 

3 Kara /xeaovi rovi TroXe/itof?. yevofxevov he rov 
dyoivo's evOvi iv ^it^ecn koX ttoXXmp (j)ovevop.ev(ov, 
^ia^up,€i>ov irpoaw Kal SiaKoirTOvra tou? irpctirov'i 
VTTOcnd^ Ti9 oodel 8id rov crTopLa-ro'i to ^[(^o'i, 
oiGTe TTjv al)(^p,T}v irepdaacrav dvaaj^elv kutcl to 
Iviov. 

WeaovTO^ Be tov K-paaaiavov, kutcl tovto puev 
r}v laoppoTTO^; i) p-d^rj, to 8e Be^iov 6 Tlop,7r7]io<; ov 
Tax^o)^ eirriyev, aXXa TraTTTaivcov iirl OdTepa Kal 

4 TO Twv iTTTTecov dvufievcov epyov ivBieTpi^ev. i]8r] 
8e eKelvoL T0V<i ovXap-ovi dvrjyov ct)9 KVKXcoao/xevoi 
TOV l^aiaapa, Kal tov<; 7TpoTeTayp.evov<; tTTTrei? 
oXtyou^ 6vTa<i ip^^aXovvTe^ et? ttjv cfidXayya. 
K.alaapo<i Se (jrjp.elov dpavTO<i, ol p.ev iTnrei'i 
e^avexcopiia av , al he eTTCTeTayp.evai cnrelpai npo^ 
TTjv KVKXcoaiv eKhpa/jLovcrac, Tyotcr^tX.tot dvhpa, 

^ The name is Crastiuus in Caesar's own story of the battle 
[Bell. Civ. iii. 91). 

300 



POMPEY, Lxxi. 1-4 

LXXI. So then, when the Pharsalian plain was 
filled with men and horses and arms and the signals 
for battle had been lifted on both sides, the first 
to rush out from Caesar's lines was Caius Crassianus/ 
a centurion in command of one hundred and twenty 
men, who was thus redeeming a great promise made 
to Caesar. For he had been the first man whom 
Caesar saw as he issued from the camp, and ad- 
dressing him, he had asked him what be thought 
about the battle. The centurion stretched forth his 
right hand and cried with a loud voice : " Thou wilt 
win a splendid victory, O Caesar ; and I shall have 
thy praise to-day, whether I live or die." Mindful 
now of these words of his, he rushed forward, 
carrying many along with him, and threw himself 
into the midst of the enemy. The combatants at 
once took to their swords and many were slain, and 
as the centurion was forcing his way along and 
cutting down the men in the front ranks, one of 
them confronted him and drove his sword in at his 
mouth with such force that its point went through to 
the najie of his neck.^ 

After Crassianus had fallen, the battle was evenly 
contested at this point ; Pompey, however, did not 
lead up his right wing swiftly, but kept looking 
anxiously towards the other parts of the field, and 
awaited the action of his cavalry on the left, thus 
losing time. These at last deployed their squadrons 
with a view to envelop Caesar, and to hurl back 
upon their supporting lines the horsemen whom he 
had stationed in front, only a few in number. But 
Caesar gave a signal, his cavalry retired, and the 
cohorts drawn up to opj)ose the enveloping move- 
ment ran out, three thousand men, and confronted 

* Cf. Caesar, op. cit. iii. 99, where Caesar gives Crastinus 
that high praise for wliich he was willing to die 

301 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

viravTid^ovai tou? TroXe/xtov^, koI TrapiaTu/xevot 
Kad' 'lttttcov, ft)? iSiSd^Orjaav, v^jrrjXol'i i'^poivro 

5 Tol<^ vaaot<i, €<jiie/xevoi, twv TrpoacoTrcov. oi he, are 
jxcL^rj'^ irdcrri^ direipoi,, ToiauTt]v Se fir] TrpocrSoKr']- 
aavT6<i /jbrjBe Trpo/jLa06vTe<i, ovk iroXfioyv ov8e ijvec- 
'X^ovTO rdii 7rX?77a9 iv o/jL/macri kol crTo/xaaiv ovaa<i, 
aiOC d7ro(rrp€(f)6fi€voi koI Trpoicr'yoiJLevot tmv 
oyjrecov Td<i ')^eipa<i a/cXew? erpd-novTO. (^evyov- 
Tcov he TovTcov dfM€\i]aavTe<; ol Kalcrapo<i e')(o)povv 
eTrl TOV<; 7re^ov<;, fj fidXiaTU tmv iTnrecov to Kepa<i 
e\lnXcofjievov 7r€pi8po/j,r]v iSthov Kal KVKXooaiv. 

G dfjua Be tovtcov e'/c TrXajiov Trpoaireaovrcov kul 
Kara (xrofia rou BeKarou TrpocrfiL^ai'TO'i ov^ 
vTrefJbeivav ovSe avvecnrjo-av, 6po)VT€<; iv (Z kukXoo- 
aeadai TOt"? TroXe/Lttou? rjX'ml^ov avTOv^ tovto 
Tracr^oyTa?. 

LXXII. TpaTTOfievcov Be rovrwv, co? KarelBe 
TOP KOviopTOv 6 no/x7r?^i'o9 Kal TO irepX tou? iir- 
7rea<; irdOwi eiKaaev, cS jxev e')(^prjaaTO Xoyiafjiw 
yaXeTTOV elireiv, jxaXiaTa Be 6/j,oio^ Trapdcfypovi, 
Kal TTapairXrj'yL ti-jv Bidvoiav, Kal /X7]B otl ^Idyvo'^ 
earl IlofX7rrjLO<s evvoovvTL, /jii]Beva Trpoaenroiv 
aTTrjei f3dB')]v eh tov ')(^dpaKa, rrrdw toI<: eireai 
TrpeTTcov e/ceiyot?' 

2 Zeti? Be iraTtjp Al'aiO' v-^i^vyo'i ev (f)6^ov copae' 
aTi] Be Ta(f)cov, oTriOev Be crdKCi ^dXev eiTTU- 

fioeiov, 
rpeaae Be 7ra'TrTr]va<i ecji ofXLXov, 



302 



POMPEY, Lxxi. 4-Lxxn. 2 

their enemies, and standing close by the horses, as 
they had been directed, they thrust their javelins 
upwards, aiming at the faces of the riders. These, 
since they were without experience in every kind of 
fighting, and did not expect or even know anything 
about such a kind as this, had neither courage nor 
endurance to meet the blows which were aimed at 
their mouths and eyes, but wheeling about and 
putting their hands before their faces, they in- 
gloriously took to flight. Then Caesar's soldiers, 
suffering these to make their escape, advanced upon 
the enemy's infantry, attacking at just that point 
where the wing, left unprotected by the flight of 
the cavalry, could be surrounded and enclosed. And 
since this body attacked them on the flank, while at 
the same time the tenth legion fell upon their front, 
the enemy did not stand their ground nor even hold 
together, for they saw that while they were ex- 
pecting to surround the enemy, they were themselves 
l)eing surrounded. 

LXXII. After his infantry was thus routed, and 
when, from the cloud of dust which he saw, Pompey 
conjectured the fate of his cavalry, what thoughts 
passed through his mind it were difl^cult to say; but he 
was most like a man bereft of sense and crazed, wlio 
had utterly forgotten that he was Pompey the Great, 
and without a word to any one, he walked slowly oft 
to his camp, exemplifying those verses of Homer ^ : 

But Zeus the father, throned on high, in Ajax 

stirred up fear ; 
He stood confounded, and behind him cast his 

shield of seven ox -hides. 
And trembled as he peered around upon the throng. 

^ Iliad, xi. 544 ff., where Telamonian Ajax retires before 
Hector and his Trojans. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TotoOros ct9 TTjv CTKTjvrjV TrapeXdcbv acjydoyyo^ kuO- 
TjaTo, iii€')(pi ov Toc<i (pevyovcri ttoWol Si(OK0VT€<i 
(TvveiaeiTL'mov' Tore Se (^ftivr^v fxlav a^e\<i ravrrjv, 
" OvKovv fcal eVi rijv irapefi^okrjv ; " aWo 8e 
fiTjSev elircoi', avaara^ Kal \al3a)v iaOrfja rfj 

3 TTapovar) tvxV "^P^Trovaav vTre^rjXOev. e(f)V'ye Se 
Kal TO, XocTTa Tciy/xara, Kal (p6vo<; iv tw (rrparo- 
iriBo} TToXu? eyevero aKr]vo(f>vXdK(i)v koI depairov- 
Tiov (TTpaTi(jcna<i he fxovov; e^aKiaj^^iXiov^ ireaelv 
(prjcrii' ^Acri.vvio<; IloXXt&Ji', ue/u.axrifx€Vo<i eKeivrjv 
rrjv ^d')(riv /xera Katcra/009. 

4 AipovvT€<i Se TO aTparorrehov idetxivro rrjV dvoiav 
Kal KovcfiOTTjTa Twv TToXefiiiOV. Ttdaa yap aK'qvrj 
fivpaii'ai<; KareaTeTTTO Kal aTpa)/j,vai<i dvOival<; 
r}(TKT)To Kal TyoaTre^at? eKirwfidrcov /necTTai'i' Kal 
KpaTr]pe<i otvov TrpovKCivTO, Kal TrapaaKevrj Kal 
Koafxo^ rjv reOvKOTfov Kal Travrjyvpitovrayv fidWov 
1] 7rp6<; fj.d-)^T]v i^onXi^o/jievcov. ovtco rai<i iXirLai 
Bi€(f)Oap/.t€iiot, Hat yefj,ovr€<; uvotjtov Opdaov^ eVt 
TOP TToXe/jLov ey^oopovv. 

LXXIII. Tio p.7n')lo<i Be fxiKpov e^co tov ^dpaKO^ 
trpoeXdoov rov jxev Ittttov dcpfjKev, oXiyoov he KOfH- 
hfj irepl avrov ovtcov, &)<? ouSet? ehiOiKev, dirtjec 
KaB^ i](Tvyiav, iv hiaXoyLa/xoi<; o)v oXovi elKO<; 
Xa/x^uveiv dvOpcoirov ertj Terrapa Kal rptdKovra 
viKuv Kal Kpareiv aTrdvTOsv eiOicrfievov, /;tt?79 he 6 DC 
Kal (f>vy7]<i Tore irpoiTOv ev y-qpa Xafx^dvovra irel- 
pav, evvoovjiievov he e^ oacov dydtvoov Kal ■noXep.odv 
7)v^i]p,evr)v dirojBaXoiiv wpa fiid ho^av Kal hvva^iv, 

2 ^ TTpO fXLKpOV roaOVTOl<i OTtXoL^i Kal L1T7T0l<i Kal 



^ 6 Reiske's correction of ■^ in the MSS., which JSintenie 
and Bekker delete, 



POMPEY, Lxxri. 2-lxxiii. 2 

In such a state of mind he went to his tent and 
sat down speechless, until many pursuers burst into 
the camp with the fugitives ; then he merely ejacu- 
lated : "What! even to my quarters?" and without 
another word rose up, took clothing suitable to his 
present fortune, and made his escape. The rest of 
his legions also fled, and there was a great slaugliter 
in the camp of tent-guards and servants ; but only 
six thousand soldiers fell,i according to Asinius 
Pollio, who fought in that battle on the side of 
Caesar. 

When Caesar's troops captured the camp, they 
beheld the vanity and folly of the enemy. For 
every tent was wreathed with myrtle boughs and 
decked out with flowered couches and tables loaded 
with beakers ; bowls of wine also were laid out, and 
preparation and adornment were those of men who 
had sacrificed and were holding festival rather than 
of men who were arming themselves for battle. With 
such infatuated hopes and such a store of foolish 
confidence did they go forth to war.^ 

LXXIII. But Pompey, Avhen he had gone a little 
distance from the camp, gave his horse the rein, and 
with only a few followers, since no one pursued him, 
went quietly away, indulging in such reflections as a 
man would naturally make who for four and thirty 
years had been accustomed to conquer and get the 
mastery in everything, and who now for the first 
time, in his old age, got experience of defeat and 
flight ; he thought how in a single hour he had lost 
the power and glory gained in so many wars and 
conflicts, he who a little while ago was guarded by 

^ Caesar says that fifteen thousand of Poinpey's soldiers 
fell, and twenty-four thousand surrendered. His own losses 
he puts at two hundred soldiers and thirty centurions (BtU 
Civ. iii. 99). » Cf. Caesar, op. cit. iii. 96. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

(TToXot? Bopv(f)opovfx,evo'i arrepx^Tai /niKpo'i outco 
jeyovo)^ KoX avv€aTa\fi€Vo<; oiare \av6dv6iv ^rj- 
TOvvTWi Touf TToXefMiovf;. 7rapa/jL€Lyfrd/j,€vn<i Se 
Adpiaaav, &)? rfkOeii eVl ra Te/XTry], Kara^aXcov 
eavTov eVl arofia Se^iylrrjKux; eirtve rov 7rora/u,ov, 
Kol irdXiv nvacrrd^ ijBdhi^e hid rwv Te/iiTrMV, ci^^^pi 

3 ov KarrjXOev eVl ddXarrav. eKel Se t^? vvkto<; to 
XoiTTOv dva7rav(Td/jiei>o<i iu KaXv/3l(p rivl a-ayrjveaiv, 
Kal irepl rov opOpov i7ri^a<i Trora/xtoi; ttXolov, kol 
TMV 6TTopL€V(ov Toi/<? iXevOepov^ dvaXa^oov, tov<; Be 
depd7rovTa<i dircevat tt/jo? Kaicrapa KeX(vaa<; Kal 
firj SeStevac, irapa •ytjv Kop.L^o/x€vo<i elSev €vp,eye6y 
(boprrjjov avdyeaOai /xeXXovaav, rj<; ei'avKXtjpei 

Pfo/ictio? dvi]p ov Tvdvv Ho/xtttjuo avv7]0rj<;, yivco- 
(TKwv he rrjv 6^\nv avrov' YlerLKio^ eTreKaXelro. 

4 TOVTfp (Tvve/Se/diJKei r?}? Trapaxv/^^^Vi t'VKTO<i ISeiv 
Kara tov<; V7n'0v<; Tlop,7r)]iov, ov'^ ov ewpdKet 
TToXXdKi^, dXXd raireivov Kal Karrjcj)!), Trpoahia- 
Xeyofievov avTw. koI ravra toI^ avixirXeovaiv 
eTvyyave htriyovpLevo<i, ft)9 S?; ^iXel irepl irpaypud- 
Tcov rrjXiKOVTwv Xoyoi' e)(€tv dv6 pwirov^ (7')(oXi]i' 

5 ayoina^. e^aL(^vrj<; Be t<9 tmv vavTCOv ecppaae 
kutlBoov on ttXoIov TroTd/xiov diro tt}'? y?]<i epea- 
acTat, Kal KaTaaelovai Tive<i avdpcoiTOi rd Ifidria 
Kal Ta9 -y^elpafi opeyovai irpo^ avrov'i. e7ri<TT?ycra<> 
ovv 6 HeTLKto'i evOv<i eyvco rov Jlop,7n]LOv, olov 
ovap elBe- Kal irXri^dp,evo<i Tip> Ke(j)a\r]if eVe/Vefcre 
Tov<i vavTa'^ ro ecjioXKiop Trapa^aXeiv, Kal Tr/p 
Be^idv e^ereive Kal irpoacKdXei rov TLofXTTrjiou, 
■)]B}] avp,(f)povMv rw a)(^i]p.aTi rrjv Tvyr]v Kal fiera- 

6 ^oXr]i> rov dvBpo<i, '66ev ovre irapdKXrjaiv dva- 
fxeiva'^ ovre Xoyov, dXX dvaXa^oiv ocrov^ eKeXevae 
fxer' avTOv (^AevTOvXoL Be rjcrav dficfyorepoi, Kal 

306 



POxMPEY, Lxxiii. 2-6 

such an array of infantry and horse, but was now going 
away so insignificant and humbled as to escape the 
notice of the enemies who were in searcli of him. 
After passing by Larissa, he came to the \'ale of 
Tempe, and there, being tliirsty, he threw himself 
down on his face and drank of the river ; then, rising 
up again, he went on his way through Tempe, and at 
last came down to the sea. There he rested for the 
remainder of the night in a fisherman's hut. At 
early dawn he went aboard a river-boat, taking with 
him such of his followers as were freemen, but 
bidding his servants to go back to Caesar and to 
have no fear. Then he coasted along until he saw a 
merchant-ship of goodly size about to put to sea, the 
master of which was a Roman who, thoujrh not 
intimately acquainted with Pompey, nevertheless 
knew him by sight; his name was Peticius. This 
man, as it happened, had dreamed the night before 
that Pompey, not as he had often seen him, but 
humble and downcast, was addressing him. He was 
just telling this dream to his shipmates, as men who 
are at leisure are wont to make much of such matters, 
when suddenly one of the sailors told him that he saw 
a river-boat rowing out from the shore, and some men 
in it waving their garments and stretching out their 
hands towards them. Peticius, accordingly, turned 
his attention in that direction, and at once recognised 
Pompey, as he had seen him in his dream ; then, 
smiting his head, he ordered the sailors to bring the 
little boat alongside, and stretching out his hand, 
hailed Pompey, already comprehending from his garb 
the change of fortune which the man had suffered. 
Wherefore, without waiting for argument or entreaty, 
he took Pompey on board, and also all whom Ponipei 
wished to have with him (these were the two Lentuli 

307 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Oawvio?) dviJX^V f^^^^ ixiKpov varepov ihovre<i 
airo 'yrjf; d/xiWcofMevov ^rjiorapov tov ^aaikea 
trpoaavaXaixpidvovcnv. eVei he Kaipo<; rjv Senrvov 
Koi irapecTKevaaev 6 vavKXrjpo'^ gk tmv rrapovrcov, 
lSd>v 6 ^a(t)vio<; oIk€T(ov diropia tov Uofnrrjiov 
dp^o/J-evov avTov viroXvetv irpoaeBpafxe kul vire- 
7 \vcre koX avvt]\ei'^€. Koi to Xoittov e« tovtoi' 
irepteTTcov koX depairevwv oca SecnroTa^ SovXoi, 
fi^Xpi vlyfreQ)<; iTohwv koI Selttvov 7rapaaK6vrj<;, 
SiereXeaev, ware Trjv eXevdepioTi-jTa Trj<; VTrovpycas 
€K€LPr)'i OeacrdfjLevov dv riva koI to d(f)eX€<i Kal 
dirXacTTOV elirelv 

<^ev Tolai yevvaloicriv co? drrav koXov. 

LXXIV. OuTw he TrapaTrXevaa^ eV A/i(f)i- 
TToXew? CKelOev et? MLTvXyjvrjv iirepaiovTo, jSouXo- 
pL€vo^ TTjV KopvTjXlav dvaXa^elv koI tov viov. 
eVel he -rrpoaeax^ rfj vrjaw kut aljiaXov, kTre/x- 
•^ev eh ttoXlv dyyeXov, ovx *>? V Kopvy]X[a irpocr- 
ehoKa roh vpo^ X^P''^ d'TrayyeXXop,evoL<; Kal 
ypa(f)OiJ.evoi<i, iXiri^ovaa tov TroXe/xov KCKpL/xevov 
nredl Auppdxtov eVt Xolttov epyov elvat IIo/u,7n]iq-> 
2 Tfjv Katcra/509 hico^iv. iv tovtoi<; ovaav avTrjv 
KaraXapcov 6 dyye\o<i daTrdcraaOac /xev ovx ^'^^- 
fietve, rd he TrXelaTa koI pueyi-crTa TOiv KaKwv roi? 
hdKpvcn fjbdXXov ?) tj} cficovfi (f)pdaa'i cnrevhetv 
eKeXevaev, el /3ovXeTai ttw? Hop-Trypov Ihelv eVt 
yeco? /iia? Kal dXXoTpca^. i) he dKovaaaa irpo- 
')]KaTo fiev avTTjV x^/^^^^ '^'^^^ iroXvv XP^'^^'^ 
€Kcf)p(ov Kal dvavho'i execTO, /ioXt? he ttw? efxc^pwv 

308 



POMPEY, Lxxiii. 6-Lxxiv. 2 

and Favonius), and set sail ; and shortly after, seeing 
Deiotarus the king hurrying out from shore, they 
took him on board also. Now, when it was time for 
supper and the master of the ship had made such 
provision for them as he could, Favonius, seeing that 
Pompey, for lack of servants, was beginning to take 
off his own shoes, ran to him and took off his shoes 
for him, and helped him to anoint himself. And 
from that time on he continued to give Pompey such 
ministry and service as slaves give their masters, even 
down to the washing of his feet and the preparation 
of his meals, so that any one who beheld the cour- 
tesy and the unfeigned simplicity of that service 
might have exclaimed : 

"Ah, yes ! to generous souls how noble every task !"i 

LXXIV. And so, after coasting along towards 
Amphipolis, he crossed over to Mitylene, desiring to 
take on board Cornelia and his son. And when he 
had reached the shore of the island, he sent a 
messenger to the city, not such a one as Cornelia 
was expecting in view of the joyful messages and 
letters she had received, for she was hoping that the 
war was ended at Dyrrachium, and that the only 
task left for Pompey was the pursuit of Caesar. 
The messenger, finding her in this mood, could not 
bring himself to salute her, but indicated to her the 
most and greatest of her misfortunes by his tears 
rather than by his speech, and merely bade her 
hasten if she had any wish to see Pompey with one 
ship only, and that not his own. When she heard 
this, she cast herself upon the ground and lay there 
a long time bereft of sense and speech. At last, 

* The verse is assigned to Euripides in Morals, p. 85a 
(Nauck, Trag. Grace. Fray*, p. 671). 

309 
VOL. V L 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

j€vofM€V7] KoX avvvorj(ja(Ta rov Kaipov ovk ovra 
6p)]i'o)v Kol haKpvoiv, e^eSpafie Sia t?}? 7ro\e&)9 
3 iirl OdXarrav. airavTr^aavro'i Se rov UofXTriyiov \ 

Kal Se^a/xevov Tai<i ayKdXai<; avrrjv vTrepenro- 
ixivt)v Kal irepiTTiTrTovaav, " 'Oput ae," elirev, 
" dvep, ov T/}? aP]<; TU)(r]<i epyov, dWd rrj'i i/xr]<;, 659 
Trpoaeppifji/Mevov evl aKacpec top irpo rwv Kop- 
vr]\la<; yd/xcov TrevTaKocriai^ vaval ravTrjv irepi- 
irXevcravra rrjv OdXaaaav. tl fi y\d€<; Ihelv koI 
OVK diTeK.nTe'i rw ^apel Saifiovi rrjv Kal ae Svarv- 
^ta? dvanXrjaaaav Toaavrrji;; to? evTvy^rj'^ /lev av 
rjiJbriv <yvvr) irpo tov UottXiov ev IldpOoi<; uKOvaai 
Tov irapdeviov dvSpa Keip-evov diroOavovaa, aoa- 
(f}p(ov ^e Kal jJieT eKelvov, wairep oipp,i](Ta, rov 
ep.avTr)<i irpoepLevrj ^iov iaoi^6p.r)v S' dpa Kal 
\Jop,7rr]'ia> Mdyvfo (Tvp,(f)opd <yeveaOai." 

LXXV, Tavra elirelv ttju KopvrjXcav Xeyovcri, 
rov Se HopiTn'fiov diToxpLvaaBar " M/av dpa, 
K.oppj]XLa, Tvxtjv 'pSei'i Trjv d/neivova, r) Kal ae 
tcrci}<i i^i^Trdrrjaev, on fioi ')(^p6vov irXelova tov 
avvyOovi Trape/neivev. dXXd Kal ravra Set ^e- 
peiv yevofMevovi dv6poo7rov<;, Kal TJj'i ti;^?;? en 
"jreipareov. ov yap dveXirtarov e'/c rovrayv dva- 
XajBeiv €Kelva tov i^ eKeivcov iv rovToa yevo- 
fievov." 

2 'H p,€v ovv yvvi) p,€T€7T€p.TreT0 -^pi^paTa Kal 
depdiTovTa'; €k TroXew?* tcjv 8e M.tTvXT]vai.(ov 
TOV Ylop^Tniiov d(J7r<icrap.6vo)v Kai, irapaKaXovvTOiV 
elcreXdtlv et? ttjv ttoXlv, ovk i^OeXricrev, dXXd 
KuKeivovi eKeXevae tw KpaTovvTi ireidecrOat Kal 
Oappelv evyvMfxova yap eli'ai Kaiaapa Kal 

3 y^pi^arov. avro<; Be 7r/90? KpaTiTnrov TpaTrop.evo'i 
TOV (f)iX6ao4>ov {KaT€j3v yap eK t?}? TroXeco'i 

310 



POMPEY, LXXIV. 2-LXXV. 



o 



however^ and with difficulty, she regained her senses, 
and perceiving that the occasion was not one for 
tears and lamentations, she ran out through the city 
to the sea. Pompey met her and caught her in his 
arms as she tottered and was falling. " I see thee," 
she cried, " husband, not by thy fortune, but by 
mine, reduced to one small vessel, thou who before 
thy marriage with Cornelia didst sail this sea with 
five hundred ships. Why hast thou come to see me, 
and why didst thou not leave to her cruel destiny 
one who has infected thee also with an evil fortune 
so great ? What a happy woman I had been if I had 
died before hearing that Publius, whose vii-gin bride 
I was, was slain among the Parthians ! And how 
wise if, even after his death, as I essayed to do, I 
had put an end to my own life ! But I was spared, 
it seems, to bring ruin also upon Pompey the Great." 

LXXV. So spake Cornelia, as we are told, and 
Pompey answered, saying : " It is true, Cornelia, 
thou hast known but one fortune to be mine, the 
better one, and this has perhaps deceived thee too, 
as well as me, in that it remained with me lonffer 
than is customary. But this reverse also we must 
bear, since we are mortals, and we must still put 
fortune to the test. For I can have some hope of 
rising again from this low estate to my former high 
estate, since I fell from that to this." 

His wife, accordingly, sent for her goods and 
servants from the city; and though the Mitylenaeans 
gave Pompey a welcome and invited him to enter 
their city, he would not consent to do so, but bade 
them also to submit to the conqueror, and to be of 
good heart, for Caesar was humane and merciful. 
He himself, however, turning to Cratippus the 
philosopher, who had come down from the city to 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

oy\r6[Jbevo<i avTov), i/jLe/nylraTO kuI crvvhirjiroprjcre 
^pa')(ea irepl tt)? Trpovoia'i, viroKaTaKKivop-evov rov 
KpaTLTTTTov Kul TTapdjovTo^ avTov eVi Ta<? ap-ei- 
vova^ e\7riha<i, o7r(o<i p,r] Xvn-qpo^ p.-qhe aKaipo<i 
4 avTiXeycov ecr], iirel to p.ev ipeaOai rov Ilo/x,- 
irrjiov rjv virep tt}? 7rpovola<;, rov S" airoi^aiveadat, 
on TOt9 Trpdyp.acnv yjSr) p,ovap')(jia<i eBei Sta ttjv 
KaKOTToXiTeiav epeadai ^e " Hco^, m YIop-Trr'fie, 
Kol rlvi T€Kp,7]pLa) 7rei(T0(i)p,€V otl ^eXxLOv av av 
TTj ruxp i^alcrapo^ ey^^pi^au) Kparrjaa^; ; " dXXd 
ravra fiev iareov oicrirep €)(ei, rd rwv deoiv. 

LXXVI. ^ KvaXajBoov he ttjv yvvaiKa kuI rov<i 
(f)l,Xov<; eKopjl^ero, 7Tpo(Tlcr')((i}iJ 6p/u.oi<; dvayKaioK; 
vSoyp Tj dyopdv €')(ovaiv. et9 he ttoXlv elarfkOe 
TTpdiTrjv ^ArrdXeiav t?}? TIap.(f)vXia<;. evTavOa Be 
avTO) KoX rpn]pei<; rtve<; dTrrjvTijaav Ik K.iXi.KLa<; 
Kol arpariunai avveXejovTO koX rcov avyKXrjTC- 

2 Ktov TrdXcv k^y']KOvra rrepl avrov i/crav. ukovcov 
8e Kal TO vavTLKov eTi avveaTdvai, koL KuTcova 
TToXXov^i aTpaTicoTa<; dveiXtjcpoTU irepaiovv el<i 
Ai0vr)v, whvpeTo 7rpo<; tov<; (f)lXov<;, KaTa/jLep,(f)6- 
/jLevo'i eavTov eK^iaadevTa tw ire^at avp.^aXelv, 
TTJ he KpeLTTOVi dBrfpiTca Bvvdp,€i TT/ao? p,J]hev 
aTToypyjcraaOai p,7]Se irepiopp^La'ai to vuvtikov, 
OTTOV Kaxd 'yrjv uc^aXel'^ ev6v<i dv ei^ev avTLiraXov 
i/c 6aXdTTr]ii rrapeaTwaav dXKi]v Kal hvvapnv 

3 ToaavTrjv. ovhev yap dfidpTr]p,a Ilop,7ryjtov fxel^ov 
ovBe SeivoTepov a-TpuTi'j'yrjp.a Kaiaapof rj to t?;v 



312 



POMPEY, Lxxv. 3-Lxxvi. 3 

see him, complained and argued briefly with him 
about Providence, Cratippus yielding somewhat to 
his reasoning and trying to lead him on to better 
hopes, that he might not give him pain by arguing 
against him at such a time. For when Pompey 
raised questions about Providence, Cratippus might 
have answered that the state now required a 
monarchy because it was so badly administered ; and 
he might have asked Pompey : " How, O Pompey, 
and by what evidence, can we be persuaded that 
thou wouldst have made a better use of fortune 
than Caesar, hadst thou got the mastery ? " But 
this matter of the divine ordering of events must be 
left without further discussion.^ 

LXXVI. After taking on board his wife and his 
friends, Pompey went on his way, putting in at 
harbours only when he was compelled to get food or 
water there. The first city that he entered was 
Attaleia in Pamphylia ; there some triremes from 
Cilicia met him, soldiers were assembled for him, and 
he was surrounded again by senators, sixty of them. 
On hearing, too, that his fleet still held together, 
and that Cato had taken many soldiers aboard and 
was crossing the sea to Africa, he lamented to his 
friends, blaming himself for having been forced to 
do battle with his land forces, while he made no use 
of his navy, which was indisputably superior, and 
had not even stationed it at a point where, if 
defeated on land, he might have had this powerful 
force close at hand by sea to make him a match for 
his enemy. And, in truth, Pompey made no greater 
mistake, and Caesar showed no abler generalship, 

^ Sintenis* follows Amyot in including this last sentence 
with the words -supposed to be spoken by Cratippus : " But 
these matters must he left to the will of the gods." 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

/jidxv^ ovTco fiaKpav atTocnrdaaaOaL rrj^ vavTCKi]<; 
jSoTjOela^. ou /u,i]v dXV eV tmv Trapovrcov Kpiveiv 
TL KoX irpdrreiv dvajKa^ofievo'i, eVt ra? 7roA,et? 
TrepieTre/uLTre' ra^ S' avTO<i TTepnrXecov jjrei %/3>;- 
fjuara koI vav'i eTrXypov. Trjv S' o^vrrjTa rov 
TToXefiLOV KaX to rd')(^o<; SeSoiKux;, jxr) irpoavapirdar) 
T?)? TT aparr Kevrj<; avTov eireXOoov, eaKoirei Kara- 

4 cf)V'yr]V iirl tw irapovri kul dvaxd)prjcnv. i7rap)(^ia 
fiev ovv ov8e/nia (f)v^i/jio<; ecpaivejo jBovXeuo/jLevoi^ 
avToc<i, TMV he /SaaiXeiwv avro^i [xev dire^uLve 
r?]v TidpOcov iKavwrdTijv ovaav ev re tw irapovri 
Se^aaOai KaX irepi^aXeiv a(f)d<i dadev€c<i ovtu^, 
avOl'i T€ pwaai koI TrpoTre/nylraL /xerd TrXetcrTr^? 

5 8vvdfX€0)<;' TMv S' dXXo^v oi /xev et? Ai/3u>]v val 
'lo/Sat" erpeiTov rrjv yvco/XTji', ®eo^dvei he ro) 
Aea/Slo) fxavLKov ehoKei rpcoyv ri/xepcbv ttXovv 
diTexovaav A'i'yv'mov aTToXiTrovra koI llroXe- 
fxalov, rjXiKiav fiev dvTiTTaiha, ^tXta<> he Koi y^d- 
piT09 nra-rpwa^ virdypewv, TldpOoi^; vTro^aXelv 6w 
eavTov, d'TTL(nordT(p jevei, Kal Pw/xaiw fiev dvhp\ 
K'qhecnfj 'yevofievw rd hevrepa Xeyovra Trpcbrov 
elvai TMV dXXwv firj deXeiv /xr]he ireipdaOai t?}? 

6 eKeivov fieTpioTTjTCi, 'ApadKi]v he Troieladac kv- 
piov eavTov rov /nijhe K^pdaaov hvvy]0evTa ^coi/to?* 
Kal yvvatKa veav oI'kov tov 'S.Krjirtwvo'; ei<i /3ap- 
^dpov<i Ko/j,L^€iv v^pei Kal (iKoXaaia rrjv e^nvaiav 
fxeTpovvTa'i, rj, kuv fxi] TrdOrj, ho^rj he iraOelv, 

^ His father was Ptolemy Auletes, mentioned in chapter 
xlix. 5. He had been restored to his throne in 55 B.C. 
through Ponipey's influence. The son, Ptolemy Dionj-sius, 

3M 



POMPEY, Lxxvi. 3-6 

than in removing the battle so far from naval 
assistance. However, since he was compelled to 
decide and act as best he could under the circum- 
stances, he sent messengers round to the cities ; to 
some also he sailed about in person, asking for 
money and manning ships. But fearing the quick- 
ness and speed of his enemy, who might come upon 
him and seize him before lie was prepared, he began 
to look about for a temporary refuge and retreat. 
Accordingly, as he deliberated with his followers, 
there appeared to be no province to which they 
could safely fly, and as for the kingdoms, he himself 
expressed the opinion that the Parthian was best 
able for the present to receive and protect them in 
their weak condition, and later on to strengthen 
them and send them forth with a large force ; of the 
rest, some turned their thoughts to Africa and Juba. 
But Theophanes the Lesbian thought it a crazy 
thing for Pomjiey to decide against Egypt, which 
was only three days' sail away, and Ptolemy, who 
was a mere youth and indebted to Pompey for 
friendship and kindness shown his father,^ and put 
himself in the power of Parthians, a most treacherous 
race ; to refuse to take the second place under a 
Roman who had been connected with him by 
marriage, and to be second to none other, nay, to 
refuse even to make trial of that Roman's moder- 
ation, but instead to make Arsaces his lord and 
master, a thing wliich even Crassus could not be 
made to do while he lived ; and to carry a young 
wife, of the family of Scipio, among Barbarians 
who measure their power by their insolence and 
licentiousness, where, even if she suffer no harm, but 

now fifteen years of age, had been left joint ruler of Egypt 
with his sister, Cleopatra. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

heivov icTTLv eVl toI<; Troiijaai Svva/jievoi<; yevo- 
/nevT], rovTO /xovov, o)? (paaiv, aTrerpe-^e rrj<; iirl 
Tov FjV(f)pdTi]V 68ov Ho/nTT'^iov el 87] Ti? eVt Hofi- 
Trrjiou \oji(Tfxo<;, aX)C ov^^l Zalfxaiv eKeivrjv v(f)7)- 
yeiTo TTjv oBov. 

LXXVII. 'fl? 6' ovv evLKa (fyevyetv et? rrjv 
AtyvTTTov, nva)(6e\'i diro K.V7rpov ^eXevKiSi rpi- 
'>]p€C p.€rd T?}? yvvaiKO'i (tmv S ctWcov 01 p,ev ev 
paKpai<; opLOiw; vavcnv, ol oe ev oXxaaiv dp.a 
(Tvp,7rape7T\eoi'), rb p.ev TreXayo? Sieirepaaev da- 
(^aX&J9, TTvOopevo'i he rov JlToXepalov ev TIt]- 
XovaUp KaOtjoOai, puera arparid<i, TroXepovira 
7rpo<; rrjv d8e\<j)r]v, etcel Kareaye, TrpoTrepyfra^ rbv 

2 (f)pdaovra rw /SaatXel fcal herjcropievov. puev 
ovv riToXe/xaZo? r^v KopiSfj veo<;- he iravra 
hieiTcov ra irpdypara \lo9eLvo^ rjOpoicre ^ovXrjv 
TOiV hwarMTarcov eSvvavro he peyiaTOV ov<; 
eKelvo<i e^ovXero- kuI \eyeiv eKeXevaev rjv e')(et 
yvcop^rjv eKaaTo<;. rjv ovv heivov -rrepl YlopiTTtjiov 
M^dyvov ^ovXeveadai Tlodeivov rov evvov)(ov Kal 
f^eohoTov TOV Xtot", eVi piaOS) prjropiKMV Xoywv 
hthda-KoKov dveiXrippevov, Kal tov Klyvimoi' 
W.^iWav Kopv(l>ai6raTOi yap yaav ev Karevva- 
aral'i kuI riOrjvol'i Tot<; dWoc'i ovtoi avp^ovXoi. 

3 fcal TOiouTov hiKaaT7]pLov yp-T](f)ov Hopir/fiO'^ err' 
dyKvpwv TTpoaco t?)? y(i)pa<; diToaaXevwv irepte- 
pievev, ov K.alcyapt au)rT}pia<i %ay9tp ovk rjv d^iov 
6(j)eL\eiv. 

Tmv pev ovv dXXaiv roaovrov al yvwp,ai Sie- 
ariiaav oaov 01 pev dveXavveiv eKeXevov, 01 he 

4 KaXelv Kal he'X^eaOai rov dvhpa' ('■')e6horos he 
heiv6r'>]ra Xoyov Kal prjropeiav e7nheiKvvp,evo<; 



316 



POMPEY, Lxxvi. 6-Lxxvii. 4 

is only thought to have suffered harm, her fate is a 
terrible one, since she has come into the power of 
those who are able to do her harm. This con- 
sideration alone, as we are told, diverted Pompey 
from journeying to the Euphrates, if indeed it was 
longer any calculation of Pompey's, and not rather 
an evil genius, that was guiding him on this last 
journey. 

LXXVII. So when it was decided that he should 
fly to Egypt, he set sail from Cyprus on a Seleucian 
trireme with his wife (of t!ie rest, some sailed along 
with him in ships of war like his own, and others in 
mercliant vessels), and crossed the sea in safety ; but 
on learning that Ptolemy was posted at Pelusium 
with an army, making war upon his sister, he put in 
there, and sent on a messenger to announce his 
arrival to the king and to ask his aid. Now, Ptolemy 
was quite young; but Potheinus, who managed all his 
affairs, assembled a council of the most influential men 
(and those were most influential whom he wished to 
be so), and bade each one give his opinion. It was 
certainly a dreadful thing that the fate of Pompey the 
Great was to be decided by Potheinus the eunuch, 
and Theodotus of Chios, who was a hired teacher of 
rhetoric, and Achillas the Egyptian ; for these were 
the chief counsellors of the king among the 
chamberlains and tutors also gathered there. And 
it was such a tribunal's verdict which Pompey, 
tossing at anchor some distance off the shore, was 
waiting for, a man who would not deign to be under 
obligations to Caesar for his life. 

The opinions of the other counsellors were so far 
divergent that some advised to drive Pompey away, 
and others to invite him in and receive him. But 
Theodotus, making a display of his powerful speech 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ovSerepov d7r6(f)r)v€V da(f)aX€<i, aXXa Se^a/xevov^ 
fxev e^eiv Kalaapa iroXeixiov koI Beairorriv Uofi- 
Tnjiov, (iTTcocrafMevov^; 8e Koi Tioixrrrjtrp rrjs €k^oX7]<; 
VTraiTLOv^; eaeaOai Kal YLaicrapt Tr}<i hioo^ewi' 
KpdriaTov ovv elvai fxeTaTrep.yjrafjievov'i avekelv 
TOP avBpa' Kol yap eKeivw ')(^apieiadai Kai rovrov 
ov (po^ijaeaOai. TrpocreTrelrre Be Siap-eiSidaa^, W9 
(f)aaiv, oTt v€Kpo<; ov Sd/cvei. 

LXXVIII. TauTa Kvpd)aavTe<; eir A^iX,X.a 
TTOLOvvrat rrjv Trpd^iv. 6 he 'ZeiTTifiiov rua 
irdXat, yeyovoTa Uo/jiTrrjcov Ta^iap)(ov irapaXa- 
^(i)v, Kal —dX^iov erepov eKaTOVTdp')(r]v Kal Tpei<i 
Tj T€Trapa<i VTrrjpeTw;, dvi'^yOr] irpo^ ttjv Vlo/J.'Trt]tov 
vavv. erv)(^ov he TrdvTe^ et? avrrjv ol BoKCfidoraToi 
T(t)v (TUfMTrXeovTCov e/j,l3e/3i]K6Te^, otto)? elhelev to 

2 irpaTToixevov. cb? ovv elhov ov ^acriXiKtjv ovhe 
XapLTrpdv ovhe rat^ %eo<^dvov<; eXTrlcriv ofxoiav 
v'TToho-)(^i]v, dXX eirl fx,id<i dXidho<; 7Tpo(T7rXeovra<; 
oXiyovi dvdpu)TTOV<;, virelhovTO Tr]V oXcycopiav Kal 
Tw UofiTnjLW Traprjvovv eh 7reXayo<; dvaKpoveaOai 
rrjv vavv, eco? e^(o ^eXov^ elaiv. ev tovto) he 
TreXa^ovarj'i tt}? dXidho<i (pOdaas 6 ^e7rT[fjbio<i 
i^avearrj Kal 'Vco/xaiarl top YlopbTTrjlov avroKpd- 

3 ropa Trpoarjyopeucrev. 6 he 'A-^iXXd<; dairaad- 
fievo'i avTov EiXXr]viaTl irapeKdXei [xereXOelv ei? 
Tr]v dXidha' Tevayo<i yap elvai iroXv, Kal jSdOo'i 
ovK h')(eiv TrXoifxov rpcrjpei rijv OdXarrav VTro^jrafi- 
fjLOV ouaav. dfia he Kal vav<; rive^; ewpSwro toov 
^aacXiKcbv •jrXrjpov/jievai, Kal tov alyiaXov oTrXlrai 
Karel^ov, war dcpVKra Kal ixejal^aXXofJievoL^ ecpai- 
3x8 



POMPEY, Lxxvii. 4-LXXVI11. 3 

and rhetorical art, set forth that neither course was 
safe for them, but that if they received Pompey, 
they would have Caesar for an enemy and Pompey 
for a master ; while if they rejected him, Pompey 
would blame them for casting him off, and Caesar 
for making him continue his pursuit ; the best 
course, therefore, was to send for the man and put 
him to death, for by so doing they would gratify 
Caesar and have nothing to fear from Pompey. To 
this he smilingly added, we are told, " A dead man 
does not bite." 

LXXVIII. Having determined upon this plan, 
they entrusted the execution of it to Achillas. So 
he took with him a certain Septimius, who had once 
been a tribune of Pompey's, and Salvius besides, a 
centurion, with three or four servants, and put out 
towards the ship of Pompey. Now, all the most 
distinguished of Pompey's fellow-voyagers had come 
aboard of her to see what was going on. Accord- 
ingly, when they saw a reception that was not royal, 
nor splendid, nor in accordance with the hojies of 
Theophanes, but a few men sailing up in a single 
fishing-boat, they viewed this lack of respect with 
suspicion, and advised Pompey to have his ship 
rowed back into the open sea, while they were 
beyond reach of missiles. But meanwhile the boat 
drew near, and first Septimius rose up and addressed 
Pompey in the Roman tongue as Imperator. Tlien 
Achillas saluted him in Greek, and invited him to 
come aboard the boat, telling him that the shallows 
were extensive, and that the sea, which had a sandy 
bottom, was not dee]) enough to float a trireme. At 
the same time some of the royal ships were seen to 
be taking their crews aboard, and men-at-arms were 
occupying the shoi-e, so that there seemed to be no 

3^9 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

VCTO, KoX TTpOcijV TO 8l86vai TOi? (f)ovevai Trjv 
4 aTTLariav avTrjV t?}? aSt/cta? aTroXoyiav. dcrTracrd- 
IJievo<i ovv rrjv K.opvrj\iav TrpoaTToOpijvovcrav avrov 661 
TO reXo^, KoX Suo €KaTovTdp^a<; irpoe/x^y^vai «e- 
Xeucra? Kal to)v direXevdepcov eva ^iXLinrov koX 
depaTTovra 'zkvOtjv 6vo/xa, he^Lov[JbevMv avrov ijSr) 
TMv irepl Tov ^ A^iWdv €k tt}? d\idBo<;, fiera- 
aTpa(f)el<; Trpo? rrjv yvvaiKa Kal tov v'lov elire 

"0(JTi<i he TTpo? Tvpavvov ifiTTopeveTai, 
K6LV0V Vrt SovXo'i, K&v eXevdepo^; /xoXrj. 

LXXIX. TavTa 8' ea')(^aTa irpo^ tov^ eavTov 
(f)0€y^d/x€vo^ ive^rj' Kal avxvou SiacrTT]fj.aTO<; 6vto<; 
eVi rrjv yfjv diro t?}? TpLijpovi, u)ii ovSel^ rrapd tmv 
avfiTrXeovTcov iyiveTo X6yo<i (f)(XdvOpo)Tro<; 7r^o<? 
avTov, dTTo^Xii^a^ el<i tov SeTTTifiiov, " Ov S^ 
TTov tre," eliTev, " iyo) yeyovoTa (TuarpaTiwTrjv 

2 ifjiov dfi<f)iyvo(i) ; KaKelvo'i eVe'z'ei'cre ttj Ke(f)aXjj 
fiovov, ovSev 7rpocT€L7ra>v ovSe (f)tXo(f)povr]0€U. ttoX- 
Xyj<i ovv TrdXiv ovaij'i crLwnrj'^ a Tlo/jL7T7]io<i e')(0)v 
ev j3i^XiO) fjLLKpu) yeypa/xfievov vir avTov Xoyov 

FiXXijviKov, (p irapecTKevaaro ')(^pPj(T6ai Trpo^; tov 

3 YlToXe/jLaiov, dveylvcocrKev. w? Se ttj yfj irpoa- 
eTreXa^ov, 77 fi^v KopvqXia ficTa tmv (^lXwv e« t?}? 
rpirfpov^ 7T€pi7radri<; ovcra ro fieXXov dTrea-Koirelro, 
Kal dappelv r]p)^€T0 ttoXXov^; opcoaa tt/oo? t}]v 
diro/Saaiv twv ^aaiXcKcov olov IttI TifMTJ Kal Be^ico- 
(T€i (Tvvep')(^ofievov<i. ev tovtco he tov YiopbTnqLov 



320 



POMPEY, Lxxvni. 3-Lxxix. 3 

escape even if they chang-ed their minds ; and 
besides, this very lack of confidence might give the 
murderers an excuse for their crime. Accordingly, 
after embracing Cornelia, who was bewailing his 
approaching death, he ordered two centurions to go 
into the boat before him, besides Philip, one of his 
freedmen, and a servant named Scythes, and while 
Achillas was already stretching out his hand to him 
from the boat, turned towards his wife and son and 
repeated the verses of Sophocles : — 

Whatever man unto a tyrant takes his way, 
His slave he is, even though a freeman when he 
goes.i 

LXXIX. After these last words to his friends, he 
went into the boat. And since it was a long- 
distance from the trireme to the land, and none of 
his companions in the boat had any friendly word 
for him, turning his eyes upon Septimius he said : 
" Surely I am not mistaken, and you are an old 
comrade of mine ! " Septimius nodded merely, 
without saying anything to him or showing any 
friendliness. So then, as there was profound silence 
again, Pompey took a little roll containing a speech 
written by him in Greek, which he had prepared for 
his use in addressing Ptolemy, and began to read 
in it. Then, as they drew near the shore, Cornelia, 
together with his friends, stood on the trireme 
watching with great anxiety for the outcome, and 
began to take heart when she saw many of the 
king's people assembling at the landing as if to give 
him an honourable welcome. But at this point, 

* Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag.^ p. 316. The recitation of 
these verses is a feature common also to the accounts of the 
tragedy in Appian [BdL. Civ. ii. 84) and Dio Cassias (xlii. 4). 

321 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

T^9 TOV ^iKiTTTTOV \a/Ji^av6/il€V0V X^tpO'i, OTTO)? 

pdov i^avaaTaiT], zeTTTc/jLLO^ oirLaOev ru> ^L(f)ei Sie- 
Xavvei TrpSiTO<i, elra SaX./3i09 /xer eKelvov, elra 
4 'A%iXXa9 icnrdcravTO ra? fia)(^a[pa<i. 6 8e rat? 
')(epa\v afi(f}OTepai<i rr)v Ti'i^evvov e(f)e\Kvad/jLevo<i 
Kara tov rrpoaooTTOV, fMrjBev elirayv dpd^iov eavrov 
firjSe iToi)]cras, dWa aT6vd^a<i /jiovor, eveKaprepifae 
ral'i Tr\i'i'yai<i, €^7]K0VTa jxev kvo<; Siovra /9e/3t(u/cft)s" 
err], fiid 6' varepov 7]/xepa rrj'i yevedXiov reXev- 
Trjaa^ rov ^c'ov. 

LXXX. O/ S' aTTo TMV vewv &)? eOedaavro rov 
(f)6voi', oliMwyi-jV e^uKovcrrov axpt' Trj'i 7?}9 e/^xe- 
avTe<; €(f)vyov, d.pdiievoi ra<i djKvpaii Kara ra^o?. 
Kot TTvev/ua Xapurpov e^oy]6ei ireXwyloi^i V7re/cde- 
ovaiv, ware /3ovXofu,evov<; StcoKeLv diroTpaTrecrOaL 
i-ov<; Al'yuTrTiov'i. tov 8e Tlo/j.7r7]iov rrjv fiev 
Ke(f)aX7]v dTTOTe/j-vovai, to Be dXXo aco/jLa jvfivov 
CK^aXovTef; diro t*}? dXtdho<; T0t9 BeofievoL<; roiov- 

2 TOV OedfjbaTO^ dTreXiTrov. Trapefietve 8e avrw 
<t'iXt7r7ro9, eo)? iyevovTo /xeaTol tt}? oyj/ew'i' elra 
TvepiXovaa'i rfj daXdaar] to aMfia Kol '^ircoviw 
Ttvl T(t)v eavrov 7re piareiXa<;, dXXo Be ovBev e^^cov, 
dXXd TrepicTKOTrMv rov alyiaXov evpe fxiKpd^ uXid- 
009 Xeiyjrava, iraXacd fiev, dpKovvra he veKpai 
yvfivw) Kol ovBe 6X(p irvpKaldv dvayKuiav irapa- 

3 a')(e.lv. ravra avyKO/jil^ovTO<i avrov Kal ctvvtl- 
devTO<; eiriard'^ di'r]p 'Vcop-alci ?;S?7 yepcov, rd<; Be 
7rp(iira<i arpareiaii en veo^ IJofiTrrjiw avvearparev- 
puevo^, " Tt9 MV, & di'dpcoire," e(p7], " Sdrrreiv 
Biavof) Mdyvov Tlop,7r7iLov; " eKelvov Be (f)/](7avro<; 
ci)9 d7reXev0epo<;, " 'AA.X' ov fiorcp aoL,'' e<pi], " rov- 
TO TO icaXbv virdp^er Kufie Be waTrep evpi]p,aTO^ 



322 



POMPEY, Lxxix. 3-Lxxx. 3 

while Pompey was clasping the hand of Philip that 
he might rise to his feet more easily, Septimius, 
from behind, ran him through the body with his 
sword, then Salvias next, and then Achillas, drew 
their daggers and stabbed him.^ And Pompey, 
drawing his toga down over his face with both hands, 
without an act or a word that was unworthy of 
himself, but with a groan merely, submitted to their 
blows, being sixty years of age less one, and ending 
his life only one day after his birth-day. 

LXXX. When the people on the ships beheld the 
murder, they uttered a wailing cry that could be 
heard as far as the shore, and weighing anchor quickly, 
took to flight. And a strong wind came to their aid 
as they ran out to sea, so that the Egyptians, though 
desirous of pursuing, turned back. But they cut off 
Pompey's head, and threw the rest of his body un- 
clothed out of the boat, and left it for those who 
craved so pitiful a sight. Philip, however, stayed 
by the body, until such had taken their fill of gazing ; 
then he washed it in sea-water, wrapped it in a tunic 
of his own, and since he had no other supply, sought 
along the coast until he found the remnants of a 
small fishing-boat, old stuff", indeed, but sufficient to 
furnish a funeral pyre that would answer for an un- 
clothed corpse, and that too not entire. As he was 
gathering the wood and building the pyre, there 
came up a Roman who was now an old man, but 
who in his youth had served his first campaigns with 
Pompey, and said : " Who art thou, my man, that 
thinkest to give burial rites to Pompey the Great? " 
And when Philip said that he was his freedman, the 
man said : " But thou shalt not have this honour all 
to thyself; let me too share in a pious privilege thus 

* Il)i ab Achilla et Septimio interficitur (Caesar, Bell. Civ. 
iii. 104). 

323 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

evae^ov^ he^ai Koivoivov, co? jxt] Kara iravra /^e/i- 
(f)o)/jiac rrjv uTTO^evwaLi', avrX ttoWmv aviapoiv 
TovTO jovv €vpd/x€iw<i, a-yjraaOai koX irepiaTeTKai 
Tal<i e/jLat<; %f/0O"t tov ixeyoarov avTO/cpdropa 'Pm- 

4 fialcov." ovTQ) fxev eKrjhevero no/x7r/;i'o9. i-fi 8' 
iiarepaia Aeu/cto? AeyrXo? ovk etSco? ra Treirpa^y- 
fxeva, irXeoiv diro K.V7rpov koI rrapd •ytjv ko/jll^6- 
jxevo^;, 0)9 elhe ve/cpov irupav Kol Trapecrrcora tov 
^lXlttttov, ovttq) KaOopcofxevof;' " Tt? dpa," €<f)r), 
" TO Tr€7rpo)p€vov ivrauOa reXeaa^ dvaTreTravTai" 
KUi jJLiKpov SiaXiTTcop KOL (TTevd^a<i, " Ta^a Be," 
elire, " av, WofiTrrfie ^Adyve." Koi fxerd fiiKpov 
dirofBd^ Koi (TvWr](f)Oel<i direOave. 

5 ToOto TlopbTTii'Lov reXo?. ov iroWw he vcrrepov 662 
K^alaap eXOoov et? AtyvTTTOv dyov<i roaovrov 
KaraTTeirXy^a p^evrjv tov jxev Trpocr^epovTa Trjv Ke- 
(f)a\r}V ft)? TTaXa/Jivatov direcTTpdcf)}], Trjv Se a(j)pa- 
ylSa TOV Ilofi7rr)iov Se^dp.evo'i eSaKpvcrev r]v 8e 
<y\v(f)7] \e(av ^i(pr]pr]<i. 'A^iXXai" Be kol HoOeivov 
aTreacpa^ev avTO'i Be 6 ^aaiXev^ l^'^XV Xeicpdel^ 

6 Trepl TOV iroTa/xov i^ipavlaOy]. ^eoBorov Be tov 
ao(f}iaTr)v rj fiev eK Kaiaapo^i BIki^ TraprjXde' 
(puycov yap AtyuTTTOv eTrXavciTO TUTreivd irpdTToov 
Koi /xLaov/jLevo<i' B/3o0ro9 Be Map/co?, oTe K^aiaapa 
KTeLva<i eKpdTTjaev, e^evpatv avTOv ev ^Acrua Kal 
irdaav aiKtav ai,Kiadp,evo<i direKTeivev. tu Be 
Xeiyjrava tov YlofXTrrjtov K.opvt]Xta Be^ap,evr] ko- 
fjLtaOevTa, irepl tov ' AX^avbv eOyjKev. 



324 



I 



POMPEY, Lxxx. 3-6 

offered, that I may not altogether regret my sojourn 
in a foreign land, if in requital for many hardships I 
find this happiness at least, to touch with my hands 
and array for burial the greatest of Roman impera- 
tors." Such were the obsequies of Pompey. And 
on the following day Lucius Lentulus, as he came 
sailing from Cyprus and coasted along the shore not 
knowing what had happened, saw a funeral pyre and 
Philip standing beside it, and before he had been 
seen himself exclaimed : " Who, pray, rests here at 
the end of his allotted days ? " Then, after a slight 
pause and with a groan he said : " But perhaps it is 
thou, Pompey the Great ! " And after a little he 
went ashore, was seized, and put to death. 

This was the end of Pompey. But not long after- 
wards Caesar came to Egypt, and found it filled with 
this great deed of abomination. From the man who 
brought him Pompey's head he turned away with 
loathing, as from an assassin ; and on receiving Pom- 
pey's seal-ring, he burst into tears ; the device was a 
lion holding a sword in his paws. But Achillas and 
Potheinus he put to death. The king himself, more- 
over, was defeated in battle along the river, and dis- 
appeared. Theodotus the sophist, however, escaped 
the vengeance of Caesar ; for he fled out of Egypt 
and wandered about in wretchedness and hated of all 
men. But Marcus Brutus, after he had slain Caesar 
and come into power, discovered him in Asia, and 
put him to death with every possible torture. The 
remains of Pompey were taken to Cornelia, who gave 
them burial at his Alban villa. 



325 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



ArHSlAAOY KAI nOMnHIOY 2YrKPI2l2 

I. ^EKKei/jbivwv ovv rcov ^iwv i7rL8pd/u.o)/j,ev tw 
\6<y(p TttYeo)? ra Troiovvra ra? 8ia(popci<;, irap 
dWrjXa auvdjovre^. ean he Tavra- nrpwrov, on 
l\o/jL7r)]'io<i eK rod StKaiordrov Tpoirov iraprfK-Oev 
eU Suvufiiv Kol ho^av, avTO<i opfx^-jOeh d(f)' eavTOv 
Koi iroWa koI fiejdXa SvWa ryjv ^Ijokiav diro 
Twv Tvpdvvwv iXevOepouvTt avyKarepyaa-dpevo'i, 

2 'AyrjCTiXao'i 8e rrjv jSaaCKeiav eSo^e \a/3eiv ovre 
TO, Trpo? deou<; d/jLefi7rT0<i ovre rd 7rpo<i dv6 pdiirov^, 
Kpiva^ vodeLa<i AewTf^tSi/t-, ov v'lov avrou ^ dire- 
Bei^ev 6 dSe\(f)6<; yvrjaiov, rov hi '^prjafioi' Karei- 
pcovevcrdfievo'i tov rrepl Trj<i 'X^mXottjto'?. hemepov, 
on TiofJiiTi]lo<i SvXXav koL ^mvtu npwv hcereXeae 
Kol reOvi^KOTO^i eKrjhevae ^ta(7dfxei>o<; AeTTihov to 
aoifxa, Kol TO) Traihl ^auaTW rrjv avrou dv<ya- 
ripa avvwKLaev, 'AyrjaiXao^ he AvaavSpov i/c 
rrj^; TV')(pv(Tr]<i irpoc^daea)^ vTre^eppf^e kuI Kaav- 

3 ^pi(T€. Ka'iTOL XvWa'i fiev ovk iXuTTovcov ervxev 
rj HofiTrrjia) TvapeaX'^v, ' AyrjaiXaov he AvaavSpo'i 
Kol T?}9 l^irdprrj'i ^acnXea kol t?]^ 'EA-XaSo? 
(TTparrjiyov eTToirjae. rpirov he, at. -irepi ra ttoXi- 
TLKa TMV hcKaloiv 7rapal3daei<i llo/junfiw fiev hi' 
olKet6Tr)Ta<i eyevovTO- rd yap rrXelara Kacaapi 
Kal Xkyittlcovl avve^/jpapre Krjhearah ovcnv 

4 ' AyrjaiXao'i he ^^ohpiav fiev i(f> oh 'Adrjvaiov^ 
rihUrjaev dirodavelv ocfielXovra rw rov iratho'; 
epa>n ^apt^o/iei^o? e^/ipTracre, ^oi/Siha he ^ij/Saiovi 

1 avrov bracketed by Sinteuis^ 
326 



AGESILAUS AND POMPEY, i. 1-4 



COMPARISON OF AGESILAUS AND POMPEY 

I. Now that their Hves lie spread before us, let us 
briefly run over the points in which the two men 
differed, and bring these together side by side. 
They are as follows. In the first place, it was in the 
justest manner that Pompey came to fame and 
power, setting out on his career independently, and 
rendering many great services to Sulla when Sulla 
was freeing Italy from her tyrants ; Agesilaiis, on the 
contrary, appeared to get his kingdom by sinning 
against both gods and men, since he brought Leoty- 
chides under condemnation for bastardy, although 
his brother had recognised him as his legitimate son, 
and made light of the oracle concerning his lameness. 
In the second place, Pompey not only continued to 
hold Sulla in honour while he lived, but also after 
his death gave his body funeral obsequies in despite 
of Lepidus, and bestowed upon his son Faustus his 
own daughter in marriage ; whereas Agesilaiis cast 
out Lysander on the merest pretext, and heaped 
insult upon him. And yet Sulla got no less from 
Pompey than he gave him, while in the case of 
Agesilaiis, it was Lysander who made him king of 
Sparta and general of all Greece. And, thirdly, 
Pompey's transgressions of right and justice in his 
political life were due to his family connections, for 
he joined in most of the wi-ongdoings of Caesar and 
Scipio because they were his relations by marriage ; 
but Agesilaiis snatched Sphodrias from the death 
which hung over him for wronging the Athenians, 
merely to gratify the love of his son, and when Phoe- 
bidas treacherously broke the peace with Thebes, he 

327 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

7rapacnTovS?]cravTi, SrjXo<i r]v Bi avTO to aSiKrj/jLa 
7Tpo6vfjL(o<; ^oTjOoiV. KudoXov Se oaa 'FQ)/xa[ov<; 
Si alSa) TlofX7rj]Lo<; rj a'yvoiav alrlav eaxe /BXdyfraL, 
ravra du/xoo kclI (juXoveiKta AaKeSai/jLOvlov; 
^ Ay r](TiXao<i e/SXa-ylre rov Bolcotlov iKKauaa^; iroXe- 

fjLOV. 

II. Et 8e Kol TVXW Tiva, twv avhpoiv CKarepov 
T0t9 a(f)d\/jia(Ti irpoaoiareovy dve\TTLcno<i fiev r] 
UofiTrrjtov 'Pa)/iatot9, ^AyrjaiXao^; 8e AaKeBai- 
/xovlov^ dKOvovTa<i kol irpoethora^ ovk elaae (fivX- 
d^aaOuL Tr)v ^^Xr^v /BaaiXeiav. kol yap el fivpi- 
uKd r/Xiyx^V Aecorvx^^V^ aXXoTpio^; elvat koI 
vodo'i, OVK hv rjiTopiqa-av KypviroyvriSai yvi]at,ov 
KoX dpTiiroha rrj ^TrdpTrj ^acriXea Trapaax^^v, «' 
fit) St' ' AyijaiXaov eTrecT/coTT^cre ro) xPV^f^V ^^' 
aavSpo^. 

2 Olov fxevTOi rfj irepl tmv rpeaavTcov cnTopia 
irpo<Ty']yayev o ^ AyrjaiXao'i I'afxa /xeTO, ttjv ev 
AevKTpoi<; aTf%tav, KeXevaa^; tov<; v6p>ov<i iK€ivr)v 
rrjv rjfiepav KaOevSeiv, ov yeyovev aXXo aocpicr/xa 
ttoXltlkov, ovh' exop^v tl rov Ylop^-nr^tov irapa- 
•nXi'jaiov, dXXa rovvavriov oJS' oh avrof iridet 
v6p,0L<i oiero Selv ep^piveiv, to Svvaadai jxeya toU 
^iXoi9 ivSeLKVvp.evo<i. 6 Be ei9 dvdyKijV Karaard<i 
Tov XvaaL tov<{ v6pov<; eirl tm crwcrat rovi; ttoXl- 
Ttt*?, e^evpe rpoirov w prjTe eKelvovi ^Xdy{rov(Ti 

3 /AT^re 07r&)9 ov /SXd-sjrcoai XvO^'jaovrat. TiOepai Be 

328 



AGESILAUS AND POMPEY, i. 4-11. 3 

evidently made the crime itself a reason for zealously 
supporting him. In a word, whatever harm Pompey 
was accused of bringing upon the Romans out of 
deference to his friends or through ignorance, 
Agesilaiis brought as much upon the Lacedaemonians 
out of obstinacy and resentment when he kindled 
the Boeotian war. 

II. Moreover, if we must assign to any ill-fortune 
of the two men the disasters which overtook them, 
that of Pompey could not have been anticipated by 
the Romans ; but Agesilaiis would not permit the 
Lacedaemonians to guard against the " lame sover- 
eignty," although they had heard and knew before- 
hand about it. For even if Leotychides had been 
ten thousand times convicted of being bastard and 
alien, the family of the Eurypontidae could easily 
have furnished Sparta with a king who was of legiti- 
mate birth and sound of limb, had not Lysander 
darkened the meaning of the oracle in the interests 
of Agesilaiis. 

On the other hand, when we consider the remedy 
which Agesilaiis applied to the perplexity of the 
state in dealing with those who had played the 
coward, after the disaster at Leuctra, when he urged 
that the laws should slumber for that day, there 
was never another political device like it, nor can 
we find anything in Pompey's career to compare 
with it ; on the contrary, he did not even think it 
incumbent upon him to abide by the laws which he 
himself had made, if he might only display the 
greatness of his power to his friends. But Agesilaiis, 
when he confronted the necessity of abrogating the 
laws in order to save his fellow-citizens, devised a 
way by which the citizens should not be harmed by 
the laws, nor the laws be abrogated to avoid such 

329 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

KciKeivo TO afjbifirjrov epyov eh iroXiriicr^v aperrjv 
Tov ^AyrjaiXdov, rb he^dfievov rijv aKVTciXt^v 
d'TTokLTT elv rd'i ev 'Acrta 7rpd^ei<;. ov jdp, co? 
Tlo/jb7Tt)Lo<i, a0' (bv kavrov erroiei pie'yav uxpeXei to 
KOivov, dXXa TO tt}? 7rarpiho<; aKOTTWV Tr]\iKavT)}v 66 
d(f)r]Ke hvvapLLv koX Bo^av i)\iKrjv oi'SeJ? irpoTepov 
ovhe vcnepov TrXrjv 'AXe^at'Opo? ecr^ey. 

III. Att aX,A,r;9 toivvv dp-^rj^i, ev Tai<; arparr}- 
7iat? Kai TOt? TToXe/jiiKol'i, apiOpw fiev rpoTraioiv 
Koi fieyiOei Suvdfiecov a? einjydyeTo Uop.TDJiO'?, 
Kai 7T\i]6ei TrapaTd^eoiv a? evi'/cijcrev, ovB' dv 6 
"Hevoi^oiv pot, 8oK€L Trapa/BaXelv ra? ^AyrjaiXdov 
VLKa<i, o) Sid TaXXa KoXd KaOdirep yepa<i i^alperov 
SeSoTUi Kai ypd(f)€iv o ^ovXoiro Kai Xiyew Tvepl 

2 TOV dvSp6<;. olpat Se Kai rfj tt/po? toi"? TToXepLi- 
of? eTTieiKeta Siaijiepeiv top dvhpa tov dvSp6<i. 6 
pev yap dvSpairoBLaaaOac &rj^a<; Kai ^lea-ai'jvtjv 
e^oLKtaaadai jBovXopLeva, f)v p.€v op^oKXTjpov r/}? 
7TaTpiho<?, fjv he p^rjTpoiroXiv tov yei>ov<i, Trap 
ovBev rjXde Ti]v XTrdpTrjv dTro^aXelv, aTre/SaXe Be 
Trjv r)yep,oviav' 6 Be Kai tmv TreipaTMv toI<; p,eTa- 
/3aXop.epoi<; 7r6Xei<; eBcoKe, Kai Tiypdvyjv top 

App^evioop /BaaiXea yep6p,epov e(p eavTM Opiap- 
Bevcrai (TvpLp.a')(pv eTroi7]aaTo, (^I'^aa^ 7)p.epa^ pid<i 
alcova TrpoTip^dv. 

3 Ei piePTOi T0i9 pLeyicTTOL^ Kai KvpiooTUTOi^ el<; 
Ta birXa irpdypaat Kai \oyi(xpol<i TrpoaTiOeTat 
TrpcoTelop dpeTTj^ dvBpos rjyep,6vo<i, ov p,LKpop 6 



330 



AGESILAUS AND POMPEY, ii. 3-111. 3 

harm. Further, I attribute also to political virtue 
in Agesilaiis that inimitable act of his in abandon- 
ing his career in Asia on receipt of the dispatch- 
roll. For he did not, like Pompey, help the com- 
monwealth only as he made himself great, but with 
an eye to the welfare of his country he renounced 
such great fame and power as no man won before or 
since his day, except Alexander. 

III. And now from another point of view, that 
of their campaigns and achievements in war, the 
trophies of Pompey were so many, the forces led by 
him so vast, and the pitched battles in which he was 
victorious so innumerable, that not even Xenophon, 
I think, would compare the victories of Agesilaiis, 
although that historian, by reason of his other ex- 
cellent qualities, is specially privileged, as it were, 
to say and write whatever he pleases about the man. 
1 think also that in merciful behaviour towards their 
enemies the two men were different. For Agesilaiis 
was so bent on enslaving Thebes and depopulating 
Messenia, Thebes the mother-city of his royal line, 
and Messenia a sister colony to his country,^ that he 
nearly lost Sparta, and did lose her supremacy in 
Greece ; whereas Pompey gave cities to such of the 
pirates as changed their mode of life, and when it 
was in his power to lead Tigranes the king of 
Armenia in his triumphal procession, made him an 
ally instead, saying that he thought more of future 
time than of a single day. 

If, however, it is the greatest and most far-reach- 
ing decisions and acts in war that are to determine 
preeminence in the virtues of leadership, then the 

1 Tliebes was the birth-place of Heracles, from whom the 
Spartan kings were supposed to be descended ; and Messenia, 
like Sparta, wa.s settled by the Heracleidae. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

KaKwv rov 'VfOfialov airoXeXonre. irpcoTov /xev 
yap ov irporjKaTO ttjv ttoXiv ouS' e^eXiirev eTrra 
fivpiaai crrparov tmv TToXefiLcov ifi^akovTwv, 
o\iyov<; hxoiv oTrXtVa? koI 7rpoi€viKr]fi€vou<i ev 

4 AevKrpoi'^- IIo/XTTJ/io? he, 7r€vraKicrxiXL0i<i fj,6vot<i 
Kal TpcaKoaLoi<i fxiav Kalaapo^; iroXiv 'ItuXl- 
Krjv Kardka^ovro^, e^eireae rrj^ 'Vca/nrj'i vtto 
8eou<;, rj TocrovTot<; €i^a<; dyevvco<i rj TrXeiova^; 
y\revhu><i elicdda'^- Kal CTVcrK€vacrdfjLei'0<; ra reKva 
Kal Tr]v yvvaiKa avrov, rdf; Se rrliv aWwv 
TToXiToyv ep7]fiov<; dTroXnroDv €<^vy€, Seov ?*; Kparelv 
fiaxofievov virep rrj<; irarpiho'i rj Sexea-dai Bia- 
Xua€i(i Trapa rov KpeiTTovoi;' rjv yap 7roXtTr)<; Kal 

5 oIk€io<;' vvv Be w cnparrjyia'i xpoz/oi' eTTi/LLeTpfjaat 
KUi VTraretav yJrrjcfiiaaaOai heivov rjyeiTO, rovrw 
irapeax^ Xa^oini rijv iroXiv elnecu tt/oo? MereX- 
Xov on KtiKelvov alxfJidXwTov avrov lo/ni^et Kal 
Tov'i dXXov<; d7ravTa<i. 

IV, ' O roivvv epyov io-rlv dyadov arparijyov 
fiaXcara, KpeiTToi'a fiev ovra ^idaaaOai tov<; 
iroXefiiov^ f^dx^crdai, Xeiiro/xevov 8e Svrd/jLei /xij 
^iaadP]vat, tovto ttoicov 'AyijaLXaof del 8i€(f)v- 
Xa^ev eavrbv dfUijTov Hofnri'fiov 8e Kaicrap, ov 
fiev Tjv eXdrroiP, Bie(f)vye /ni] l3Xa^rjvai, KaOo Be 
KpeiTTcov rjv, rjvdyKacrev dyQ)viadp.€i'0v tw Tre^w 
Trepi iravrcov a<paXy]vai, Kal Kvpio<i evOv<; rjv XPV- 
/xdrcov Kal dyopd<i Kal daXuTTrjs;, vcf)' oiv Bceire- 
2 irpaKTo av avev fidx^'i eKeivoi^ rrpoaovTcov. to S' 
virep TOVToov drroXoyrjfMa /xiyiaTov iariv eyKXyjpa 



AGESILAUS AND POMPEY, in. 3-iv. 2 

Lacedaemonian leaves the Roman far behind. For, 
in the first place, he did not desert nor abandon his 
city, though the enemy attacked it with an army of 
seventy thousand men, while he had only a few men- 
at-arms, and these had recently been vanquished at 
Leuctra ; but Pompey, after Caesar had occupied a 
single city of Italy with only fifty-thi-ee hundred 
men, hurried away from Rome in a panic, either 
yielding ignobly to so few, or conjecturing falsely 
that there were more ; and after conveying away 
with him his own wife and children, he left those of 
the other citizens defenceless and took to flight, 
when he ought either to have conquered in a battle 
for his country, or to have accepted terms from his 
conqueror, who was a fellow-citizen and a relation 
by marriage. But as it was, to the man for whom 
he thought it a terrible thing to prolong a term of 
military command or vote a consulship, to this man 
he gave the power of capturing the city and saying 
to Metellus that he considered him and all the rest 
of the citizens as his prisoners of war. 

IV. Furthermore, the chief task of a good general 
is to force his enemies to give battle when he is 
superior to them, but not to be forced himself to 
do this when his forces are inferior, and by so doing 
Agesilaiis always kept himself unconquered ; whereas 
in Pompey's case, Caesar escaped injury at his hands 
when he was inferior to him, and forced him to 
stake the whole issue on a battle with his land 
forces, wherein Caesar was sujierior, thus defeating 
him and becoming at once master of treasures, pro- 
visions, and the sea, — advantages which would have 
brought his ruin without a buttle had they remained 
in his enemy's control. And that which is urged as 
an excuse for this failure is really a very severe 

333 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

arpaTi^yov rrjXiKovrov. veov [xev yap ap^oi'ra 
dopv(BoL<i Kol Kara^oijcreaiv et9 /jLaXaKiav koI hei- 
Xiav e'TrLrapa')(6evTa tmv aa (f^aXeardrwv eKireaelv 
Xoyia/jiMP €0/<:o<i icm KaX avyyvcoaTov Ylop,Tn]ioi> 
he ^Idyvov, ov PcojuaLoi to /xev crrpaToTTeSov 
TTarpiha, avyKXrjTov he rifv axrjvijv, diroardraii 
he KoX Trpohorw^ tou? ev 'Poo/ult] TroXirevofievov; 
KOL (TTpaTT]youvra<i koI v7raT€voi'Ta<; eKciXovv, 

3 dp^^ofjievov he vtt ovhei'o<; eyvcoaav, Tracra? he 
avTOKpdTopa arpuTevadfievov dpiaTa Td<; arpar- 
€ia<i, Tt9 av dvdayoLTO rot? ^awviov aKca/xfiacri 
Kol Aop^eTLOV, /cat tva firj ^ Ay a puefivav Xeyrjrai., 
Trap eXd)(^icrTov eK/SiaaOeina top Trepl t?}? I'jyefiov- 
la^ Koi €Xev6epia<; dvappl\p-ai, Kivhwov ; o? el 
fiovov eaKoirei to Trap rjpepav ciho^ov, u>({)€iXev 
avTi(na<=; ev dp)(^fj hiaycovLaaaOai irepl t/}? 'Vco- 
ixrjq, aXXa fiij ri-jV (f)vyi]v eKeiin-jv diro^iaii'wv 
arpaT7]yr}fjia ©epnaroKXecov varepov ev alaj^pw 
TiOeaOai tyjv ev ^erraXia irpo /iid)(^i]<; hiarpt/3)'jv. 664 

4 ov yap eKeivo ye ardhtov avToc^ /cal dearpov 
evaywvLcraaOaL irepl Ttj^ riyepLovia^ 6 deo^ dire- 
het^e TO ^apadXiov irehiov, ovhe vtto K7]pvK0<i 
eKaXeiTO pbd'^eadai kutloov rj Xnrelv erepco tov 
arecjiavov, dXXd iroXXa jxev irehia fivpla^ he ird- 
Xei'i Koi yrjv airXerov rj Kara ddXarrav eviropia 
•napeaye tBovXapbevcp p^i/melaOat Md^ifiov kuX 
Mdpiov Kol AevKoXXov Kal avrov \\y7]ai\aov, 

5 09 ovK eXdrrovaf; jxev ev ItTrdpru dopv^ov; vire- 
fjueive ^ovXop,ev(i>v %'q^aLOi<; virep t^? ')(^u)pa^ (xd- 
yeaOai, TToXXd^ S* ev AlyvrrTW hia^oXaq Kal/caT^j- 
yopia<i Kal virovoia'i tov ^aaiXeco<i ijveyKev rjcrv- 
X^o,v ayeiv KeXevwv, ')(^p'>jadiJievo<; he T049 dplaTOi^ 



334 



AGESILAUS AND POMPEY, iv. 2-5 

accusation against a general like him. For that a 
youthful commander should be frightened by tumults 
and outcries into cowardly weakness and abandon 
his safest plans, is natural and pardonable ; but that 
Pompey the Great, whose camp the Romans called 
their country, and his tent their senate, while they 
gave the name of traitors and rebels to the consuls 
and praetors and other magistrates at Rome, — that 
he who was known to be under no one's command, 
but to have served all his campaigns most success- 
fully as imperator, should be almost forced by the 
scoffs of Favonius and Domitius, and by the fear of 
being called Agamemnon, to put to the hazard the 
supremacy and freedom of Rome, who could tolerate 
this? If he had regard only for the immediate 
infamy involved, then he ought to have made a 
stand at the first and to have fought to its finish the 
fight for Rome, instead of calling the flight which he 
then made a Themistoclean stratagem and after- 
wards counting it a disgraceful thing to delay before 
fighting in Thessaly. For surely Heaven had not 
ap]:)ointed that Pharsalian plain to be the stadium 
and theatre of their struggle for the supremacy, nor 
was he summoned by voice of herald to go down 
thither and do battle or leave to another the victor's 
wreath ; nay, there were many plains, ten thousand 
cities, and a whole earth which his great resources 
by sea afforded him had he wished to imitate 
Maximus, or Marius, or Lucullus, or Agesilaiis him- 
self, who withstood no less tumults in Sparta when 
its citizens wished to fight with the Thebans in de- 
fence of their land, and in Egypt endured many 
calumnies and accusations and suspicions on the part 
of the king when he urged him to keep quiet ; but 
he followed his own best counsels as he wished, and 

335 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

6 ft)9 ej3ov\eTO \oy(.afjLol<i, ov /xovov Al'yvTniov; 
dKovra<; eacoaev, ovSe tijv Svra/JTr/v ev ToaovTCO 
(T€i(Tfxq) fjLovo^ opOrjV ael Bi€(f)v\a^€v, dWa /cat 
Tporraiov ea-n^ae Kara (^rj^alcov ev rrj iroXet,, ro 
viKTjaai, irapaa^oDV avOt<; eK rov Tore yU?) irpoaiT- 
oXeadat ^Laaa/u,evov<;. odev A.<y7]cn\ao^ fxev viro 
Tcbv ^lacrOevTcov varepov iTTrjvelTO crcoOevrcov, 
Ilofji7r7]'io<; Se 8i dWov^ duaprcov, auTov<; ot? iirei- 

7 cOij KaTr)j6pov<; €l)(^6. KaiToi (paal Tive<; &)? viro 
Tov rrevdepov ZK7]TriO}vo<; e^rjiTaTrjOr}' ra <ydp 
TrXeiara tmv ;!^/97;/i-aT&)y cov eKopL^ev ef ^Aaia<s 
^ovXo/xevov auTOV voa^iaacrOaL Koi aTTOKpv^avra 
KareTret^ai rrjv p.d')(rjv, co? ovk€ti ')(^prip,dr(Dv 
ovTwv. o Kav dXrjOe'i rjv, iradelv ovk uxpeiXev 6 
<TTparr)<y6<;, ovSe pa8l(o<; ovtco irapaXoyiadel'i 
dnrofCLvhuvevaai irepl rwv peylcrrwv. ev fxev ovv 
TovTOL<i ovr(i)<i eKdrepov diroOeoipovfjiev. 

V. Et? AtyvTTTOv 8' p,ev e^ dvdyKrj'; eTrXeucre 
(pevycov, o Se ovre KaXoy^ ovre dvayKa'i(i><i eirX 
y^piqpuaaLV, 07r(o<; e^rj rot? ''FjXXtjcti iroXepetv d(^' 
o)v T04? ^ap^dpoi^ e(TTpari]yrjaev. elra a 8td 
YlofiTTijiov Alyv7TTiOL<i iyKuXoupev, Tavra Alyv- 
TTTCOL Karrfyopovaiv ' AyrjatXdov. 6 fiev yap 
TjhLKrjOr} TTiarevcra^, 6 8e TTLarevOel^; eyKaTeXme 
Kol fiereaTT] tt/jo? tous' iroXefiovvTWi oh eirXevae 
avix[xa')(^r]aoiv, 

336 



AGESILAUS AND POMPEY, iv. 6-v. i 

not only saved the Egyptians against their wills, and 
by his sole efforts ever kept Sparta upright in the 
midst of so great a convulsion, but actually set up a 
trophy in the city for a victory over the Thebans, 
which victory he put his countrymen in the way of 
winning later, by keeping them then from the de- 
struction into which they would have forced their 
way. Wherefore Agesilaiis was afterwards com- 
mended by those whom he had forced to take the 
path of safety, while Pompey, whom others had led 
into error, found accusers in the very ones to whom 
he had yielded. And yet some say that he was 
deceived by his father-in-law Scipio, who wished to 
appropriate to his own uses the greater part of the 
treasure which he had brought from Asia, and there- 
fore hid it away, and then hastened on the battle, 
on the plea that there was no longer any money. 
But even if this were true, a general ought not to 
suffer himself to be so easily deceived, nor after- 
wards to put his greatest interests at hazard. In 
these matters, then, such is the way in which we 
regard each of the men. 

V, And as to their voyages to Egypt, one went 
thither of necessity and in flight ; the other for no 
honourable reason, nor of necessity, but for money, 
that what he got for serving the Barbarians as com- 
mander might enable him to make war upon the 
Greeks. Then again, as to the charges which we 
bring against the Egyptians for their treatment of 
Pompey, these the Egyptians lay at the door of 
Agesilaiis for his treatment of them. For Pompey 
trusted them and was wronged by them ; while 
Agesilaiis was trusted by them and yet forsook them 
and went over to the enemies of those whom he 
had sailed to assist. 

337 



PELOPIDAS 



nEAOniAA2 

I. K.aT(ov 7rp€al3vT€po<; TTyOO? Tiva<; eirauovv- 
Ta<i avOpwTTOv aXoyiaTco^ 7rapdj3oXov kuI toX- 
firjpov iv Tot? TToXepLiKol'i Siacjiepeiv e^rj to ttoWov 
Tiva rrjv dp€rr}v d^lav kol to /xt] ttoWou d^iov to 
^rjv vojJLL^etv opdfo'i dTro<f)aiv6fi€VO<i. 6 yovv Trap' 
AvTcyovM crTpaTevoju,€vo<; iTa/jLO'i, (l)av\o<i Se tyjv 
e^Lv Kol TO acofia 8t€({)0opd)<;, epopiAvov tov /3aai- 
\eci)<i TTjv aoTiav t/'}9 th^poTrjTO^i Q)fio\6y7](T6 Tiva 

2 voaov ToJv dTToppy'^TOiv iirel 8e (f)iXoTi/j.7]0tU 6 
^aaiXev^ irpocreTa^e Tol'i laTpol<i, edv Ti<i fj (Borj- 
dsia, firjhev iWnrelv tt}? dKpa<; eVt/ieXeta?, ovtco 
depuTrevdeU 6 yevvalo^; eKelvo<; ovKeT rjv (piXoKcv- 
8vvo<i ouSe paySaia iv rot? dywaLV, cocrTe xal tov 
WvT iyovov ijKaXelv koI davpid^eiv ttjv fieTU- 
^oXi]v. ov fiTjv 6 dv6pcoTro<; direKpv^lraTo to 27J 
alriov, dXX! elwev "'O /SaaiXev, <tv fxe Treiroirj- 
Ka<; uToXpoTepov, wnaXXd^a-i etceivoiv to)v kukcov 

2 Bi a TOV ^rjv aoXiycopovv.'' Trpof tovto Be (pat- 
veTUL Kol Xv/3apLT')]<; dvrjp elTvelv irepl tmv ^Trap- 
TiaTMv &)9 ou p-eya iroLovcn OavuTcovTa iv TOL<i 
TToXe/iOf? vTrep tov ToaovTOV<i ttovov^ koI TOiavTrjv 
d7ro(f)vyeiv BiaiTav. dXXd Xv^apLTac<i jxev €«- 
TeTy]K6cnv vtto Tpv(f)f]'i koI p.aXaKta'i hid ttjv Trpof 
TO KaXov oppLi)v Koi <pLXoTip,iav etVoro)? icfialvovTO 
picreiv TOV /Slop ol p,r] (po^ov/jievoi tov ddvaTov, 

4 AaKehaLfxovioL<i Be Kal ^-ijv rjBeco^; koX dv/jcrKeiv 

340 



PELOPIDAS 

1. Cato the Elder, when cei'tain persons praised 
a man who was inconsiderately rash and daring in 
war, told them there was a difference between a 
man's setting a high value on valour and his setting 
a low value on life ; and his remark was just. At 
any rate, there was a soldier of Antigonus who 
was venturesome, but had miserable health and an 
impaired body. When the king asked him the 
reason for his pallor, the man admitted that it was 
a secret disease, whereupon the king took compassion 
on him and ordered his physicians, if there was any 
help for him, to employ their utmost skill and care. 
Thus the man was cured ; but then the good fellow 
ceased to court danger and was no longer a furious 
fighter, so that even Antigonus rebuked him and 
expressed his wonder at the change. The man, 
however, made no secret of the reason, but said : 
" O King, it is thou who hast made me less daring, 
by freeing me from those ills which made me set 
little value on life." On these grounds, too, as it 
would seem, a man of Sybaris said it was no great 
thing for the Spartans to seek death in the wars in 
order to escape so many hardships and such a 
wretched life as theirs. But to the Sybarites, who 
were dissolved in effeminate luxury, men whom 
ambition and an eager quest of honour led to have 
no fear of death naturally seemed to hate life ; where- 
as the virtues of the Lacedaemonians gave them 

341 

VOL. V M 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

a/j,(f)6T€pa dperr) irapel^ev, &)<? hfKol to iinKi]- 
Seiov o'iSe ydp (prjaiv eOavov ^ 

ov TO ^rjv Oefxevoi koKov ovSe to Ovrjcriceiv, 
AXXd TO Tavra Ka\o)^ ajxiboTep eKTeXecrat. 

0VT€ yap (pvyr] OavaTOV fiefXTrTov, av opeyrjTat Ti? 
Tov /3iov fi7] al(TXpM<;, ouTe vttojjlov^i kuXov, el 

5 p,€T oXiyoypla^ <yLvoiTO tov ^f]v. oOev "Op.7]po<s 
fiev del Toy? OappaXecoTaTovi koI /xa;\^i/x(MTaTOf 9 
dvBpa<; ev /cal KaXaxi corr\icr/jievov<i e^dyei tt/jo? 
Tov<; dycoi'a'i, 01 he tmv 'EWijvcov vop,o6eTai tov 
piyp-aaiTLV KoXd^ovacv, ou top ^i(f)o<i ovBe Xoyxv^ 
irpoepevov, Bi8u(TKovTe<; OTi tov pi] iraOelv KaK(a<i 
irporepov rj tov TTOiijaat TOu<i TroXe/xtou? eKuaTw 
p,eXeiv 7rpoa)]K€c, pdXiaTa he dp^ovTi TroXeo)? 77 
(XTpaTevpaTO<;. 

II. Et yap, ft)9 ^l(f)iKpdT7](i hirjpei, %epo-t pev 
ioUaaiv ol -f^iXoi, iroal he to 'nririKov, avTt] he rj 
(f)d\ay^ arepvep Kal OcopaKC, KecpaXj] he o CTTpaTT]- 
769, 01)% avTov ho^eiev dv diroKiphwevcov irapa- 
peXelv Kol Opacrvi'6pevo<i, dXX" aTravToov, ol<; 7) 
crcoTrjpLa yi'veTat hi avTOv Kal toviuvtiov. 66ev 
KaXXiKpaTiha^, Kaiirep tov TuXXa p.eya<;, ovk 
ev Trpo'i TOV p,dvTiv elire' heopevov yap avTOV 
(j)v\dTTea0at OdvaTOV, &)? twv lepCov 7rpohr]Xovi'- 

2 TO)v, e(/)>7 piT) Trap" eva elvai tclv iTTuyrav. p-ci'X'^' 
pevo<; yap eh rjv Kal irXecov Kal aTpaTevopevo<i 
KaXXiKpaTiha^;, cjTpaTiiywv he tijv dirdvTcov eZ^^ 
(TvXXa/3cov ev avTw hvvapiv, waTe ovk rjv eh « 
ToaavTa avva-TTcoX'XvTO. ^eXTiov he 'AvTLyovo<; 6 

I Ot edvov ov rh (vv kt\., attributed to Simonides (Eergk, 
Poet. Lyr. Grace, iii.* p. 516). 

342 



PELOPIDAS, I. 4-II. 2 

liappiness alike in living or dying, as the following 
elegy testifies : These, it says, died, 

" not deeming either life or death honourable in 
themselves. 
But only the accomplishment of them both with 
honour." 

For neither is a man to be blamed for shunning 
death, if he does not cling to life disgracefully, nor 
to be praised for boldly meeting death, if he does 
this with contempt of life. For this reason Homer 
always brings his boldest and most valiant heroes 
into battle well armed and equipped ; and the Greek 
lawgivers punish him who casts away his shield, not 
him who throws down his sword or spear, thus teach- 
ing that his own defence fi'om harm, rather than the 
infliction of harm upon the enemy, should be every 
man's first care, and particularly if he governs a city 
or commands an army. 

II. For if, as Iphicrates analyzed the matter, the 
light-armed troops are like the hands, the cavalry 
like the feet, the line of men-at-arms itself like chest 
and breastplate, and the general like the head, then 
he, in taking undue risks and being over bold, would 
seem to neglect not himself, but all, inasmuch as 
their safety depends on him, and their destruction 
too. Therefore Callicratidas, although otherwise he 
was a great man, did not make a good answer to the 
seer who begged him to be careful, since the sacri- 
ficial omens foretold his death ; " Sparta," said he, 
" does not depend upon one man." For when fight- 
ing, or sailing, or marching under orders, Callicratidas 
was " one man " ; but as general, he comprised in 
himself the strength and power of all, so that he 
was not " one man," when such numbers perished 
with him. Better was the speech of old Antigonus 

343 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

yepwv, ore vavjiayelv irepl "AvBpov e/j,eWei>, eu- 
TToi'TO? Tivo<^ CO? TToXv TrXetou? ai rwv TroXe/xLcov 
V)]€<i eiev, tjfie oe avrov, ecpr], irpo-i nroaaf ; 

avTi<TT7](Tei'i ; " fiiya to t>}? dpx^)^> ioairep earlv, 
d^L(t)/jLa TTOioJv fieTa efxireipiaf /cal dperf)<; rarTo- 
jxevov, rj<; irpwrov epyov earl aco^eiv rov airavra 

3 rdWa aco^ovra. Bio Kokcof; 6 Ti/uoOeo^, eVi^et- 
KW/xevov TTore rol'i ^AOrjvaloi^ rov Xap?;T09 u>rei- 
\d<; riva^ ev rw aoo/xart koI n^v damBa X6y')cp 
BiaK€KO/j./ii€vi]v, " 'Kyoo Be," eiirev, " w? \iav 
Tja^^^vvOrjv on /xov 7ro\iopKovvro<; Xdfiov €771)9 
eirecre /^€\o<;, ox? /xeipaKicoBearepov efiavrfp %/3&j- 
/i6V0<; ?) Kara (Trparf]yov Kal riyeyuova Bwdjxewi 

4 rouavrr]^^ ottov fxev yap ei? ra oXa /j.eyd\r]v 
<f)€p€i po7rr]v 6 rov arparrjyov kivBvvo'^, ivravda | 
Kol %et/3t fcal crco/xart y^pijareov ac^etSco?, -^aipeiv 
(ppdaavra rol'i Xeyovatv &>? ')(pr] top dyadov 
arpaniyov fidXtara fiev vtto yy]pcos, el Be p.7], 
yepovra 6vi]aK€LV ottov Be /xiKpov to irepiyivo- 
jxevov eK rov Karopd(t)/j,aro<i, rb Be irdv crvvairoX- 
Xvrat a(j)a\evro<;, ovBel<i diraiTet arparicorov 
rrpd^LV KivBvvcfi rrparro/xevrjv aTpaTt]yov. 

5 Tavra Be /not irapeorrj Trpoai'a<po)in](jai ypd- 
(f)ovri rov YleXoTTiBov ^iov Kal rov ^lapKeWov, 
/jLeyd\a)V dvBpwv irapaXoywi rrecrovrwv. Kal yap 
Xetpl '^pyjaOac jxa^^ifJiOiirarot yevopevoi, Kai arpa- 
T7?7tat? eTTKpavea-rdrai^ Koa fxi]aavr€'s dpcf)6repoi 
rd<; 7rarpiBa<;, en Be rwv ^apvrdrcov dvraywvi- 
aroiv fiev ^Avvl^av dyjrrrjrov bvra TrpSyro'i, ox? 279, 
\eyerai, rpe-^dixevo<i, 6 Be 7>}? Kal da\drrii<i apy^ov- 

Ta<i AaKeBai.^oviov^ eK Traparu^edx; viK7]aa<i, rjcf^ei- 
Brjaav eavrayv, <rvv ovdevl Xoyta/xfo rrpoefxevoi rov 
^t'ov OTTtjvLKa fidXiara roiovrcov Kaipo<; rjv dvBpcov 

344 



PELOPIDAS, II. 2-5 

as he was about to fight a sea-fight off Andros, and 
someone told him that the enemy's ships were fai- 
more numerous than his : " But what of myself," said 
he, " how many ships wilt thou count me ? " implying 
that the worth of the commander is a great thing, 
as it is in fact, when allied with experience and 
valour, and his first duty is to save the one who 
saves everything else. Therefore Timotheus was 
right, when Chares was once showing the Athenians 
some wounds he had received, and his shield pierced 
by a spear, in saying : " But I, how greatly ashamed 
I was, at the siege of Samos, because a bolt fell near 
me ; I thought I was behaving more like an im- 
petuous youth than like a general in command of 
so large a force." For where the whole issue is 
greatly furthered by the general's exposing himself 
to danger, there he must emj)loy hand and body 
unsparingly, ignoring those who say that a good 
general should die, if not of old age, at least in old 
age ; but where the advantage to be derived from 
his success is small, and the whole cause perishes 
with him if he fails, no one demands that a general 
should risk his life in fighting like a common soldier. 
Such is the preface I have thought fit to make for 
the Lives of Pelopidas and Marcellus, great men who 
rashly fell in battle. For both were most valiant 
fighters, did honour to their countries in most illus- 
trious campaigns, and what is more, had the most 
formidable adversaries, one being the first, as we 
are told, to rout Hannibal, who was before invincible, 
the other conquering in a pitched battle the Lace- 
daemonians, who were supreme on land and sea ; and 
yet they were careless of their own lives, and reck- 
lessly threw them away at times when it was most 
important that such men should live and hold 

345 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

cro)^ofMev(ov Koi apyovTwv. Bcoirep rj/j-elf errofMevoi 
Tttif ojJioiorriai, TrapaWrjXov^i aveypdy\raiiev avroiv 
Tou? /3iov<;. 

III. YieXoTTiBa tm 'IttttokXov yevo'i fxev Tjv ev- 
BoKifiov ev Sr]^at,'i wairep ^Eira/netvcovSa, Tpa(f)eh 
Se ev ovala fieydXr) koi irapaXa^oiv ert yeo? Xa/x- 
irpov oIkov copiivcre tmv Beo/xevcov Tol<i d^tot<i ^orj- 
Oeiv, Xva KvpLO<i dX^i96i<i (paivotro ^prj/jbdrcov jeyo- 
v<i)<;, dXXa /xt) 8ovXo<;. tmp yap ttoXXoov, &)? 
'Apto-ToreA,?;? ^7?cnV, ol /xev ov ')(^pS}VTai rw ttXov- 
Tft) 8ia pLL/cpoXoyiav, ol 8e 7rapa)(^pci)i'Tai Si' dcro)- 
rlav, Kal BovXevovTe(; ovroi /xev del Tai<i rjSoval^, 

2 eKslvoL he ral'^ acr^oXtat?, BtareXovcnv. oi /xev 
ovv dXXoL Tw UeXoTTiBa X^P^^ exopre<i e;!^pwz^To 
rrj TTpo? avTov<i eXevOepLOTrjTi Kal ^iXav6 pcoTria, 
fiovov 8e Tcov (plXcov tov 'EiTra/xeivcovSav ovk eireide 
rov ttXovtov jxeraXaix^dveiv' avro^ /levrot fier- 
elye t>}9 eKelvov irevla';, ia6rJT0<i d(f)eXeia Kal 
Tpa'TTel^i]<; Xitottjti Kal rw Trpo'i tou<; 7r6vov<; doKvu) 

3 Kal Kara aTpaT€La<; dSoXu) KaXX(i)7ri^o/j.evo<;, wcr- 
irep 6 JLvpiTTiBou K.a7raveu<i, tp " ^lo<; pbev rjv ttoXik;, 
rjKiaTa Be BC oXjSov yavpo<; rjv,'^ ala^'-'vopLevo'i el 
(f)aveLTai TrXe/oai ;j^/)co/ie^'09 el<; rb awp.a rov rd 
iXd^i^crra KeKTrj/xevou (drj^alwv. ^JL7rap.eLVoovBa<i 
fxev ovv (TUV7]0>i Kal irarpwav ovaav avrut rrjv 
•nevlav en fxaXXov evl^wvov Kal kou<^ov eTToirjae 
(bi,Xocro(f)MV Kal pbovorpoirov ^lov dir dpxv'i ^^^' 

4 /xeyo?* YleXoTTiBa Be -qv /jLcv ydfxo^ Xa/J,7rp6<i, eye- 
vovTO Be Kal 7TalBe<;, dXX' ovBev tjttov dfieXcov tov 
ypr)ixaTlll,ea9ai, Kal axoXd^rov rfj TToXei rov dirav- 
ra XP'^^^^ tjXdrrwae ti]v ovcnav. tcov Be (piXojv 
vovdeTovvTcov Kal XeyovTcov &)? dvayKUiov irpd- 



346 



PELOPIDAS, II. 5-in. 4 

command. These are the resemblances between them 
wliich have led me to write their lives in parallel. 

III. Pelopidas the son of Hippoclus was of a 
highly honourable family in Thebes^ as was Epamin- 
ondas, and having been reared in affluence, and 
having inherited in youth a splendid estate, he 
devoted himself to the assistance of worthy men 
who needed it, that he might be seen to be really 
master of his wealth, and not its slave. For most 
wealthy men, as Aristotle says,^ either make no use 
of their wealth through avarice, or abuse it through 
prodigality, and so they are forever slaves, these 
to their pleasures, those to their business. The 
rest, accordingly, thankfully profited by the kind- 
ness and liberality of Pelopidas towards them ; but 
Epaminondas was the only one of his friends whom 
he could not persuade to share his wealth. Pelopidas, 
however, shared the poverty of this friend, and 
gloried in modest attire, meagre diet, readiness to 
undergo hardships, and straightforward service as 
a soldier. Like the Capaneus of Euripides, he " had 
abundant wealth, but riches did not make him 
arrogant at all,^ " and he was ashamed to let men 
think that he spent more upon his person than the 
poorest Theban. Now Epaminondas, whose poverty 
was hereditary and familiar, made it still more light 
and easy by philosophy, and by electing at the out- 
set to lead a single life ; Pelopidas, on the contrary, 
made a brilliant marriage, and had children too, but 
nevertheless he neglected his private interests to 
devote his whole time to the state, and so lessened 
his substance. And when his friends admonished 
him and told him tliat the possession of money, which 



' Fragment 56 (Rose) ; of. Morals, p. 527 a. 
2 Supplkes, 863 f. (Kirchhoff, TfiKiffra 5' u\Pcf). 



347 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

yfiaTO<; oXiycopeL, tov ■^(^pyj/biaTa ex€t.v, " Avay- 
Kaiov, V7] Ata, NiKoSyjfirp tout&j," €<pri, hei^a^ riva 

IV. 'Hcraz/ he koX TTyOO? iraaav upeTrjv ire^v- 
/fore? o/zot&)?, TrXrjv otl tm yv/uivd^€a9ai fidWov 
exatpe IleXoTrtSa?, too Be ixavddveiv 'ETrafieivcoi'- 
Ba<;, Koi ra? 8iarpi^d<i iv rw axoXdl^eiv 6 fxev irepl 
TToXauaTpa^ ical Kuvrjyeaia, 6 8e ukovcov rt kul 
(f)i.\ocro(f)a)v eiroLelro. ttoWmv he koI kuXmv 
virapxovToyv afK^OTepoi^i tt/so? ho^av, oiihev ol vovv 
€yovre<i i^yovvrai rrjXtKovTOV rfkiKOV ttjv 8ia roa- 
ovTcov dyoivcov koX (TTpaT>'}yioiv koi iroXcreioyv 
dve^eXeyKTOv evvoiav koi <^i\iav utt' dpxv^ H-^XP'- 

2 reXou? infielvacrav. el yap rt? dTTo/3Xeyjra<: ttjv 
'Apiarelhov Kal ^efitaroKXeov; kul Kificovo^; koi 
WepLKkeov<i KOI ISliKiov KaVAXKi^iuSov TroXneiav, 
oawv yeyove fieaTr] hiacpopoov kul (pOovcov kul 
^TjXoTVTriMV 77/309 dXXi]Xov<i, cTKe^airo irdXiv ryv 
YleXoTTihov 77/309 'Eira/JietvMvSav evfievcLav Kal 
ri/iit]V, T0UT0V<i av 6p6o)^ koX hiKaiw; irpocrayo- 
pevaeLe avvdpxovTO,^ Kal (xv(TTpaTfjyov<i // e/ceLvov<i, 
OL fxdXXov dXXrjXcov 17 tmv iroXe/jiLcov dyovi^o/xevoi 

3 irepielvac hiereXeaav. atria he dXtjOcii] fiev rjv t] 
dpeW], hi' f)V ov ho^av, ov ttXovtov diro rtov 
7rpd^eo)v p.eTi6vre<i, oU 6 %a\e7709 Kal hvaepi<i 
ip-cjiverai (f)d6vo<;, dXX epwTa delov dii dpxv^ 
ipaadivTe<; dpui^orepoi tov ri]v Trarptha Xa/MTrpo- 
Tdrrjv Kal fMeyi.crTi]v i(f>' eavTwv Ihelv yevo/xevrjv, 
Mairep tStoi9 eVt tovto T0t9 avroiv exp^vro 
KaTopOdi/xaaiv. 

4 Ov p.i]v aXX' ol ye ttoXXoI vop.itov(Tiv avroiv rrjv 
(T^ohpdv diLXiav diro t?}9 eV Mavriveta yeviadai 



348 



PELOPIDAS, III. 4-iv. 4 

he scorned, was a necessary thing, " Yes indeed," 
he said, "necessary for this Nicodemus here," point- 
ing to a man who was lame and blind. 

IV. They were also fitted by nature for the 
pursuit of every excellence, and in like measure, ex- 
cept that Pelopidas delighted more in exercising the 
bod}'^, Epaminondas in storing the mind, so that the 
one devoted his leisure hours to bodily exercise and 
hunting, the other to lectures and philosophy. Both 
had many claims upon the world's esteem, but wise 
men consider none of these so great as the un- 
questioned good will and friendship which subsisted 
between them from first to last through all their 
struggles and campaigns and civil services. For it 
one regai'ds the political careers of Themistocles and 
Aristides, or of Cimon and Pericles, or of Nicias and 
Alcibiades, which were so full of mutual dissensions, 
envyings, and jealousies, and then turns his eyes 
upon the honour and kindly favour which Pelo- 
pidas showed Epaminondas, he will rightly and 
justly call these men colleagues in government and 
command rather than those, who ever strove to get 
the better of one another rather than of the enemy. 
And the true reason for the superiority of the The- 
bans was their virtue, which led them not to aim in 
their actions at glory or wealth, which are naturally 
attended by bitter envying and strife ; on the con- 
trary, they were both filled from the beginning with 
a divine desire to see their country become most 
powerful and glorious in their day and by then- 
efforts, and to this end they treated one another's 
successes as their own. 

However, most people think that their ardent 
friendship dated from the campaign at Mantineia,i 

1 In 418 B.C., when Athens gave assistance to Argos, Elis, 
and Mantineia against Sparta. See the Alcibiades, xv. 1. 

349 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

crrpaTeiWi, ^v avvearpareva-avro KaKehaiixovioi^, 
€TL (f)iXoi<; KoX avfifxd'X^OL'i ovai, irefK^Oeiar]^ €K 
Srj^cov ^or]6e'La<i. rerayfj-evot yap iv rot? OTrXlraL^; 280 
fier dXXyjXcov Kol fxa)(^6fMevoi Trpo'i tov<; 'ApKdBa<i, 
d><i eviSwKe to Kar avrov<i Kepa<; twv AaKeSai- 
fiovLcov Koi TpoTTT] Twv ttoWmv ijeyovei, avvaaTn- 
5 cravTe<; ri/j,vvavTo tou? eiTK^epofxevov'^. kul IleXo- 
TTtSa? fiev €7rra rpav/xara \a/3a)v evavTLa ttoWol^ 
eTTiKareppin] V€Kpot<i o/xov (f)i\oi<; Kat 'TroXe/iLoi'i, 
' E7rafi6ivcovSa<; Be, Kaiirep d^ia>T(o<; exeLV avTov 
rjyovfievo<;, inrep rov a(o/xaTO<i koI tmv ottXoov 
ecTTT] TTpoeXOutv kol BieKivBvvevae tt/Oo? ttoA-Xol/? 
fj,6vo<i, iyvQ)Kct)<i cLTTodavelv fidXXov rj YleXoTTcBav 
dTToXiTrelv Keip.erov. ■y]hri Be koI tovtou KaKM<; 
exovTO^, KoX Xoy^r) p,ev ei? to crTtjOo^, ^L(f)et Be et? 
rov ^pa')(^iova Terpcop^evov, 7rpoo-e/3or]0>](Tev d-wo 
Oarepov Kepw^ ^ Ay rj a i7ToXi<i 6 /3aacXev<i tmv 
XiTapTcaTcov, koI irepLeiroir^crev dveXiricJTW'i av- 
Tovq d/xcfyorepovi. 

V. Mera Be ravra tmv STrapTiaTwv Xoyo) /xev 
ft)9 (})i,Xoi<i Koi avp.p,d)(^oi<; Trpoacjiepo/xevcov TOL<i 
Sri^aioi'i, epyw Be to (j)p6v7]p.a r?}? TroXew? kul ttjv 
Bvvafiiv v(fiop(op,eva)V, koI pbdXiaTa rrjv lap-r^vLOV 
Koi ^ AvBpoKXeiBov p,LaovpTcov eTaipelav, 'q<i p,eTet- 
'X^ev 6 rieXoTTtSa?, (piXeXevdepov dpa Kal Brjp^ori- 

2 KTjv elvai BoKOvaav, 'Ap^ta? xai Aeoi'TtSa? Kal 
^LXi7T7ro<i, dvBpe<; 6Xiyap-)(^iKo\ Kal irXovaioi Kat 
p,eTpiov ouBev (f)povouvTe<i, dvaTreidovai ^KtjSiBav 
Tov AdKwva /xera aTpaTid<i BiaTropevofievov i^ai- 
<f)vr}<; KaTaXa^elv tijv KaBp,ei,av Kal Tovf virevav- 
TLOvp,evov^ avTol<i eK^aXovTa irpo-i to AaKeBat' 
p,oviCi>v VTTrjKOOv app^oaaadai Bi oXiycov Trjv iroXi- 

3 Teiav. Treia-6evT0<i S" eKelvov Kal /irj irpoaBoKwai 

350 



PELOPIDAS, IV. 4-v. 3 

where they fought on the side of the Lacedaemonians, 
who were still their friends and allies, and who 
received assistance from Thebes. For they stood 
side by side among the men-at-arms and fought 
against the Arcadians, and when the Lacedaemonian 
wing to which they belonged gave way and was 
routed for the most part, they locked their shields 
together and repelled their assailants. Pelopidas, 
after receiving seven wounds in front, sank down 
upon a great heap of friends and enemies who 
lay dead together ; but Epaminondas, although he 
thought him lifeless, stood forth to defend his body 
and his arms, and fought desperatel}^, single handed 
against many, determined to die rather than leave 
Pelopidas lying there. And now he too was in a 
sorry plight, having been wounded in the breast 
with a spear and in the arm wdth a sword, when 
Agesipolis the Spartan king came to his aid from the 
other wing, and when all hope was lost, saved them 
both. 

V. After this the Spartans ostensibly treated the 
Thebans as friends and allies, but they really looked 
with suspicion on the ambitious spirit and the power 
of the city, and above all they hated the party of 
Ismenias and Androcleides, to which Pelopidas be- 
longed, and which was thought to be friendly to 
freedom and a popular form of government. There- 
fore Archias, Leontidas, and Philip, men of the 
oligarchical faction who were rich and immoderately 
ambitious, sought to persuade Phoebidas the Spartan, 
as he was marching past with an army, to take the 
Cadmeia by surjirise, expel from the city the party 
opposed to them, and bring the government into 
subserviency to the Lacedaemonians by putting it in 
the hands of a few men. Phoebidas yielded to their 

351 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

T0t9 %r]^aiOL<i iiriOe^evov @€a/j.o(f)opiQ)V ovtcov, 
Kol T?}9 aKpa<; KvpievaavTO<i, ^icr/u,rjVLa<; [xev avvap- 
7raadel<i kol Koixia6e\<i el<i AaKeBatfiova /x€t ov 
TToXvv ')(^p6vov avrjpeOrj, TleXoTrtSa? he /cal ^epe- 
vLKO<i fcal ^Av8poK\ei8a<; fjuera av-)(yoiv aXXrov (f)€V- 
>yovTe<i i^eK-)^pvxd'>](ycLv, ^ E'TrafieivciovBa'; Se Kara 
ywpav epLGLve rw Kara^povqdrivai Bia /xev (f)i\o- 
ao(piav &)9 uTTpdyfMcov, Bia Se ireviav co? ahvvaro<;. 
VI. 'Ettgi he AaKehai/xoviot ^oi^ihav fiev d<pei- 
\ovTO T^9 dp'X^f]'; KoX heKa hpa)(fj,o)v /xvpidcnv 
€^T]/jLla>a-av, ttjv he Kah/xeiav ovh(v '^rrov cppovpa 
KaTea')(ov, ol fiev aWoi 7rdiiTe<i' RWrjve^; idav/ia- 
^ov rrjv droTTiav, el rov p,ev irpd^avra KoXd^oucri, 
rrjv he TTpd^iv hoKi/xd^ovcri, roi^ he @7]^aLoi<; rr)v 
Trdrpiov dTTo/Se^XrjKocri TroXLTelav Kal Karahehov- 
\(i)/jLevoi<i vTTo TOiV irepl Wp)(iav Kal Keovrihav 
ovhe eXTTLcrai, irepirjv dTraXXayr/v riva t/}? rupav- 

2 viho<;, rjv eaipcov rfj '^irapTiarwv hopv(j)opovfievr]v 
rjyefiovia Kal KaTaXvOrjvai fMrj huvafj.ev)]v, el fiq 
T<? dpa Travaeie KdKeivov^ 7/')? kol OaXdrrrj^; 
dpyovTa<i. ov firjv aX,X' ol Trepl Aeovrihav irvvda- 
v6/xevot T0U9 (jyvydha'i ^A6>]V7]at hiarpi^eiv tu> re 
TTXrjOei 7rpoa(f)t\el<i oWa? Kal Tifxrjv eX"VTa<; viro 
TMV Ka\o)V Kal dyaOoiv, eire^ovXevov avTol<i Kpv- 
(pa' Kal 7r€/jiylravTe<; dvOpMirovi dyvcora^i 'Avhpo- 
KXeihav /J.ev diroKTivvvovai hoXcp, rcov he dXXcov 

3 hiapbaprdvovGLV. r]Ke he Kal irapd AaKelaip-oviwv 
ypd/j./j,aTa roU ^A6r]vaioi<i irpocndcraovTa p-rj he- 
'y^eaOai put-jhe TrapaKivelv, dXX' e^eXavveiv tou? 
<f)vydha<i ft)9 KOivov<i TToXefXLOVi vtto rcov avjiixd)(u)v 

352 



PELOPIDAS, V. 3-vi. 3 

persuasions, made his attack upon the Thebans when 
they did not expect it, since it was the festival of 
tlie Thesino[)horia, and got possession of the citadel.^ 
Then Ismenias was arrested, carried to Sparta, and 
after a little wliile put to death ; while Pelopidas, 
Pherenicus, Androcleides and many others took to 
flight and were proclaimed outlaws. Epaminondas, 
however, was suffered to remain in the city, because 
his philosophy made him to be looked down upon as 
a recluse, and his poverty as impotent. 

VI. But when the Lacedaemonians deprived Phoe- 
bidas of his command and fined him a hundred 
thousand drachmas, and yet held the Cadmeia with 
a garrison notwithstanding, all the rest of the Greeks 
were amazed at their inconsistency, since they pun- 
ished the wrong-doer, but approved his deed. And as 
for the Thebans, they had lost their ancestral form 
of government and were enslaved by Archias and 
l<eontidas, nor had they hopes of any deliverance 
from this tyranny, which they saw was guarded by 
the dominant military power of the Spartans and 
could not be pulled down unless those Spartans 
should somehow be deposed from their command of 
land and sea. Nevertheless, Leontidas and his as- 
sociates, learning that the fugitive Thebans were 
living at Athens, where they were not only in favour 
with the common people but also honoured by the 
nobility, secretly plotted against their lives, and 
sending men who were unknown, they treacherously 
killed Androcleides, but failed in their designs upon 
the rest. There came also letters from the Lacedae- 
monians charging the Athenians not to harbour or 
encourage the exiles, but to expel them as men 

1 In the winter of 382 B.C. Cf. the Agcfiilaus, xxiii. 
.V7. 

353 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

4 aTroSeSeiyfMei'OV^. oi /juev ovv ^Adrjvaioi, Trpo? tm 
irdrpiov avTOt<; koI av/x(f)VTOv elvai to (^iXdvd pw- 
TTOV, dfiei^6/j.evot tov<; H)]^aLOV<; fxaXiara avvai- 
Ttou? yevo/Mevov; rui Bij/mo) tov KareXdelv, Kol 
■\frrjcf)iaa/j.evov<;, idv Tc<i AOrivaiwv eVt rov<^ rvpav- 
vov^ oirXa hid ttj<; Boi<yTta? KOfii^rj, fxrjSeva Hoico- 
Tov aKoveiv fiijSe opdv, ovBev rjBi/c7]aav tou? 
Srj/SaLOV^. 

VII. 'O Se ITeXoTrtSa?, Kaiirep iv rot? vecord- 
Tot? &v, Ihla re kuO' e/caaTov e^copfia raiv tpvyd- 
Bcov, Ka\ TT/oo? TO 7r\rj9o<i iirou'^aaTO \oyov<i, o)? 281 
ovT€ Kokov ovre oaiov el'rj ^ SovXevovaav ri-jv 
TrarpiSa Koi <f)povpou/x€i'r}v Trepiopdv, avTOV<; 8e 
pbovov TO aco^eaOai Kal hia^rjv dyaTrcovTWi ixKpe- 
fiaadai t6)v W07]vrjai "yjnjcpicr/xdrcov Kal Oepa- 
ireveiv vTroTreirrfOKOTaf; del Toc<i Xeyeiv Swa/xivofi 

2 Kol TTelOeiv rov 6')(\ov, dWd KivSvpevreov vTrep 
rayv p-eyicrrcov, rrapdheiy/J-a Oefievovi rrjv ®paav- 
^ovXov ToXp-av Kal dpeTijv, iva, ft)9 eKelvo'i ck 
SrjBoyv TTporepov opp.rjdel^; KareXvae tov<; ev 'AOtj- 
vat^ Tvpdvvou<i, oi/Tft)? avTol irdXiv i^ Adrjvojv 
TrpoeXOovre^; eXevdepooawat rd^ ST]/3a^. &)? ovv 
eireicre ravra Xiycov, TrepiTrovaiv ei? @7;/3a9 Kpv^a 
'7rp6<; TOV<; vTToXeXeip,p.evov<; TOiv cfiiXwv rd Seooy- 

3 fieva (f)pd^oi>re<;. o'l he cTVveiTrjVOVv Kal Xapwy 
fxev, ocTTTep rjv €7ncf)ave(TTaT0<i, wp-oXoyrjcre rrjv 
OiKiav irape^eiv, ^iXXiha^ he hteTrpd^aro tmv 
Trepl ^ Apy^lav Kal ^lXlttttov ypap^fiaiev^ yeveaOai 
TToXep-ap^ovvToyv. 'E7rap,eivQ)vha<; he tov<; veou<i 

^ fiT] Coraes and Bekker, with most MSS. : tlvai with A. 

' In 403 B.C., when Thrasybuhis set out from Thebes on 
his campaign against the Thirty Tyrants at Athens (Xeno- 
phon, Hell. ii. 4, 2). 

354 



PELOPIDAS, VI. 4-vii. 3 

declared common enemies by the allied cities. The 
Athenians, however, not only yielding to their tradi- 
tional and natural instincts of humanity, but also 
making a grateful return for the kindness of the 
Thebans, who had been most ready to aid them in 
restoring their democracy,^ and had passed a decree 
that if any Athenians marched through Boeotia 
against the tyrants in Athens, no Boeotian should 
see or hear them, did no harm to the Thebans in 
their city. 

VII. But Pelopidas, although he was one of the 
youngest of the exiles, kept inciting each man of 
them privately, and when they met together 
pleaded before them that it was neither right nor 
honourable for them to suffer their native city to be 
garrisoned and enslaved, and, content with mere life 
and safety, to hang upon the decrees of the Athen- 
ians, and to be always cringing and paying court to 
such orators as could persuade the people ; nay, they 
must risk their lives for the highest good, and take 
Thrasybulus and his bold valour for their example, 
in order that, as he once sallied forth from Thebes ^ 
and overthrew the tyrants in Athens, so they in their 
turn might go forth from Athens and liberate Thebes. 
When, therefore, they had been persuaded by his 
appeals, they sent secretly to the friends they had 
left in Thebes, and told them what they purposed. 
These approved their plan ; and Charon, a man of 
the highest distinction, agreed to put his house at 
their disposal, while Phillidas contrived to have him- 
self appointed secretary to Archias and Pliilip, the 
polemarchs. Epaminondas,^ too, had long since filled 

^ There is no mention either of Epaminondas or Pelopidas 
in Xenophon's account of these n)atters (Hell. v. 4, 1-12), 
and his story differs in many details from that of Plutarch. 

355 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TToXai (ppovtj/JiaTO'; rjv ifMTreirXTjKcos' CKeXeve yap 
iv TOi? 'yvfj-vaaloi'i iinXa/x^dvecrdai tmv AuKeBai- 
j-iovicav Kal iraXaleiv, elra opwv evri to5 Kparelv 
/cat irepielvai yaupov/xeuov^; eTreTrXtjTTev, &)<? 
ala^vvecrdai fxdXXov avrol<i irpocrrjKOV, et hovXev- 
ovat 8i avavhpiav oiv roaovrou rat? p(i)/xai<i 
8ia(j)6povaiv. 

VIII. 'H/x-epa? Be Trpo? rrjv trpa^iv opiadd(Tr)<;, 
eSofe TOt? (jjuydai tov<; fiev aXXov<; avvayayovTa 
^epeviKov iv tu) ©piacriw irepi/xeveiv, oXiyov; Se 
TMV vecoTciroov irapa^aXeadai TrpoeiaeXdelv elf 
rrjv TToXiv, eav he rt Trddcoaiv viro tmv iroXefiLMv 
ovTOi, T0U9 aXXovi eTrifieXeladat Trdvra'i 67r(o<i 
/jb'^Te TralSe'i avroiv fxrjre yovet'i e^Seet? ecrovTUi 
TMV dvayKatcdv. v(f)i(jTaTai Be ttjv Trpd^iv IleXo- 
TTtSa? irpMTO'i, elra M.eXa>v Kal Aa/xoKXelBwi kuI 
(j)eo7royu,7ro9, dvBpe<i o'lkcov re Trpcorcov Kai 7rpo<i 
dX\y]Xov^ ra dXXa fxev (f)iXiKoo<; Kal 7riarco<;, inrep 
Be B6^r]<; Kal dvBpeta<; del (f)iXoveiKco<; e^oi/Te?. 
yevo/Jievoi Be ol avpLiravTe^ BcoBeKa, Kat rov<i aTro- 
Xeirrofievovi dcnracrdiievoi, Kal 7rpo7r€/xyJravTe<i 
dyyeXov tm 'Kdpwvi, Trporjyov iv ')(Xap.vBioL<;, 
(TKvXaKd<i le 6r]paTiKd<; Kal ardXiKa^; e^^Oi're?, to? 
jxrjBe eh vTTOiTTevoi twv evrvyX(^v6vTa>v Kad oBov, 
dXX' dXvovT€<; aXXco? irXavdadai Kal Kvvrjyeiv 
BoKolev. 

'Evrei Be 6 '7r€/ji(f}0eh Trap' avTwv dyyeXo<; r)Ke 
7r/309 Tov ^dpwva Kal Kad' oBov ovTa<; e(})pa^€v, 
auT09 fiev 6 \dpo)v ovBe viro tov Beivov rrXi-jcnd- 
^ovTO<i erpeyfre ri T/79 yi'ca/jbrj'i, dXX" dvr]p ciyaOo^ 
vv Kal TTapelye tvv oLKiav, 'iTriroaOevlBa'i Be rt?, 
ov TTOv^ipo^ [juev, aXXa Kai (piXowaTpc^i Kai roi.'i 
(jivyd(Ttv evvov<; dv0pco7ro<;, ivBer]<; Be ToXfirj^; 

356 



PELOPIDAS, VII. 3-viii. 3 

the minds of the Theban youth with high thoughts ; 
for he kept urging them in the gymnastic schools to 
try the Lacedaemonians in wrestHng, and when he 
saw them elated with victory and mastery, he would 
chide them, telling them they ought rather to be 
ashamed, since their cowardice made them the slaves 
of the men whom they so far surpassed in bodily 
powers. 

VIII. A day for the enterprise having been fixed,^ 
the exiles decided that Pherenicus, with the rest of 
the party under his command, should remain in the 
Thriasian plain, while a few of the youngest took the 
risk of going forward into the city ; and if anything 
happened to these at the hands of their enemies, the 
rest should all see to it that neither their children nor 
their parents came to any want. Pelopidas was first 
to undertake the enterprise, then Melon, Damoclei- 
des, and Theopompus, men of foremost families, and 
of mutual fidelity and friendship, although in the 
race for heroic achievement and glory they were 
constant rivals. When their number had reached 
twelve, they bade farewell to those who stayed be- 
hind, sent a messenger before them to Charon, and 
set out in short cloaks, taking hunting dogs and nets 
with them, that anyone who met them on the road 
might not suspect their purpose, but take them for 
hunters beating about the country. 

When their messenger came to Charon and told 
him they were on the way, Charon himself did not 
change his mind at all even though the hour of peril 
drew nigh, but was a man of his word and prepared 
his house to receive them ; a certain Hippostheni- 
das, however, not a bad man, nay, both })atriotic and 
well disposed towards the exiles, but lacking in that 

1 In the winter of 379 B.C. 

357 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Toaavrrjq ocrri<; 6 re Kaipo'i 6^v<; mv a'i re viroKei- 
fievai Trpa'^et? airrjrovv, wcnrep l\iyyi.daa<i 7rpo<i 
TO /xeyeOo<; rov ayojvo<; iv X^pal yevofievov, koI 

4 fioXi^i TTore t« \oyi(T/ji(p au/j,(ppov)](ra^ on rpoirov 
7tva rrjv tmv AaKeSai/xovLcov aaXevovaiv apxv^ 
Kol tt}? eKeWev Suucifjieco^ inro^dWovTat kutu- 
Xvaiv, TTto-TeucravTe? diropoL'^ koX (^vyahiKaU 
ekiTLaiv, direXOwv ol'/caSe aiooTrfj irefiTreL rivd tmv 
(f)i\(t)v Trpo? MeXwva kol UeXoiriSav, dva/SaXeaOai 
KeXevwv iv ru) Trapovri koI Trepifieveiv ^eXnova 
Katpov avdi'i d7raXXayevTa<; ek 'A^^Jra?. XXtSwi' 
^v ovofxa T& irefKfiOevTt, Kai Kara (jttou^tjv otKuSe 
7r/909 auTOV rpawo/j-evo'i Kal tov 'i-n-rrov i^ayaycov 

6 rjrei TOV X'^^'^^^^- d7ropov/M€v>]<i Se rf;? yvvaiKO'i 
a)<f ovK el^e hovvai, Kal XPV^^^ "^^^^ '^^^ avvi]6u)V 
X€yovcrr)<i, XotBopiai to Trprbrov yaav, elra Suacprj- 
fiiai, T/)? yvvaiKO<i iirapco/j-evr]'; avrw Te KaKa<; 
68ov<; eVet/'O) /cat TOt? irefXTTOvaiv, ware Kal rov 
XXiBcova TToXv T?7<> rj/jiepa'i uvaXcoaavra irpo-; 
TovToi<; 8i opytjv, a/j.a 8e Kal to (TVfi^€/3t]K0<; 
oiQ)viadiJi€vov, cKpelvat rr^v oSov oXw? Kal 7Tpo<i 
aXXo Tt TpaireaOai. irapd roaovTov fiev rjXdov 282 
ai /xiyio-rat Kal KiiXXtarai tmv irpd^ewv ev6v<i iv 
dpxfl ^ia(f)uy€tv tov Katpov. 

IX. Of Se rrepl tov UeXoiriSav iaOrjTa^ yewp- 
ycbv /jL€TaXa^6vT€<; Kal SieXovTe'i auTou? dXXoi 
Kar dXXa fieprj t?}9 TToXew'? TrapeiarjXOov ert 
T}fi.epa<; ov(TT]<;. rjv he ti -iTvevfxa Kal vicf)€To<; . 

dpxo/^evov TpeireaOat tov depo<;, Kal fxdXXov 
eXaOov Kara7re(f)evy6T(ov i]8r} hid toi^ %et/LAWi^a, tmv 
irXelaTcov ek Td<; oIkm^;. oU he rjv i-mixeXh rd 
irpaTTOfieva yivwaKeiv, dveXd/x^avov tou<; irpoa- 
epxofievov^ Kal KaOiarwv €vdv<; ek ttjv oiKiav 

358 



PELOPIDAS, viii. 3-ix. i 

degree of boldness which the sharp crisis and the pro 
jected enterprise demanded, was made dizzy, so to 
speak, by the magnitude of the struggle now so close 
at hand, and at last comprehended that, in undertaking 
to overthrow the armed force in the city, they were 
in a manner trying to shake the empire of the Lace- 
daemonians, and had placed their reliance on the hopes 
of men in exile and without resources. He therefore 
went quietly home, and sent one of his friends to 
Melon and Pelopidas, urging them to postpone the 
enterprise for the present, go back to Athens, and 
await a more favourable opportunity. Chlidon was 
the name of this messenger, and going to his own 
home in haste, he brought out his horse and asked 
for the bridle. His wife, however, was embarrassed 
because she could not give it to him, and said she 
had lent it to a neighbour. Words of abuse were 
followed by imprecations, and his wife prayed that 
the journey might prove fatal both to him and 
to those that sent him. Chlidon, therefore, after 
spending a great part of the day in this angry 
squabble, and after making up his mind, too, that 
what had happened was ominous, gave up his journey 
entirely and turned his thoughts to something else. 
So near can the greatest and fairest enterprises come, 
at the very outset, to missing their opportunity. 

IX. But Pelopidas and his companions, after put- 
ting on the dress of peasants, and separating, entered 
the city at different points while it was yet day. 
There was some wind and snow as the weather 
began to change, and they were the more un- 
observed because most people had already taken 
refuge from the storm in their houses. Those, how- 
ever, whose business it was to know what was going 
on, received the visitors as they came, and brought 

359 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Tov ^ap(ovo<^' iyevovTO he avv toc<; (f)v<yd(Ti irevTi]- 
Kovra hvoiv heovTa. 

2 Ta Se irepX tou? rvpdvvov; oi/tw? ft%e. ^iWl- 
Sa<; 6 ypa/u.fxaTevs a-vveTrparTe fiev, uxrirep el'prjTai, 
iravra Kal crvvrjBei rol^ (fjvydaiv, eh Be rrjv 
rjiiepav eKeivrjv e'« -iraKaiov KarrjyyeXKoo'i TOi? 
TTepl TOV 'Ap-x^lav ttotov riva koI auvovcrlav /cal 
fyvvaia rcbv vTrduBpcov, eTrparrev ore /xaXiara 
Tat9 ■^Bovai^ €k\€\v/j,€vou^ Kal KaToivov<; fiera')(^eL- 

3 piaaaOai irape^eiv tol<; eViTi^eyuerot?. ovirco Be 
Trdvv TToppoi [xeOi'i's ouaiv avrol'i TrpoaeTreae rt? ov 
■v^euS?;? fiev, d^ej3aio<i Be Kal iroWrjv dad(})€iav 
e-^ovaa Tzepl ro)v (pvydBav fi7]VV(Ti<; ci)? iv Tjj 
TToXei Kpv7rrojj.evQ}V. rov Be ^lWlBov irapa^ep- 
ovTO<i TOV \6yov, o/jlco<; 'A/?;^ia<? eVeya-v/re Tiva tmv 
vTrrjpeTWv 7rp6<; tov Xdpojva, irpoaTdcrawv evOu'^ 
rJKeiv avTov. rjv Be kairepa, Kal avveTaTTOv evBov 
aiiTom ol irepl tov YleXcrrtBav, ')]Bi] TeOcopaKi- 

4 apbevoL Kal Td<; fia')(^aipa^ dveiXi^cf^oTef;. e^aii^vri<^ 
Be KOTTTOfxevTj^ T^9 6vpa<; TrpoaBpa/xcov t<9, Kal 
7Tv06fievo<; TOV vTrrjpeTou Xdpwva jxeTievai irapa 
Twv TToXefidp^^wv (f)da-K0VT0<;, aTTi^yyeiXev eccrco 
Te6opv^')]fievo<;, Kal irdaiv evdvi TrapeaTi] Tijv re 
TTpd^LV eKpLe/jLr]vv(jOai Kai a(pd<i airavTa'i uttoXco- 
Xevai, p.7]Be BpdaavTd<; tl t?}? dpeT7j<i d^iov. ov 
fxrjv aXX' eBo^ev VTraKovaai tov \dpcova Kal 
Trapacrx^tv eavTov Beiv dwTToirTco^ toi^ dp^ovaiv, 
dXXci}<; fxev dvBpcoBrj Kal ^apvv ovTa tS> dappelv 

5 TTapd TCI Beivd, totc Be St' eVetVot"? eKTreirXr^y- 
fievov Kal irepiTradovvTa, fii] rt? viro'^ia irpo- 

360 



PELOPIDAS, IX. 1-5 

them at once to the house of Charon ; and there 
were, counting the exiles, forty-eight of them. 

With the tyrants, matters stood as follows. Phil- 
lidas, their secretary, as 1 have said, was privy to the 
plans of the exiles and was co-operating fully witli 
them, and some time before had proposed for that day 
that Archias and his friends should have a drinking- 
bout, at which a few married women should join them, 
his scheme being that when they were full of wine and 
completely relaxed in their pleasures, he would de- 
liver them into the hands of their assailants. But 
before the party were very deep in their cups, some 
information was suddenly brought them, not false, 
indeed, but uncertain and very vague, that the exiles 
were concealed in the city. Although Phillidas tried 
to change the subject, Archias nevertheless sent one 
of his attendants to Charon, commanding him to come 
to him at once. It was evening, and Pelopidas and his 
companions in Charon's house were getting them- 
selves ready for action, having ah-eady put on their 
breastplates and taken up their swords. Then there 
was a sudden knocking at the door. Someone ran to 
it, learned from the attendant that he was come from 
the polemarchs with a summons for Charon, and 
brought the news inside, much perturbed. All were 
at once convinced that their enterprise had been 
revealed, and that they themselves were all lost, 
before they had even done anything worthy of their 
valour. However, they decided that Charon must 
obey the summons and present himself boldly before 
the magistrates. Charon was generally an intrepid 
man and of a stern courage in the face of danger, 
but in this case he was much concerned and fright- 
ened on account of his friends, and feared that some 



361 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

So<7i,a<i eV avTov eXOrj ToaoinoiV a/j-a /cat roiou- 
Tu>v TToXircov airoXo/jLevwv. to? ovv e/xeWev ame- 
vai, 7rapa\al3(iiv eV Tf;"? yvvaLKcovLTiSo^ tov vlov, 
ere fxev ovra iralha, KoKXec Se koX poo/jLT) a(OfjiaTo<i 
TTpcoTevovTa T(i)u KaO' ifKiKiav, eVe;^et/9t^6 toI^ 
irepl YleXoTrihav, et rtva SoXov koI -npohoaiav 
avrov KaTa'^volev, &)? iroXefxiw '^(^prjaOat KsXeixov 

6 eKeivw koI fxr} ^elZecrdai. iroWol^ pev ovv avrdv 
SaKpva 7rpo<i to 7rd9o<; koI to (^povqpa tov Xa- 
p(i)vo<; e^eVecre, Trai^re? Be rj'yava.KTOVv el heCXov 
ovTOi'i elvai Tiva BoKet kol Bie<pdapp,6vov vtto tov 
TrapovTO^, axTTe virovoelv eKelvov r) b\(i)<; acTid- 
aOai- KoX TOV vlov eheovTO pi] KUTaptyvveiv av- 
T0i9, aW' eKTroSoov deaOai tov pe\\ovTo<i, ottw? 
auTO? 76 TTj TToXet /cat Tol<i (j)LXot<; TLp,(opo<i vtto- 
Tpe^oLTO Tre pia 0) 6 eU kol Stacpvyoov toi"? Tvpdv- 

7 vov^. he 1s.dpu}V tov pev vlov diraWd^eiv ovk 
e(hr]- TTolov yap avTw ^lov opdv t) Ttva croyTTjpiav 
KaWlova Trjq opov pueTa iraTpcx; koI (ptXcov toctov- 
TOiv dvv/3pl<XT0v reXeuTT}? ; eTrev^dpevoq he TOi<? 
Oeol'i KoX TrdvTa<; daira(xdpevo<i koI irapadappvva^ 
aTrr/ei, irpoaexoov eavTW koI pvOpl^cov a)(^r]paTC 
irpocTcoTrov koL tovco (pcovr]<i dvopoioTUTO'i ol<; 
'iirpaTTe <^avrjvaL. 

X. Vevop.evov 8' eVi rat? dvpai'i avTov, irpo- 
fjXdev 6 'A/3Xta9, /cat <t>iXXiha'i,^ kol elirev '|'fl 
Xdpwv, TLvd<i dKi]Koa TrapeXrjXvOoTa^ ev ttj ttoXsi 
KpvTTTecrdaL, Koi avpLirpaTTeiv avToU evlov^ t(ov 
•iroXiTfov'' Kal 6 Xdpwv BiaTapax^eU to irpd)- 
tov, cItu epwTTjcraii rti^e? elalv ol irapeXvfX.vOoTe'i 
Kal Tive<i ol Kpv'7TT0VT6<i avTov<i, CO? ovBev ecopa 

1 *i\Ai5oy with the MSS. : *fA.iriros, Bryan's correction 
(of. Morals, p. 595 f.). Bekker brackets kuI *i\nnros. 

362 



PELOPIDAS, IX. 5-x. i 

suspicion of treachery would fall upon him if so many 
and such excellent citizens now lost their lives. Ac- 
cordingly, as he was about to depart, he brought his 
son from the women's apartments, a mere boy as yet, 
but in beauty and bodily strength surpassing those of 
his years, and put him in the hands of Pelopidas, tell- 
ing him that if he found any guile or treachery in the 
father, he must treat the son as an enemy and show 
him no mercy. Many were moved to tears bv the 
noble concern which Charon showed, and all were 
indignant that he should think any one of them so 
demoralized by the present peril and so mean-spirited 
as to suspect him or blame him in the least. They 
also begged him not to involve his son with them, 
but to put him out of harm's way, that he might 
escape the tyrants and live to become an avenger of 
his city and his friends. Charon, however, refused 
to take his son away, asking if any kind of life or 
any safety could be more honourable for him than a 
decorous death with his father and all these friends. 
Then he addressed the gods in prayer, and after 
embracing and encouraging them all, went his way, 
striving so to compose his countenance and modulate 
his voice as not to betray what he was really doing. 

X. When he reached the door of the house, 
Archias came out to him, with Phillidas, and said : 
"Charon, I have heard that certain men have come 
and hid themselves in the citv, and that some of the 
citizens ai'e in collusion with them." Charon was 
disturbed at first, but on asking who the men were 
that had come and who were concealing them, he 
saw that Archias could give no clear account of the 

3^3 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

cra(f)e<i ecTreiv e^ovra rov ^Ap-^iav, v7rovo7](Ta<i utt' 28* 
ovSevo^; tcov eiriaTa/nevcov yejovivat, Tr]v fj,7]vvcnv, 

" OpUTC TOLVVV," €(f)r}, " fXT) KeVO<i Tt? U/tiO? hiu- 

rapaTTT) Xoyof. ov fxrjv aWa aKeyjrofiaL' Set 

2 jap iaa)<i p,r]8evo^ KaTac^poveivT ravra kol 
^iWiha<i TTapcov eir^vei, kol tov ^Ap-)(iav aira- 
ywywv av6i<; et? uKparov iroXvv KUTe^aXe, kuI 
Tat? TT€pl TOiv yvvaiKCOV iXiriai, SieTraiSwycoyei 
TOV TTOTOv. do's S' ijTavyjXOev 6 xidpcov otVaSe 
Kal 8i€<JK€vacr/jLevov^ rov<i av8pa<; evpev ov^ (^'i 
av Tcva VLKrjv rj acorrjplav iX7Tb^ovTa<;, aXX' &>? 
airodavovp.evov^ Xa/xvpoj^ Kal fiera (f)6vov ttoXXov 
TCOV TToXepLoyv, to fxev aXrjOe'i avTol<; e(ppa^e rot? 
Trepl TOV lleXoTriBav, tt/OO? Be tou? aXXov<; eyp-ev- 
aaTo X6yov<i Tiva<i tov ^ Kp')(iov irepl 7rpay/.tdT(ov 
eTepcov TrXaadp-evci. 

3 "Ert Se TOV irpcoTov irapac^epopevov BevTcpov | 
iiryyev rj tv^V X^i/AWfa tol'; dvBpdaiv. rjKe ydp 1 
Tf<? e'^ ^A6j]va)v irapd ^Apy^iov tov i€po(f)dvTov ' 
TT/oo? Apyiav TOV op,(t)vvpov, ^evov ovtu koI (f)iXov, 
iiriaToXi^v Kop-L^cov ov kcvtjv e-^ovaav ovhe 7re- 
irXaa/MevTjv vTrovoiav, dXXa aa(f}M<i eKaaTa Trepl 
Tb)v Trpacrc-op-evwv (f)daK0vaav, co? voTepov eVe- 

4 yvdiadrj. Tore he /xedvovTi tw ^Ap'^t'a Trpocr- 
wx^Oel^ 6 ypap,/LiaTO(f)6po^ Kal ttjv eTrKJToXrjv 
eiTihov^, " 'O TavTi]v" €<pr), " Trep^^jra^ eKeXevaev 
evdvf dvayvwvar Trepl cnrovSaLcov ydp tlvcov 
yeypd(f)dai." Kal 6 'A/j^ia? p.€i8idcra<i, " Ovkovv 
6t<? avpiov" e(f)r], " TO, aTTovBata." Kal ttjv ein- 
aToXrjv Be^dfX€vo<; vtto to Trpoo'KecjydXacov uiredt]- 
Kev, avTo<i Be irdXiv tw ^iXXiBa Trepl wv eTvyy_avov 
BiaXeyoixevoi Trpocrelxev. 6 [xev ovv Xoya outo? 

364 



PELOPIDAS, X. 1-4 

matter, and conjectured that his information had not 
come from any of those who were j)rivy to the plot. 
He therefore said : " Do not, then, suffer any empty 
rumour to disturb you. However, I will look into 
the matter ; for perhaps no story should be ignored." 
Phillidas, too, who stood by, approved of this, and 
after leading Archias back, got him to drink hard, 
and tried to protract the revel with hopes of a visit 
from the women. But Charon, when he got back 
home, and found the men there disposed, not to 
expect safety or victory at all, but to die gloriously 
after a great slaughter of their enemies, told the 
truth only to Pelopidas himself, while for the rest he 
concocted a false tale that Archias had talked with 
him about other matters.^ 

Before this first storm had yet blown over, for- 
tune brought a second down upon the men. For 
there came a messenger from Athens, from Archias 
the hierophant to his namesake Archias, who was his 
guest-friend, bearing a letter which contained no 
empty nor false suspicion, but stated clearly all the 
details of the scheme that was on foot, as was subse- 
quently learned. At the time, however, Archias was 
drunk, and the bearer of the letter was brought to 
him and put it into his hands, saying : " The sender 
of this bade thee read it at once ; for it is on serious 
business." Then Archias answered with a smile : 
''Serious business for the morrow"; and when he 
had received the letter he put it under his pillow, 
and resumed his casual conversation with Phillidas. 

1 According to Plutarch's lengthy version of this affair in 
his Discourse concerning the. Daemon of Socrates (chapter 29, 
Morals, p. 595 f . ), Charon hid the truth from no one. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ev TrapoLfiim rd^ei TTepi(f)ep6in€i'0<i /ieX/Oi vvv 
8ia<T(i)^erai irapa toi? ' EXX??<rf. 

XL Tt}? he TTpd^eo3<i hoKovari<i e)(eLV i]8r) rov 
oLKelov Kaipov, i^oopfioyv hiya hieXovre^i avrov^, 
ol fiev Trepl IleXoiriSav kol Aa/xoKXelSav iirl 
rov AeovrlSav koI rov "Tirdrr^v 6771/9 dWifkiov 
OLKOuvra<i, Xdpcov Be Kol MeXwv eVl rov ^Ap')(^Lav 
Koi ^iXimvov, ia6r}ra<i eirevhehufxevoi yvvaiKelwi 
TOt? dcopa^i, Kal Saael'i arecfydvovf; iXdrrjii re koi 
irevKriq TreptKel/jievoi KaraaKid^ovra^ rd Trpoa- 

2 wira. 816 KoX rai<; 6vpai.<i rov avp^iroaiov to 
rrpoyrov iiriardvre^;, Kporov eTrolrjcrav Kal dopv^ov 
oiofjievwv a<i ivdXat, TrpoaeSoKcov 'yvvalKa'i i^Keiv. 
eirel 8e 7Tepi^Xe-^avre<; ev kvkXw ro au/xirocrtov 
KOL rwv KaraKCKXip-evoiv eKaarov uKpt^ux; Kara- 
fiaOuvre'i ecnrdaavro rd<i fia)(^aLpa<i, Kal (jjepo- 
/j,€voi Bia rwv rpaire^Mv iirl rov ^Kp'^iav Kal 

3 (t>iXi7nrov i(f)di>i]crav o'lrrep rjaav, 0X1701;? piev 
<t>LXXi8a<; row KaraKapiivcov eireiaev i)avy(iav 
d<yetv, T0U9 he dXXovi dpLVveadai /xerd ro)V TroXe- 
pbdp)(^u)V eTTi')(eLpovvra<i Kal avve^aviara/xevovi 
hid rrjv fieOrjv ov irdw p^aXevrw? direKreivav. 

Toi? he Trepl rov UeXorrlhav epycohearepov 
dirt^vra ro rrpd'^p.a' Kal yap eVl v/](fiovTa Kal 
heivov dvhpa rov Aeovrihav e-y^copovv, Kal kckXci- 
(TpLev>)v rr]v otKLav evpov i"]8rj KaOevhovro^, Kal 
TToXijv 'Xpovov Komovaiv avrol<i vTnJKOvev ovhet'i. 

4 /loXt? he irore rov depurrovro'^ ala6op,evov irpoi- 
ovra evhoOev koI rov pLO)(Xov d(f)aipovvro<;, d/xa 
rw IT pair ov evhovvai Kal j^aXdaai ra? dupa<i 
e/j,7re(T6vr€<i dOpooi Kal rov oiKerijv dvarpe^j/avre'i 
eirl rov OdXa/aov Mpp,y]aav. 6 he Aeoi>riha^ avrw 
reK[xaip6p.evo<i rw Krvirw Kal hpop-co ro yiyvo- 

366 



PELOPIDAS, X. 4-.\i. 4 

Wherefore these words of his are a current proverb 
to this day among the Greeks. 

XI. Now that the fitting time for their under- 
taking seemed to have come, they salHed forth in 
two bands ; one, under the lead of Pelopidas and 
Damocleidas, against Leontidas and Hypates, who 
hved near together ; the other against Archias and 
PhiHp, under Charon and Melon, who had put on 
women's apparel over their breastplates, and wore 
thick garlands of pine and fir which shaded their 
faces. For this reason, when they stood at the door 
of the banquet-room, at first the company shouted 
and clapped their hands, supposing that the women 
whom they had long been expecting were come. 
But then, after surveying the banquet and carefully 
marking each of the reclining guests, the visitors 
drew their swords, and rushing through the midst of 
the tables at Archias and Philip, revealed who they 
were. A few of the guests were persuaded by 
Phillidas to remain quiet, but the rest, who, with the 
polemarchs, offered resistance and tried to defend 
themselves, were dispatched without any trouble, 
since they were drunk. 

Pelopidas and his party, however, were confronted 
with a harder task ; for Leontidas, against whom 
they were going, was a sober and formidable man, 
and they found his house closed, since he had already 
gone to bed. For a long time no one answered their 
knocking, but at last the attendant heard them and 
came out and drew back the bolt. As soon as the 
door yielded and gave way, they rushed in together, 
overturned the servant, and hastened towards the 
bed-chamber. But Leontidas, conjecturing what was 
happening by the very noise and trampling, rose from 



367 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

5 fievov, eairdcraTO fJLev to i'y^eipihiov i^avaardii, 
eXaOe he avrbv Kara^aXelv ra Xv^va Kal Bia 
(TK6Tov<i avrou<i eavrot'i TreptTreret? Troirjaai Toy? 
dvhpa<i. €v he 0&)Tt ttoWu) KaOop(t}/j.evo<i, viri'jVTa 
Trpo^- ra? dvpwi avrol'i rov 6a\dp,ov, kol rov 
TvpoiTOV elcrtovra K.r)(f)ia6hcopov Trard^a^ Kari- 
/3aXe. 7r€a6vTO<i he tovtov hevrepco ovveirXeKeTO 
ru> TLeXoTTiha' koI rrjv fid^r^v '^aXeiriiv eTroiei koI 
hvcrepyov i) arevoTt^^ tmv dupoii' koL /cet/xevo? 

6 epLTTohcov 'i'jhjj vcKpo^ 6 KT](f)icr6h(i}pu'i. eKpdjrjae 
5' ovv 6 IleXoTTtSa?, koX Karepyaadfievo^ rov 28 
Aeoinihav eirl rov "TirdTrfv evOv'i e-)(_(i)peL fxera 
TMV avv avTU>. Kal TrapeicreTreaov fxev ei? r-qv 
otKLUv 6/jLOiux;, alaOofxevov he Ta;^e&)9 koX Kara- 
(^vjovra TTpo'i tou? yeiTOVwi, eV irohcov hioo^auTef 
elXov Kal hie(f)9eipav. 

XII. Aia7rpa^dfJievot, he rravia Kal Toi<i jrepi 
MeA-wi'a crvfi/SaXopTe^i €7refj.\lrav fxev els t^}v 
^Attiktjv eirl tol"? vTroXeXei/x/xevov^; eKec tmv 
(f)vydho}p, eKuXovv he tov<; TToXira'i eirl ttjv eXev- 
depiav, Kal rov<i Trpoa-iovra'i mttXi^ov, d(paipovvre<i 
diro Twv arowv rd -nepiKeipLeva cKvXa, Kal rd 
irepl Tr]V olKiav epyaari^pia hopv^owv Kal iiayai- 

2 poTTOtMV dvapprjyvvvTe<;. rjKov he ^oi]dovvTe<i 
avrol'i fxerd tcov ottXcov ol irepl ^KTra/j,eivoi)vhav 
Kal Topyihav, avveiXo-^ore^ ovk 6Xiyov<; tmv veMv 
Kal TOiv TTpea^vrepcov Tov<i /BeXrlaTovi;. i) he 
TToXi? rjhi] fiev dve7n6t]TO rrdaa, Kal TroXv<; 6opv- 
/3o<i 7]v Kal (pcoTa jrepl Td<i olKLa<i Kal hiahpopat, 
7rpo9 dXXyjXou^, ovttco he avveiary^Kei to 7rXfjOo<i, 
dXX' eKireirXriyfievoi irpo'i Ta yivo/j.eva Kal aa(pe<i 

3 ovhei> €LhoTe<i 7]fxepav Trepcefievov. 69ev djiapTelv ol 
TCOV AaKehai/xovloiv dpxovTe<; eho^av evdu<; ovk em- 

368 



PELOPIDAS, XI. 5-xii. 3 

bed and drew his dagger, but he forgot to over- 
throw the lamps and make tiie men fall foul of one 
another in the darkness. On the contrary, exposed 
to view by an abundance of light, he went to meet 
them at the door of his chamber, and struck down 
the first one that entered, Cephisodorus. When this 
assailant had fallen, he engaged Pelopidas next ; and 
tlieir conflict was rendered troublesome and difficult 
by the narrowness of the door and by Cephisodorus, 
whose body, now dead, lay in their way. But at last 
Pelopidas prevailed, and after dispatching Leontidas, 
he and his followers went at once to attack Hypates. 
Thev broke into his house as they had done into the 
other, but he promptly perceived their design and 
fled for refuge to his neighbours. Thither they 
closely followed him, and caught him, and slew him. 
XII., These things accomplished, they joined 
Melon's party, and sent into Attica for the exiles they 
had left there.^ They also summoned the citizens to 
fio-ht for their freedom, and armed those who came, 
taking from the porticos the spoils suspended there, 
and breaking open the neighbouring workshops of 
spear-makers and sword-makers. Epaminondas and 
Gorgidas also came to their aid with an armed fol- 
lowing, composed of many young men and the best 
of the older men. And now the city was all in a 
flutter of excitement, there was much noise, the 
houses had lights in them, and there was running to 
and fro. The })eople, however, did not yet assemble ; 
they were terrified at what was going on, and had 
no clear knowledge of it, and were waiting for day. 
Wherefore the Spartan commanders were thought to 
have made a mistake in not attacking and engaging 

^ Cf. chapter viii, 1. 

369 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Spafx,6vT€<; ovSe av/ji^a\6vr€<;, avTrj jxev r/ (f)povpa 
irepl ^i/Vt'ou? irevT aKocriov<; ovre^, e'/c he r?}? TroXew? 
7rpo9 avToi)^ rroWcov avvrpcx^ovTcov, aWa ttjv 
jBorjV Kol ra irvpa koL tov o-^Xov -y^copovvra ^ 
7ravTa')(^66ev ttoXvv (^o^rjOevre^ rjav^^a^ov, avrrjv 
4 TTju HaSpeiav KaTe-)(ovTe<i. apa he rjpiepa nrap- 
r\<yav p,ev eK rfj^ ^ArTiKrj'; o'l (pvydhe'i oDTrXicrpevoi, 
avvrjOpoLCTTO he €i<? ttjv eKKXrjaiav 6 htipo^. 
elafjyov he rovi irepl JleXoirihav ^Ej7rap,eivoi)vha<; 
KoX Fopyiha<i viro rwv lepewv 'Trepie)(^opevov'i 
areppara TrporeivovTcov Koi TrapaKaXovvrcov tou? 
TToXtra? T^ irarpihi kuI to?? Oeol^ jSorjOelv. 77 6' 
eKKXrjaia opdrj 7rpo<? rijv o-yjnv pLera Kporov koi 
^orjii e^aveart], he')(o pcevcov to 1)9 dvhpa<i o)? 
evepyera^ kuI aoyrrjpa'i, 

XIIL 'E/c he Tovrov ^0LWTdp-)(ri<i alpe6e\<i pLera 
H^eXcovo^ Kol ^dp(ovo<i o TTeXoTrtSa? ev9v<; dire- 
TeL)(^i^e TTjv ciKpoTToXiv KOI TTpocT^oXa^ eiroLetTo 
TravraxoOev, e^eXeiv oirovhdl^cov tov<; AaKehaipo- 
vlov<i Kol T7]v l^ahpLeiav eXevdepwaai irplv e'/c 

2 %Trdprr]<; arpaTov eTreXdelv. koi Trapd roaovrov 
€(f)dacrev a(^ei9 vTroaTTovhov; toj)? dvhpa<; ocrov 
ev Me7ttpot? ovcnv avTol<; dTravrrjaai K.Xe6p- 
^poTOv eirl Td<; @i]^a<; eXavvovra perd peydXrj^; 
hvvdpieo)<i. 01 he ^TrapTidTai, rpioju dppoaTcou 
yevop,evu)v ev ^I'j^ai^, ' H pnnrihav pev Koi "Ap- 
Kiaaov drreicreLvav Kpivavre<i, 6 he T/Jtro? Avaa- 
vopiha<; '^pijpaac TroXXoi? ^7]pio}del<i avrov e'/c tt}? 
WeXoTTOvvi'jaov p.erearrjae. 

3 TavTTjv TrjV irpd^iv dpeTai<i pev avSpcov Koi 
Kivhuvoi<; Koi dyojai TrapaTrXrjalav t^ Spaav- 

^ Xo>povi'Ta Coraes' correction of the MhsS. ai>ax<»povvra, 
adopted by Bekker. 



PELOPIDAS, XII. 3-xni. 3 

at once, since their garrison numbered about fifteen 
hundred men, and many ran to join them out of the 
city ; but the shouting, the fires, and the great 
throngs in motion everywhere, terrified them, and 
they kept quiet, holding the citadel itself in their 
possession. At break of day the exiles came in from 
Attica under arms, and a general assembly of the 
people was convened. Then Epaminondas and 
Gorgidas brought before it Pelopidas and his com- 
panions, surrounded by the priests, holding forth 
garlands, and calling upon the citizens to come to 
the aid of their country and their gods. And the 
assembly, at the sight, rose to its feet with shouts 
and clapping of hands, and welcomed the men as 
deliverers and benefactors. 

XIII. After this, having been elected boeotarch, 
or governor of Boeotia, together with Melon and 
Charon, Pelopidas at once blockaded the acropolis 
and assaulted it on every side, being anxious to drive 
out the Lacedaemonians and free the Cadmeia before 
an army came up from Sparta. And he succeeded by so 
narrow a margin that, when the men had surrendered 
conditionally and had been allowed to depart, they 
got no further than Megara before they were met by 
Cleombrotus marching against Thebes with a great 
force. Of the three men who had been harmosts, 
or governors, in Thebes, the Spartans condemned 
and executed Herippidas and Arcissus, and the 
third, Lysanoridas, was heavily fined and forsook the 
Peloponnesus. 

This exploit, so like that of Thrasybulus in the 
valour, the perils, and the struggles of its heroes, 

371 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

^ovXov yevo/jiei'rjv, koI ^pa^evdetaav o/iot&)9 viro 
T?}? Ti'xrj'i, d8eX(f)r)v tKeiV7]<i Trpoaiiyopevov ol 
"^Wr^ve^. ov yap eari pahiw^ erepov; elireiv o'l 
rrXeiovcov eXdrrovi koI hvvarwTepwv eprj/xorepoi 
r6\/j,r] Kul BeivorrjTi KpaT7]aavT€<i ultloi /xei^ovoyv 

4 dyaOoJv Tal<i TraTpiat Karearrjaav. ivho^orepav 
he ravTrjv eTToirjcrev rj fMera^oXrj rcov Trpayp^drcov. 
yap KaTaXvaa<i to t^? 2,Trdprrj<; d^iwp^a Kal 
TTavaa^ dp^ovra^ avrovi 7% re Kal daXdm^'^ 
TToXepo^ e^ €Keivr]<i eyevero tt}? vvkt6<;, tv fj 
rieXoTTtda? ov (ppovpiov, ov Tet;^09, ovk dxpoTroXiv 
KaraXa^d)!', dXX eh oiKLav Sco8eKaTO<; KareXOdtv, 
el hel iJ,€Ta(f)opd to dXijOe^i elirelv, eXvae Kal 
Sie/fo-v^e TOi)? Secr/iou? tj;? AaKeSai/^ovicov rjye- 
/xoi'f'a?, dXvTOv; Kal dpp)]KTOV<; elvai SoKovvTa^;. 

XIV. 'Evrei tolvvv aTpaTU) jieydXtp Aukc- 
Baip,oi'i(i)v 6t? Trjv HoicoTLav efi^aXovTcov oi 
^ Kd7]valoL TT€picf)o^oi. yevopevoi t7]v re (Tu/iyua^/ai' 
aTreLTTavTO Toi'i ^ij^aLoi^; Kal tcov /SotwTia^ovTcov 
ei? TO BiKaaTTjpiov irapayayovTe's tov^ fxev dire- 
KTeivav, TOi"? 5' e(f)vyd8euaav, tov^ Be •yprj/maaLv 
i^t]p.la)(Tav, eSoKei Se KaK(b<i e)(eiv to, tmv ^rj^aicdv 
IT pay piaTa p.ijSevo'^ avTocf ^or]dovvTO<;, eVu^e /lev 
6 HeXo7ri8a<; pbeTa Vopyihov /3oicoTap)(^d)v, eiri- 
^oiiXevovre^ he avyKpovaai irdXiv tov<; AOtj- 
vaiov^ T0t<; AaKe8aip,ovioi<; ToiovSe tl p,i]')(^av(t)VTai. 

2 S(^oS/3ta9, dvrjp ^TTapTiaTT]^, ev86Kip,o<; puev iv 
Toi<i 7roXep.iKOL<; Kal Xa/u,7rp6^, v7T6K0V(f)0<; he Ti]v 
yvdipbrjv Kal kcvcov eXTTihcov Kal (fyiXoTifXiat dvor]- 
Tou /zecTTO?, aTTeXeL^Ori irepl ©ecTTTta? pera hvvd- 
/xeco? TOU? d(})iaTap,ei'OV<; rwv ^)7j/3ai(ov he-^eadat 
Kal ^oijdeiv. 7r/9o? tovtov viroTrepirovcnv ol irepl 
Tov TleXoTrlhav Ihla ep-iropov Tiva tcov (f)iX(ov, 

372 



PELOPIDAS, xiii. 3-xiv. 2 

and, like that, crowned with success by fortune, the 
Greeks were wont to call a sister to it. For it is not 
easy to mention other cases where men so few in 
number and so destitute have overcome enemies so 
much more numerous and powerful by the exercise 
of courage and sagacity, and have thereby become 
the authors of so great blessings for their countries. 
And yet the subsequent change in the political 
situation made this exploit the more glorious. For 
the war which broke down the pretensions of Sparta 
and put an end to her supremacy by land and sea, 
began from that night, in which Pelopidas, not by 
surprising any fort or castle or citadel, but by coming 
back into a private house with eleven others, loosed 
and broke in pieces, if the truth may be expressed in 
a metaphor, the fetters of the Lacedaemonian 
supremacy, which were thought indissoluble and not 
to be broken. 

XIV. The Lacedaemonians now invaded Boeotia 
with a large army, and the Athenians, having become 
fearful, renounced their alliance with the Thebans, 
and prosecuting those in their city who favoured the 
Boeotian cause, put some of them to death, banished 
otiiers, and others still they fined, so that the The- 
bans seemed to be in a desperate case with none to 
aid them. But Pelopidas and Gorgias, who were 
boeotarchs, plotted to embroil the Athenians again 
with the Lacedaemonians, and devised the following 
scheme. Sphodrias, a Spartan, who liad a s{)lendid 
reputation as a soldier, but was rather weak in 
judgement and full of vain hopes and senseless am- 
bition, had been left at Thespiae with an armed force 
to receive and succour the renegade Thebans. To 
this man Pelopidas and Gorgidas privately sent one 
of their friends who was a merchant, with money, 

373 

VOL. V N 



PLUTARCH'S LIV^ES 

Xpyjljuara ko jxl^ovTa Kal \6yov<i, o'l tcov y^p^^fidrcov 
fidWop aveiTeicrav avrov o)? ^^t; 7rpay/j.dra)v 
a^fraadat fieydXav Kal rov Ueipaid KaraXa^elv, 
airpoaooKr^Tov einiTecrovra firj (f)v\arrofiei'oi<; TOL<i 
3 ^Adr]vaiOL<i- AaK6Sai/jL0VL0L<; re yap ouSev ovTco<i 
ecrecrOai KexcLptaixevov &)? XajBelv ra? 'AO>jva<i, 
&7]^aiov<i re x^XeTrco'i exovra^ avro2<i koX irpo- 
6oTa9 vo/j.i!^ovTa<i ovk eTri^orjO/jcreiv. reXo? Se 
crvfiTTeiaOeU 6 ^^oSyota? Koi toi/? (npaTLO0Ta<; 
dvdXa^cov, vvkto^ et? rr]v 'Attiktjv €ve/3a\€. Kal 
fiexpt fi€v 'EXevalvo'i irporiXOev, eKel Se rcbv 
arpaTicoToov diroSeiXiaaavrcov (pavepo'i y€v6/u,evo^, 
Kal (Tuvrapd^a<i ov (pavXop ovBe pdSiov Tol<i 
X7rapTidTai<i iroXepLOv, dvex^oprjaev elt ©ecTTria?. 

XV. 'E« TovTov TToXiv TTpoOv p^oTUTa ^AdrjvaloL 
Tols Si]^aiot'i avvepidxovv, Kal r?}? 6a\dTTr]<; 
avTeXap.^dvovTo, Kal 7repu6vTe<; ehexovTo Kal 
TTpoai]yovTo tov<; aTroo-ra Tt«&)9 tmp 'RXXijvciyv 
exovra^. ol Be (&r}/3aL0t KaO' aurov'i iv rfj 
BoiojTia (TvpLTrXeKOfxevoi rot? AaKehaip,ovioL<; eKd- 
arore, Kal /xaxdp-evoc p.dxa<i avTa<; p,ev ov p.eyd- 
Xa9, p,eyd\r]v Se rrjv fieXertjv exovcraf Kal tj-jv 

2 aaKrjaiv, i^eppiTrl^ovTO toi<; $vp,oi^ Kal Sictto- 
vovvTO T0t9 crdapiaaiv, e/xTreiptav dpa rfj avvrjdeia 
Kai (f)pov7j/jLa TTpoaXa/j-^dvovre^ €k tmv dyoyvcov. 
Bio Kai (pacrtu ^AvraXKiBav rov STrapridTi-jv, co? 
^AyridiXaci iiravfjXOev eK Bofcor/a? reTpa)p,€vo<i, 
elireLV irpo^ avrov "'H Ka\a BiBaaKdXia rrapd 
STj/Saccov d7roXa/uL^dv€i<i, fit] /3ov\op.evov<; avrov^ 

3 irdXeixeiv Kal p.dx€a-6at BiBd^a<i." rjv Be &)? 

374 



PELOPIDAS, XIV. 2-xv. 3 

and, what proved more persuasive than money with 
Sphodrias, this advice. He ought to put his hand 
to a large enterprise and seize the Piraeus, attacking 
it unexpectedly when the Athenians were off their 
guard ; for nothing would gratify the Lacedae- 
monians so much as the capture of Athens, and the 
Tliebans, who were now angry with the Athenians 
and held them to be traitors, would give them no 
aid. Sphodrias was finally persuaded, and taking his 
soldiers, invaded Attica by night. He advanced as 
far as Eleusis, but there the hearts of his soldiers 
failed them and his design was exposed, and after 
having thus stirred up a serious and difficult war 
against the Spartans, he withdrew to Thespiae.^ 

XV. After this, the Athenians with the greatest 
eagerness renewed their alliance with the Thebans, 
and began hostile operations against Sparta by sea, 
sailing about and inviting and receiving the alle- 
giance of those Greeks who were inclined to revolt. 
The Thebans, too, by always engaging singly in 
Boeotia with the Lacedaemonians, and by fighting 
battles which, though not important in themselves, 
nevertheless afforded them much practice and train- 
ing, had their spirits roused and their bodies 
thoroughly inured to hardships, and gained expe- 
rience and courage from their constant struggles. 
For this reason Antalcidas the Spartan, we are told, 
when Agesilaiis came back from Boeotia with a 
wound, said to him : " Indeed, this is a fine tuition-fee 
which thou art getting from the Thebans, for teach- 
ing them how to war and fight when they did not 
wish to do it." ^ But, to tell the truth, it was not 

1 The attempt of Sphodrias on the Piraeus is more fully 
described in the Agesilaiin, xxiv. 3-6. 
* Cf. the Agesilaiis, xxvi. '2. 

375 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

d\i]6(o'i 8iSd(TKa\o<; ovk ^Aj^jalXao^, aX\' o'l auv 
Katpw Koi fiera Xoyia/xou toi)? (t)ij/3aiou<; wairep 
<jKvKaKa<^ e/x7reLpco(; TrpoaftdWovTe'^ Toi<i iroXe- 
/xioi'i, elra yev(Ta/x€vov<i vlKri<i kol (f)poi't]/jLaTO<i 
da(^a\o)<i d7rdyovr€<i' wv /xeyla-Trji^ So^av elxev 
6 rieXoTTtSa?. d(p' ri<i yap e'iXovro Trpcorov 7p/e- 
fiova TOiv ottXcov, ovk eiravaavro Ka9 eKaarov 
eviavTov dp)^ovTa ■)(eLporovovvTe<i, dXX" 17 rbv 
lepov Xo^ov dywv rj rd nXelaTa ^OLwrap'x^Sii' 
dxpi T>}f reX€VT'>]<i eTrparTev. 

4 ^^yevovro fiev ovv kol irepl n.Xaraia<; kul 
06(T7ria? r^rrai Koi (pvyal tmv XaKehaipiOvifov , 
OTTov KOI ^oi/3i,ha<i 6 rrjv KaS/.ieiai' tcaraXa^oov 
dTrWave, iroXXov^ he kuI irpo'i 'Yavdypa rpe- 
-\lfdp,€VO<; avTMV Kal llavOoLSau top dp/xocrT)]t/ 
dvelXei'. dXX! ovtoi fxev 01 dywve'i oiairep tou? 
KpaTOVi>ra<i eh (j)p6vi]p,a Kal 6dpao<i -nporjyov, 
ovTco'i Tcov T]aau>/x€va)v ov tt avr air aa iv ihovXovvro 

5 rrfv yvoijjLrjV ov yap e/c 7rapard^ea)<; rjaav ovSe 
/jbdxv^ €fJ'4>avrj KardcTTaaLv €-)(^ovai]<; Kal uofxi/xov, 
iK8po/J,d<; 8e TrpoaKaipov^ TLdi/Jbevoi, Kal (f)vyd^ rj 
8id>^et<i eirix^^povvTes avToU Kal a-v/xirXeKOfMevoc 
KaToopOovv. 

XVI. 'O 8e irepl Teyv pa'i rpoirov rivd tov 
AevKrpiKov -npodywy yev6p.evo<; fxeyav rjpe ho^rj tov 
TleXoTTiBav, ovre tt/jo? Karopdwfxa rots auaTpa- 
TijyoL'i dp.(l)t.(T/3i]Tt]aiv ovre t^s t^ttt?? irpucpaaiv 
rot<i TToXe/itots dTToXnrddv. rf] yap \)pxo/iL€v[(ou 286 
TToXet -rd l^irapTiarcov eXofxevr) Kal Svo BeSeyp.ei'Tj 
p,6pa<i auTMu virep dac^aXeia'^ eire^ovXeve fxev 
2 del Kal 7rap€(f>vXaTTe Kaipov, a)9 he i]K0va€ roi<i 
(bpovpoh et? T>]v XoKpiha yeyevrjcdai, arpaieLap 

376 



PELOPIDAS, XV. 3-xvi. 2 

Agesilaiis who was their teacher, but those leaders 
of theirs who, at the riglit time and place, rr&ve the 
Thebans, like young dogs in training, experience in 
attacking their enemies, and then, when they had 
got a taste of victory and its ardours, brought them 
safely off; and of these leaders Pelopidas was in 
greatest esteem. For after his countrymen had once 
chosen him their leader in arms, there was not a 
single year when they did not elect him to office, 
but either as leader of the sacred band, or, for the 
most part, as boeotarch, he continued active until 
his death. 

Well, then, at Plataea the Lacedaemonians were 
defeated and put to Hight, and at Thespiae, where, 
too, Phoebidas, who had seized the Cadmeia, was 
slain ; and at Tanagra a large body of them was 
routed and Panthoidas the harmost was killed. But 
these combats, though they gave ardour and boldness 
to the victors, did not altogether break the spirits of 
the vanquished ; for they were not pitched battles, 
nor was the fighting in open and regular array, but 
it was by making well-timed sallies, and by either 
retreating before the enemy or by pursuing and 
coming to close quarters with them that the Thebans 
won their successes. 

XVI. But the conflict at Tegyra, which was a sort 
of prelude to that at Leuctra, raised high the repu- 
tation of Pelopidas ; for it afforded his fellow com- 
manders no rival claim in its success, and his enemies 
no excuse for their defeat. Against the city of 
Orchomenus, which had chosen the side of the 
Spartans and received two divisions of them for its 
protection, he was ever laying plans and watching 
his opportunity, and when he heard that its garrison 
had made an expedition into Locris, he hoped to find 

377 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

eXTTtVa? epi-jixov aiptjcreiv top 'Opxo^evov earpd- 
revaev, €')(^uiv fieO' eavrov rov lepov Xo^ov kuI 
TMv iTrirewv oi) iroWov^. iiTel he Trpb^ Trjv ttoXlv 
irpoaa'ya'^cov evpev iJKOvaav e« ^Trdprrj^; Bia8o-)(^7]v 
Trj<; (^povpcL'i, anrrj'yev ottlctw to arpaTev/uLa ttoXiv 
Sia TeyvpMV, ^ f^ovr/ ^dcnp^ov rjv kvkXw rrapa 

3 TTiv vTTcopeiav rrjv <yap hia fieaov iraaav 6 MeXa? 
TTora/xo'i ev9v<i ck fnjycov et? eXrj ttXcoto, koX 
\l/j,i'a<i Bia(T7retp6/ji€vo<; airopov eVotei. 

^liKpov he VTTO ra eXrj veo)^ iariv 'ATToWeyi/o? 
Teyvpaiov Kal jxavrelov eKXeXeijXfxevov ov irdw 
TToXvv ')(p6vov, dXX^ ^XP'' ^^^ yir]hLKcov i]Kfia^e, 
r-qv 7rpo(f)rjT€lav ^Kx^Kparov^ e^oi^TO?. ivravda 
jjbvdoXoyovai rov deov yeveadai' Kai to fxev ttXtj- 
aiov 6po<i Ar}\o<f /caXelrai, Kal tt/jo? uvto Kara- 

4 Xijyovaiv al rov MeXcti/o? S^a^ucrei?, ottIctu) he 
Tov vaov hvo pTJyvvvrai iryjyal yXvKVTijri koI 
TrXrjdei Koi -^vxpor^Ti Oavfiaarov vd/xaro^, wv 
TO jxev ^oiVLKa, to he ^F^Xalav d-^^^pc vvv ovofid- 
^op,ev, ov (pvTMV fieTa^v hvelv, dXXd pelOpcov tj}? 
6eov Xox^v6eiarj<;. Kal yap to llTq)ov iyyv^, 
odev auTT]v dvaTTTOijdijvai Trpo(f)avevTO'i €^aL(f>vi]<; 
KUTrpov Xeyovat, Kal to, irepl Hvdcova koI Titvov 
waavTO)<i oi tottoi ttj yevecrei tov deov avvotKCi- 

5 ovat. TO, yap irXetaTa TrapaXeiiro) tmv TCKfirj- 
piwv ov yap iv tol<; €k fieTa^oXrj<; d6avdT0L<; 
yevo/xei'Oi^ yevvrjTol'i o 7raTpto9 X0709 Toy 0eov 
TOVTov diroXeiirei, hai/nocnv, coarrep 'HpaKXea Kal 

378 



PELOPIDAS, XVI. 2-5 

the city without defenders, and marched against it, 
having with him the sacred band and a few horse- 
men. But when, on approaching the city, he found 
that its garrison had been replaced with other troops 
from Sparta, he led his army back again through the 
district of Tegyra, that being the only way by which 
he could make a circuit along the foot of the moun- 
tains. For all the intervening plain was made im- 
passable by the river Melas, which no sooner begins 
to flow than it spreads itself out into navigable 
marshes and lakes. 

A little below the marshes stands the temple of 
Apollo Tegyraeus. with an oracle which had not been 
long abandoned, but was flourishing down to the 
Persian wars, when Echecrates was prophet-priest. 
Here, according to the story, the god was born ; and 
the neighbouring mountam is called Delos, and at its 
base the river Melas ceases to be spread out, and 
behind the temple two springs burst forth with a 
wonderful flow of sweet, copious, and cool water. 
One of these we call Palm, the other Olive, to the 
present day, for it was not between two trees,' but 
between two fountains, that the goddess Leto was 
delivered of her children. Moreover, the Ptoum '^ is 
near, from which, it is said, a boar suddenly came 
forth and frightened the goddess, and in like manner 
the stories of the Python^ and of Tityus^ are asso- 
ciated with the birth of Apollo in this locality. Most 
of the proofs, however, I shall pass over ; for my 
native tradition removes this god from among those 
deities who were changed from mortals into im- 

^ As in the Delian story of the birth of Apollo and Artemis. 

^ A mountain at the south-eastern side of Lake Copais, on 
which was a celebrated sanctuary of Apollo. 

^ A dragon and a giant, who were slain by Apollo and 
Artemis. 

379 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Aiovvaov, €K fx6ra^o\r]<i aperfj to dvrjrov Kal 
TTaOrjTov aTTo/BaXovra^, dXXa twv aihiwv Kal 
ayevvijTcov 6i<? eariv, el Bel Tot? vtto twv <^povifiw- 
TuTcov Kal iraXaiOTaTwv X€yofievoi<i reKfiaipeaOaL 

irepl TMU TTjXlKOVTMV. 

XVII. Et9 8' ovv T€yvpa<i ol Srj^aloi Kara 
TOP avTov ')(^p6vov e'/t tt}? 'Op^o/^evla^; d7ri6vT€<i 
Kal 01 AaKeSatp^ovtot avvemir-Tov, e^ ivavrla^; 
avTol<i €K rrj<i AoKpL8o<; uva^evjvvvTe^. co? Se 
TTpwrov M(p6T](Tav TO. areva Si€K^dXXovT€<;, Kai 
Tt? eiTre tS> TieXoiriha irpoaSpa/jLoov " 'E/ATreTTTO)- 
Kafiev et? tou? 7roXe/Aiou9," " Ti /iiaXXov" eiirei', 

2 " rj et? 77/Lta<? eKeti'Oi,;^^ Kal rr]V fiev lirirov evdv<i 
TTciaav CKeXevcre napeXavveiv a7r' ovpd<; co? Trpo- 
ep^aXovaav, avTo<i he tow oTrXtVa? TptaKoaiov; 
ovTa^ eh oXlyov avvi]'ya'y€P, eXirL^wv KaO^ o 
Trpoa/SdXoi fidXiGTa SiaKoyjreiv inrep^dXXovTa^ 
TrXrjOet tov<; TToXefiiovi. rjaav Se hvo fjbopat 
AaKeBatfiovlcov, ttjv Be /xopav ''E<f)opo<; fiev dvhpa<; 
elvai TTevTaKoalov^ cj^rjai, K.aXXiadein]<; o eTrra- 
Koaiovi, dXXoL he Tive<i ivaKoaiovs, mv YloXu^io^ 

'.i ecTTi. Kal OappovvTe^ ol TroXepap^oi twv ZTrap- 
TiaToov VopjoXewv Kal OeoTro/xTTO? oippurjaav eirl 
Tou? 07;/3atou9. <yevop,evr)<t he 'na)<i /idXiaTa tt}? 
€<p6hov KaT avTov^ tou<; dpxoPTa^ arr' dpcpoTepcov 
jxeTa QvjjLov Kal ^La<i, irpoiTOv fxev ol 7roXe/u.apxoi 
TMV AaKehai/iioviwv tw HeXoirlha (Tvppd^avTe<; 

4 eireaov eireiTa tmv ivepl eKelvov^ •naLopLevoiv Kat 
dTTodvnqcKovTOiV drrav et? (^o^ov KaTeaTtj to 
cTTpaTeufia, Kal hieaxe p^^v eV dp^oTepa toU 
%T)^aioi'^, di<i hieKirecrelv et? TovpirpocrOev Kal 
hieKhvvaL ^ouXopevoi'?, eirel he ttjv hehopevrjv 6 
ITeXoTTtSa? TjyeLTO Trpo? tovs avve(TTSiTa<i Kal 

380 



PELOPIDAS, XVI. s-xvii. 4 

mortals, like Heracles and Dionysus, whose virtues 
enabled them to cast off mortality and suffering; but 
he is one of those deities who are unbegotten and 
eternal, if we may judge by what the most ancient 
and wisest men have said on such matters. 

XVII. So, then, as the Thebans entered the dis- 
trict of Tegyra on their way back from Orchomenus, 
the Lacedaemonians also entered it at the same 
time, returning in the opposite direction from Locris, 
and met them. As soon as they were seen marching 
through the narrow pass, some one ran up to Pelo- 
pidas and said ; " We have fallen into our enemies' 
hands!" "Why any more," said he, "than they 
into ours ?" Then he at once ordered all his horse- 
men to ride up from the rear in order to charge, 
while he himself put his men-at-arms, three hundred 
in number, into close array, expecting that wherever 
they charged he would be most likely to cut his way 
through the enemy, who outnumbered him. Now, 
there were two divisions of the Lacedaemonians, the 
division consisting of five hundred men, according to 
Ephorus, of seven hundred, according to Callisthenes, 
of nine hundred, according to certain other writers, 
among whom is Polybius. Confident of victory, the 
polemarchs of the Spartans, Gorgoleon and Theo- 
pompus, advanced against the Thebans. The onset 
being made on both sides particularly where the 
commanders themselves stood, in the first place, the 
Lacedaemonian polemarchs clashed with Pelopidas 
and fell ; then, when those about them were being 
wounded and slain, their whole army was seized with 
fear and opened up a lane for the Thebans, imagining 
that they wished to force their way through to the 
opposite side and get away. But Pelopidas used the 
path thus opened to lead his men against those of 

381 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

hte^rjei (f)ovev(ov, ourco 7rdvT€<; TrpoTpoTrdSrjv 
ecbeuyov. i'yevero he ovk eVi ttoXvv tottov r) 
5t&)^t9* €(j)o^ovuTO yap eyyu'i 6vra<; ol Srj^aloi 
Tov<i ^Opxop-€Viov<; Kal tj]p 8ia8oxv^ "^^v Aaxe- 

5 Bat/novLcov. oaov Se VLKrjcraL Kara Kpdro'i Kai 
Bie^eXdelv 8ia TravTO? rjcxcroo/xevov rod aTparev- 
fiuTO'i, i^e/Sida-avTo- koL aTi^aavra Tpo-naiov 281 
KoX veKpov'i <TKv\evcravTe<; dvexdopi^crav iir' oikov  
/ubiya (j)povovvT€<;. ev yap ToaovTOi<;, co? eoiKe, 
TToXeyLiOt? 'EWrjViKoU Kal /3apl3apiK0i<i Trporepov 
ovSeiroTe AaKehai/xovioi 7r\6Love<; ovres utt' eXar- 
rovcov €Kpari]67]aav, dX,X' ovBe 'icroi 77/369 Laov<i 

6 CK Trapard^ecoii (7V/x/3a\6vTe<i. odev rjaav dvv- 
TToararoi, rd ^povrjfxaTa, Kal Trj Bo^ij Kara- 
TrXrjTTo/xevoi toi"? dvriTarrofiivovf;, ov8e avTOv<{ 
d^LovvTa'i a7r' larjq 8vvd/M€(o<; to laov <\>kpeadat 
'I.TrapTidrai'^, 6i<? %etpa9 a-vviarrjaav. iKeivq hi 
7) p-dyr) Trpoory] Kal toi/? dWov<i eSiha^ev ' EX- 
Xrjva^ 0)9 ovx o Fjvp(ora<; ovh' 6 pueTa^v Ba^vKa<i 
Kal KvaKicovo'i T07ro9 dvBpa<i iKCpipei p.axv'^^^ 
Kal TToXepuiKOV'^, dXXd irap' oU dv alax^veadai 
rd alcTXpd Kal roXpudv inrl toU KaXol<i €OeXovTe<; 
eyyevwvrai veoi Kal 701)9 yJr6yov<; rcov Kivhvvwv 
p.d\Xov (f>€vyovTe<;, ovtol (^o^epwraToi Tot9 ivav- 



Ttof9 elai. 



XVIII. T6i^ S' lepov Xoxov, aJ9 ^aai, avverd- 
^aro Vopylha^; TrpooTO^ i^ dvhpoiv iniXeKTcov 
rpiaKoaiwv, 0I9 // ttoXk; dcjKrjaLV Kal hlairav iv 
TTj Kahpieta aTparo-nehevopbevoi<; irapelx^, Kal hid 
T0u6' 6 e/c 7r6Xe&)9 X6xo<i CKaXovvro- rd^ ydp 
aKpoTToXei's eTTceiKW ol lore TroXea o)v6p.a^fiv. 
evioL he (f)aaiv e^ epaaroyv Kal epcofievcov yeveaOat, 
2 TO avcTT^jpia tovto. Kal Ylap,p,evov^ d7rop,vr)p,o- 

382 



PELOPIDAS, XVII. 4-xviii. 2 

the enemy who still held tojrether, and slew them as 
he went along, so that finally all turned and fled. 
J'he pursuit, however, was carried but a little way, 
for the Thebans feared the Orchomenians, who were 
near, and the relief force from Sparta. They had 
succeeded, however, in conquering their enemy out- 
right and forcing their way victoriously through his 
whole army ; so they erected a trophy, spoiled the 
dead, and retired homewards in high spirits. For in 
all their wars with Greeks and Barbarians, as it 
would seem, never before had Lacedaemonians in 
superior numbers been overpowered by an inferior 
force, nor, indeed, in a pitched battle where the 
forces were evenly matched. Hence they were of 
an irresistible courage, and when they came to close 
quarters their very reputation sufficed to terrify their 
o[)ponents, who also, on their part, thought them- 
selves no match for Spartans with an equal force. 
But this battle first taught the other Greeks also 
that it was not the Eurotas, nor the region between 
Babyce ^ and Cnacion,^ which alone produced warlike 
fighting men, but that wheresoever young men are 
prone to be ashamed of baseness and courageous in 
a noble cause, shunning disgrace more than danger, 
these are most formidable to their foes. 

XVIII. The sacred band, we are told, was first 
formed by Gorgidas, of three hundred chosen men, 
to whom the city furnished exercise and maintenance, 
and who encamped in the Cadmeia ; for which reason, 
too, they were called the city band ; for citadels in 
those days were properly called cities. But some say 
that this band was composed of lovers and beloved. 
And a pleasantry of Pammenes is cited, in which 

^ Probably names of small tributaries of the Eurotaa near 
Sparta. Cf. the Lycurgus, vi. 1-3. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

v€ueraL ti fxera 7Taihid<; €lpr)/j.€vov ov yap e^?; 
TaKTLKOv elvai rov Oixrjpov l^earopa KeXevovra 
Kara (pvXa xal (ppijTpa'; <TvWo')(i^ea9at, rov<; 
' ¥j\Xr)vaf;, 

'n? (ppj']Tp7] (f)p7]Tprj(l)Lv apyjyr}, (f)v\a Be (f)vXoi<i, 

Seov epaarrjv Trap^ epct)p.€i>ov raTTeiv. (f)vXeTa<; 
p.ev yap (puXeTwv Kal ^pdropa^; ^paropwv ov 
TToXvv Xoyov €')(eLV ev tol<; Seivol'i, to S' e^ epco- 
TiKi]<; (f)iXia<i avvrjppioa fxevov crrtc^o? ahtdXvrov 
elvai, Kol dpp^KTOV, orav oi fxev ayaTTOivr€<i TOv<i 
€p(o/xevou<;, ol he ala-^vv6/j,€vot tov<; ipMVTa<; 

3 e/uLp.€V(ocn to?? Beivol^ virep dXXrjXwv. Kal tovto 
Oavfiaa-Tov ovk ecmv, eiye Srj Kal firj 7rap6vTa<; 
alSouvrai fidXXov erepwv irapovrwv, co? CKeivo^ 
6 Tov TToXefXLOu K€ip,€V0V avTOv eVtcr^aTTetf 
fieXXovTo<; 8e6fX€vo<; Kal dvTi^oXoyv hia rou arep- 
vov Sieivat to ^L(f)0<;, ""Otto)?," €(f)ri, " pi)) p,€ 
v€Kpov o €pcopei'o<; opwv Kara vootov TeTpwpievov 

4 alcr\yv9f]y Xeyerat 8e kul tov \oXewv tou Hpa- 
KXeou<i ipcop.evov ovra K0Lva>velv tmv adXwv Kal 
TrapaaTTi^eiv. ^ApicTToreXr)^ Be Kal KaO^ avTov 
en (j>r)alv eVt tov Td(f)OV tov 'loXetw ra? Kara- 
TTiaTcoaeL^ iroielodai tov<; epwpLevovi Kal tov<; 
epaaTci^. €Iko<; ovv Kal tov Xo\ov lepov Trpoaa- 
yopeveaOai, KaOori Kal HXutcov evOeov <^lXov 

5 TOV epaaTTjv TrpoaelTre. Xeyerat Be Biapielvai 
p-eXP'' ''"'/'^ ^^ XaipcoveiO, pbd)(r]^ ujjttijtov' oj? Be 
jxeTa Trjv p,d-)(7]v e(popo)v tou? veKpov<; o ^LXi7nro<; 



384 



PELOPIDAS, XVIII. 2-5 

he said that Homer's Nestor was no tactician when 
he urged tlie Greeks to form in companies by clans 
and tribes, 

"That clan might give assistance unto clan, and 
tribes to tribes," * 

since he should have stationed lover by beloved. 
For tribesmen and clansmen make little account of" 
tribesmen and clansmen in times of danger ; whereas, 
a band that is held together by the friendship 
between lovers is indissoluble and not to be broken, 
since the lovers are ashamed to play the coward 
before their beloved, and the beloved before their 
lovers, and both stand firm in danger to protect each 
other. Nor is this a wonder, since men have more 
regard for their lovers even when absent than for 
others who are present, as was true of him who, 
when his enemy was about to slay him where he lay, 
earnestly besought him to run his sword through his 
breast, "in order," as he said, "that my beloved 
may not have to blush at sight of my body with 
a wound in the back." It is related, too, that lolaiis, 
who shared the labours of Heracles and fought by 
his side, was beloved of him. And Aristotle says ^ 
that even down to his day the tomb of lolaiis was 
a place where lovers and beloved plighted mutual 
faith. It was natural, then, that the band should 
also be called sacred, because even Plato calls the 
lover a friend "inspired of God." ^ It is said, more- 
over, that the band was never beaten, until the 
battle of Chaeroneia;* and when, after the battle, 
Philip was surveying the dead, and stopped at the 



1 liiad, ii. 363. Cf. Morals, p. 761 b. 

« Fragment 97 (Rose). Cf. MoraU, p. 761 d. 

^ Symponium, p. 179 a. * 338 B.C. 



385 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

e<TT^ Kara tovto to '^oypiov iv S avveruyx^^^ 
Keladai TOv<i TpiaKoalov;, evavTiov^ aTrrivT7)K6ra^ 
raU crapi(Tai<i diravra'; ev rot? oTrXoa Kal /xer 
dW')]\a}v avafMefiiyfievovf;, Oavfxdaavra koX irvdo- 
jxevov ft)<? 6 Twi- epaaTMV koX tmv ipcop-ivcov outo? 
eiTj Xoxo'i, haKpvaai koI el-nelv " 'AttoXoivto 
KUKW'i ol TOVTOV<; Tt TTOLelv T) TrdaxeiP aiaxpov 
VTTOvoovvre'i. 

XIX. "0\&)9 he Tr}? irepl rov<; epaara^; awq- 
6ela<; ovx> coairep ol iroirjral Xiyovai, ©?;^atoi9 
TO Aatov TTiiOo^ dpxhv irapeax^v, aXX ol vofio- 
6haL TO (pvaec Oviu.o€iSe<; avrwv koI aKparov 
dvievai koI dwypalveiv evOv'i e'/c TralScov ^ov\6- 
fievoi, iroXvv fiev dvep-l^avro Kal avovSr] kol 
iraihio, trdar) tov avXov, ek rifJLrjv Kal rrrpoeBpiav 
dyovTe^, XafMirpov Se rov epwra ral<i 7ra\aiarpai<^ 
iveOpey^avTO, avyKepavvvvTes id i]6ri jwv vewv. 

2 6p9o)<; Be irpo^ rovro Kal T^y e'^ "Apew? kol 28 
'A(f)po8iTr]<; yeyovevai Xeyo/xevrjv 6eov rfj woXei 
(jvvwKeiwaav, &>?, ottou to fiax^n^'^ov Kai TroXe- 
/xiKov fidXiara tm fierexovTi Tretdov^ Kal x^tplTcov 
ofMcXel Kal avveaTiv, et9 t^i^ ep,p.eXeaTdTijv Kal 
KoafiiwTaTTjv TToXireiav hi dpfx,ovLa<i Ka6iaTa- 
fievcov diTavTcov. 

3 Tov ovv lepov Xoxov tovtov 6 fiev TopylBaf 
hiaipMV ek rd -npoira t^vyd Kal irap oXijv rijv 
(f)dXayya roiv ottXitcov 7rpo/3aXX6p,evo<i eTTiByjXov 
ovK ivoiei Tr]V dperrjv twv dvhpoiv, ovh' exp^fo 
TTj Bwdfj-et 77/909 Koivov epyov, are 8t] BiaXeXv- 
pievr) Kal 7rpo<i ttoXv /xepiyp-evrj to (^avXoTcpov, 
6 he UeXo-Triha^, co? e^eXa/xyjrev avrwv i) dperr} 
trepl Teyvpa<i, KaOapo)<i Kal irepl avrov dycoviaa- 
fievcov, OVK eVt hielXev ovhe dieairaaev, aXX 

386 



PELOPIDAS, XVIII. 5-xix. 3 

place where the tliree hundred were lying, all where 
they had faced tiie long spears of his phalanx, with 
their armour, and mingled one with another, he was 
amazed, and on learning that this was the band 
of lovers and beloved, burst into tears and said : 
" Perish miserably they who think that these men 
did or suffered aught disgraceful." 

XIX. Speaking generally, however, it was not the 
passion of Laius that, as the poets say, first made this 
form of love customary among the Thebans ; ^ but 
their law-givers, wishing to relax and mollify their 
strong and impetuous natures in earliest boyhood, 
gave the flute great prominence both in their work 
and in their play, bringing this instrument into pre- 
eminence and honour, and reared them to give love 
a conspicuous place in the life of the palaestra, thus 
tempering the dispositions of the young men. And 
with this in view, they did well to give the goddess 
who was said to have been born of Ares and Aphro- 
dite a home in their city ; for they felt that, where 
the force and courage of the warrior are most closely 
associated and united with the age which possesses 
grace and persuasiveness, there all the activities of 
civil life are brought by Harmony into the most 
perfect consonance and order. 

Gorgidas, then, by distributing this sacred band 
among the front ranks of the whole phalanx of men- 
at-arms, made the high excellence of the men incon- 
spicuous, and did not direct their strength upon a 
common object, since it was dissipated and blended 
with that of a large body of inferior troops ; but 
Pelopidas, after their valour had shone out at Tegyra, 
where they fought by themselves and about his own 
person, never aftei-wards divided or scattered tliem, 

^ Laius was enamoured of Chrysippus, a young son of 
Pelops (ApoUodorus, iii. 5, 5, 10). 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

oiairep a-cofxaTi 'y^pwfievo'^ oXo) irpoeKivhweve 
4 T0t9 /jLeyiaTOt^ aycoaiv. toajrep yap oi ittttoi 
Oaaaov virb rols apfiaatv rj Kad auTov<; i\avvo- 
fxevoi OeovcTLV, oup^ OTt fxdXXov e/j,TrL7TT0VTe<i 
CK^id^ovrat TOP depa rw TrXijOei prjyvv/jLfvov, aXX" 
on (TVveKKaiei top 6vp,ov rj fier uXXrfXwv afxiXXa 
Ka\ TO (piXoveiKOV, ovrw^ mero roy? dyadovi ^i)Xov 
dXXijXoi,<; KaXoiv epywv evievTa<i wf^eXipocndjovi 
649 Koivov epyov eivai kcu TTpoOvpbordrov^. 

XX. 'ETrei he AaKeSacfiovioL irdcn toI<; "EXX?;- 
aiv €lpt]vr]v a-vvde/jievot 7rpo<; /jl6vov<; Srj/SaLOV^ 
i^7]veyKav top TToXepbov, ipe^e^Xr'jKei. Be KXeofi- 
^poTOf 6 ^aaiXeijii dycov oifxira'; [xvpiovq, nnreU 
Be ^iXtoy?, 6 Be KipBvpo'; ov Trepl oip irporepov 
rjp 077/3atoi9, aW' dvTiKpv<; direiXr] Kol Karay- 
ye\ia Biolkict/xov, kol (})o/3of; olof oviro) rrjp Boto)- 
riap KaTel^ep, e^ioop fxep ck t^9 oiKLaf o IleXo- 
TTtSa?, Kol ri]<i yvvaLKO<i ep rm it poire fXTreip 
BuKpvovarj'i koX 7rapaKaXovar}<; aco^eip eavrop, 
2 " TaOra," elTrep, " & yvpai, roU tSicorai? ^PV 
Trapaipelv, TOi? Be ap)(^ov(Ti.p 67ra><i TOf? dXXov^ 
T(o^(i}(TiP'" iXdwp Be eh to o-rparoTreBop Koi tol'? 
l3oio)Tdp)(^a<; KaToXa/SoiP ou% 6p,oypcofMOPovPTa<i, 
TTpoiro<i ^FjTra/jLeiPwpBa Trpoaedero ypco/jurip ■\\rrj(^L- 
^Ofiepoo Btd ixd')(rj<i lepai TOt? TroXe/xiot^;, jSoio)- 
rdpxVi /^^^ ^^'^ dTToBeBeiyfiepo'i, dp-)(^o)P Be rod 
lepov Xoxov, KCU TTKTTevo/jiepo'i, CO? rjp Blkuiop 
dpBpa rifXLKaina BeBooKora Tjj TrarpiBc avjxjSdXa 
eh TTjp eXevOepiap. 



388 



PELOPIDAS, XIX. 3-xx. 2 

but, treating them as a unit, put them into the fore- 
front of the greatest conflicts. For just as horses 
run faster when yoked to a chariot than when men 
ride them singly, not because they cleave the air 
with more impetus owing to their united weight, 
but because their mutual rivalry and ambition in- 
Hame their spirits ; so he thought that brave men 
were most ardent and serviceable in a common cause 
when they inspired one another with a zeal for high 
achievement. 

XX. But now the Lacedaemonians made peace 
with all the other Greeks and directed the war 
against the Thebans alone ; ^ Cleombrotus their king 
invaded Boeotia with a force of two thousand men- 
at-arms and a thousand horse ; a new peril confronted 
the Thebans, since they were openly threatened with 
downright dispersion ; and an unprecedented fear 
reigned in Boeotia. It was at this time that Pelopi- 
das, on leaving his house, when his wife followed 
him on his way in tears and begging him not to lose 
his life, said : " This advice, my wife, should be 
given to private men ; but men in authority should 
be told not to lose the lives of others." And when 
he reached the camp and found that the boeotarchs 
were not in accord, he was first to side with Epami- 
nondas in voting to give the enemy battle. Now 
Pelopidas, although he had not been appointed 
boeotarch, was captain of the sacred band, and 
highly trusted, as it was right that a man should be 
who had given his country such tokens of his 
devotion to freedom. 

1 In 371 B.C. 

389 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

3 'n? ovv iSeBoKTO BiUKLvSwevetv koI irepl ra 
AevKTpa TOi<? AaKeSaLfxovioi<i avrearparoTTehevov, 
oyjnv elSe Kara Tov<i vttvov^ 6 IleXoTrtSa? eu jjniXa 
Siarapd^aaav avTOV. eari jap iv tu> AevKTpiKO) 
ireSicp TO. ai'-jfJiaTa tmv tov 'S,Ke8daov Ovyaripcov, 
a? AevKTplSa^ KoKovat Sta tov toitov i/cei jdp 
avTat'i vTTo ^evcov XirapTiaTcov jSLaaOeiaai'^ avv- 

4 e^rj racf)i]vai. jevo/JLiv7]<i Be ;)^a\e7ri}9 ovtco koI 
TrapavofMOV 7rpd^€co<;, 6 /xev TraTrjp, o)? ov/c eTV^ev 
ev AuKeSaifMOVL ^tV?;?, dpa<; Kara twv 'S.TvapTia- 
Twv dpaad/jievo<; ecrcfia^ev kavrov iirl roU ra^otf 
T(ov irapOevwv, '^pi-jcrixol he koL Xoyia toi'; Xirap- 
Tidrai'i del irpoix^aLvov evXa^elcrOat kol (j)u\aT- 
recrOai to AevKTpiKov fii]vt/jLa, p-i] irdw tmv 
TToXkcov auvtevTcov, aXV dp,(f)iyvoouvT(jov tov to- 
7T0V, eirel koI t?}? AaKU)ViKrj<i ttoXl'xvlov 7rpo9 ttj 
daXdaar] AevKTpov ovopbd^eTai, koI tt/jo? ^leydXr) 
TToXei Trj<i 'ApKaSia<i totto? ecTTlv 6p,d)vvp,0<i. to 
fiev ovv 7rddo<; tovto ttoXu tmv AevKTpiKcov rjv 
TraXaioTepov. 

XXI. 'O Be UeXoirlSa'i ev tw (TTpaToireBxp 
KaTaKoip,y]del^ eSo^e ra? re TratSa? opdu irepl 
TO, p.v)j/xaTa Oprjvovaa'i Kol KaTapco/iieva<; roi? 
%7rapTLdTaL<i, tov t€ XiceBaaov KeXevovTU rai? 
Kopai^; (Tc^ayuicrai irapOevov ^av6/]v, el /SovXocto 
Tcov TToXefiiwv eiTiKpaTrjcrat. Seivov Be kul Tva- 
oavofMov TOV TTpoaTd'y/jiaTO'i avTW <^avevTO<i e^- 289 
avaaTd<; ckoivovto rot? re fidvTecn koI Toh dp- 
2 'X^ovcriv. o)v ol fiev ovk e'lav irapapieXelv ot S' 
direiOelv, twv fxev iraXaiMV irpot^epovTe'^ MevoiKea 
TOV KpeovTO<{ Kol MuKapiav Tr]v 'UpaxXeov;, 
Tb)v B' vaTepov ^epeKvBrjv re Toy crocfiov vtto 
AaKeBuLfMovidiv dvaipeOevTU Koi ttjv Bopdv avTOv 

390 



PELOPIDAS, XX. 3-xxi. 2 

Accordingly, it was decided to risk a battle, and at 
Leuctra they encamped over against the Lacedae- 
monians. Here Pelopidas had a dream which greatly 
disturbed him. Now, in the plain of Leuctra are the 
tombs of the daughters of Scedasus, who are called 
from the place Leuctridae, for they had been buried 
there, after having been ravished by Spartan 
strangers.^ At the commission of such a grievous 
and lawless act, their father, since he could get no 
justice at Sparta, heaped curses upon the Spartans, 
and then slew himself upon the tombs of the 
maidens ; and ever after, prophecies and oracles kept 
warning the Spartans to be on watchful guard against 
the Leuctrian wrath. Most of them, however, did 
not fully understand the matter, but were in doubt 
about the place, since in Laconia there is a little 
town near the sea which is called Leuctra, and near 
Megalopolis in Arcadia there is a place of the same 
name. This calamity, of course, occurred long be- 
fore the battle of Leuctra. 

XXL After Pelopidas had lain down to sleep in 
the camp, he thouglit he saw these maidens weeping 
at their tombs, as they invoked curses upon the 
Spartans, and Scedasus bidding him sacrifice to his 
daughters a virgin with auburn hair, if he wished to 
win the victory over his enemies. The injunction 
seemed a lawless and dreadful one to him, but he 
rose up and made it known to the seers and the 
commanders. Some of these would not hear of the 
injunction being neglected or disobeyed, adducing as 
examples of such sacrifice among the ancients, 
Menoeceus, son of Creon, Macaria, daughter of 
Heracles ; and, in later times, Pherecydes the wise 
man, who was put to death by the Lacedaemonians, 

1 The damsels, in shame, took their own lives. Of. 
Pausanias, ix. 13, 3. 



PLUTARCH S LIV^ES 

Kard Ti Xoyiov virb tmv ^aaiXewv (fypovpov/xevTjv, 
AewviSav re ro) y^prjaixw rpoirov riua irpoOvad- 

3 fxevov eavTov virep tt}? 'KXXdSo<;, en he rovf viro 
@€fii(7TOKXeov<i acf)a<yiaadevTa<i oi/jLtjaTTj Atovvaoj 
irpo T/}? ev "XaXa/iiLvi vavp,a-)(^[a'i- eKeivoa yap 
eTTi/Maprvprjcrai ra KaropOu>p,aTa- rovro he, &>? 

Ay7](Ti,Xaov diro rwv avroiv ^ A.yap.efivovL roTrwv 
€771 Tov<i avTOV<i (TT parevofxevov iroXe/jLLOvi -^Trjae 
fxev rj Oeo<; rrjv dvyarepa cr(f)dyiov kuI raurrjv 
elhe Ti]v oyjnv ev AvXlhc KOi/j,oo/u,€uo<f, o h' ovk 
ehcoKev, aXX" dno/jLaXOaKcoOel'i KareXvae rrjv 

4 arpareiav dho^ov Kal dreXT] yevopievtiv. ol he 
Tovvavriov aTrrjyopevov, ox? ovhevl tmu Kpemovcov 
Kal virep r}/j,d<i dpearrfv ovaav ouro) ^dp^apov 
Kal Trapdvojiiov dva'iav ov yap tov<; Tv(f)Mvafi 
eKeivovi ovhe tov^ TiyavTa<i dp)(^ecv, dXXd rbv 
irdvrcov irarepa Oecov Kal dvOpcoTrcov ha[fxova<i 
he ')(^aLpovTa<; dvOpoDirwv a'tfiari, Kal (j)6v(p irt- 
areveiv fiev ia(o<i ecnlv d^eXrepov, ovrwv he toc- 
ovTcov dfxeXrjreov u)<; dhwdrcov dadeveia yap Kal 
piO)(^6T]pLa ■\^v')(rj<; ificpvecrOai Kal 7Tapap,eveLv ra? 
aTOTTOi"? Kal ')(aXe'Trd<i €7ndup,La<;. 

XXII. Ey TOiovToi<; ovv hiaX6yoi,(; tcov Trpcorcov 
bvTOiv, Kal fJbdXiara tov YleXoirLhov hiwjropovvTO'i, 
LTTTTcov e^ dyeXr]<i ttcoXo? dirocfiuyoucra Kal (f)€po- 
jxevii hid TOiv ottXwi', co? rjv Oeovaa Kar' avTovii 
eKeivovi, eTTeaTT}' Kal rot? jxev dXXoi^ deav Trapel- 
'Xj£v ^ re XP^^ arLX/3ovaa t% ^017779 irvpaorarov 



392 



PELOPIDAS, XXI. 2-xxn. i 

and whose skin was preserved by their kings, in 
accordance with some oracle ; and Leonidas, who, in 
obedience to the oracle, sacrificed himself,^ as it 
were, to save Greece ; and, still further, the youths 
who were sacrificed by Themistocles to Dionysus 
Carnivorous before the sea fight at Salamis ; ^ for the 
successes which followed these sacrifices proved them 
acceptable to the gods. Moreover, when Agesilaiis, 
who was setting out on an expedition from the same 
place as Agamemnon did, and against the same 
enemies, was asked by the goddess for his daughter 
in sacrifice, and had this vision as he lay asleep at 
Aulis, he was too tender-hearted to give her,^ and 
thereby brought his expedition to an unsuccessful 
and inglorious ending. Others, on the conti'ary, 
argued against it, declaring that such a lawless and 
barbarous sacrifice was not acceptable to any one of 
the superior beings above us, for it was not the fabled 
typhons and giants who governed the world, but the 
father of all gods and men ; even to believe in the 
existence of divine beings who take delight in the 
slaughter and blood of men was perhaps a folly, but 
if such beings existed, they must be disregarded, as 
having no power ; for only weakness and depravity 
of soul could produce or harbour such unnatural and 
cruel desires. 

XXII. While, then, the chief men were thus 
disputing, and while Pelopidas in particular was in 
perplexity, a filly broke away from the herd of horses 
and sped through the camp, and when she came to 
the very place of their conference, stood still. The 
rest only admired the colour of her glossy mane, 
which was fiery red, her high mettle, and the 

' At Thermopylae. Cf. Herodotus, vii. 220. 

2 Cf. tlie 7 hemis/ocles, xiii. 2 f. 

3 Cf. the Agesilaiis, vi. 4 ff. 

393 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

7] re javpoT)]^ Kal to ao^apov Kal redappr]Kh^ 
2 T^9 (f>(i)vr]'^, &e6KpiT0<i Be o f/,dvTi<; <TV/ji^pov7]aa<i 
ave^oTjae tt/oo? tov VleXoTTiSav ""H/cei cot to 
lepelov, M haijJLOvie, Kal -napdevov aWr^v /jltj irepi- 
fiev(o/jbev, aXXa XP^ Se^d/j-ei'O'i rjv o Beo'i Bi8(oaiv." 
e/c TovTOv \a06vTe<; ttjv Ilttttov eirl tou? rtK^ovi 
rj'yov T(x)v irapdevoiv, Kal KaTev^dp,evoi Kal Kara- 
aT€-^avTe<s eveTefxov avrol re xaipovTe<; Kal Xoyov 
et? TO (TTpaTOTreSov irepl rr/'i 6y}re(o<; tov IleXo- 
rrihov Kal Ti)<i Ouala<s StBovre^. 

XXIII. 'El" Be rf) /jidxT) tov ^ETrafxeivcovSov 
rrjv (pdXayja Xo^r]v eirl to evoovv/xov €Xkovto<;, 
OTTft)? Twi' dXXcov KXXrjvoyv airoiTaTw 'yevrjTai 
TO he^Lov Tcov ^TrapriaTMV Kal tov YLXeojx^poTov 
e^cocrji TTpoaTreaoov dOpow-i Kara Kepa<; Kal ^tacrd- 
fMevo<;, ol fxev rroXefiiot KaTa/xadovTe^; to ytvojuevoi' 

2 -qp^avTO /xeTaKiveiv rfi rd^ei a(f)d<; avTov^, Kal 
TO Se^ibv dveTTTuaaov Kal ireptT^yov &)? kvkXco- 
cro/nevoL Kal 7repi/3aXovvTe<; vtto 7rX7]0ov<i rov 
^FjTTap^etvcovSav, 6 Be YleXoiriBa^ ev tovtw irpo- 
e^eBpafxe, Kal av(TTpe\j/a<; Toy's TpiaKoaiov; Bpofio) 
<p8uvei Trplv dvaTelvai tov KXeo/x^poTov to Kepa<; 
i) (Tvva'ya'yelv irdXiv et<? to aj^TO Kat, avyKXeicrat 
TYjv Td^iv, ov KadeaTwaLV, dXXa Oopv^oufievoa 

3 St' dXXyjXcov toi<; AaKeBaipovloi^ ein^aXcov. Kai- 
TOi TrdvTcov aKpoL Te')(ylTaL Kat aocjucTal to)v 
TToXepbiKOiv o'z/T69 01 ^TTapTcaTtti Trpoq ovBev 
ovTw<i erraiBevov avTOv<i Kal avveidt^ov, w? to 
fMrj TrXavdadai, fiijBe TapdrTeadai. rd^eoxi BiaXv- 



394 



PELOPIDAS, XXII. i-xxiii. 3 

vehemence and boldness of her neifjjhing ; but 
Theocritus the seer, after taking thought, cried out 
to Pelopidas : " Thy sacrificial victim is come, good 
man ; so let us not wait for any other virgin, but do 
thou accept and use the one wiiich Heaven offers 
thee." So they took the mare and led her to the 
tombs of the maidens, upon which, after decking her 
with garlands and consecrating her with prayers, 
they sacrificed her, rejoicing themselves, and pub- 
lishing through the camp an account of the vision of 
Pelopidas and of the sacrifice. 

XXIII. In the battle, while Epaminondas was 
drawing his phalanx obliquely towards the left, in 
order that the right wing of the Spartans might be 
separated as far as possible from the rest of the 
Greeks, and that he might thrust back Cleombrotus 
by a fierce charge in column with all his men-at- 
arms, the enemy understood what he was doing and 
began to change their formation ; they were opening 
up their right wing and making an encircling move- 
ment, in order to surround Epaminondas and en- 
velop him with their numbers. But at this point 
Pelopidas darted forth from his position, and with 
his band of three hundred on the run, came up^ 
befoi-e Cleombrotus had either extended his wing or 
brought it back again into its old position and closed 
up his line of battle, so that the Lacedaemonians were 
not standing in array, but moving confusedly about 
among each other when his onset reached them. And 
yet the Spartans, who were of all men past masters 
in the art of war, trained and accustomed themselves 
to nothing so much as not to straggle or get into 

^ There is only a hint of this strategy, <infl no mention 
either of Epaminondas or Pelopidas, in Xenophon's account 
of the battle {Hdl. vi. 4, 9-15). 

395 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

6eicrri<i, aWa '^poifxevoi tracn Trayre? €TriardTaL<; 
Koi ^€vyLTai<i, oiroi ttot€ teal avvLCTTrjaiv 6 kiv- 
8vvo<;, Karakaix^dveiv Kal avvapfMOTTeiv Kal 

4 /xd^eaOai Tra pairXy] a io)';. Tore Be i) rov 'Evra- 
/jL€iv(i)v8ov (f)dXay^ iTTKpepo/nevrj p,6voL<i iKeivoi<i 
Kal irapaWdrrovaa toi)? d\Xov<;, 6 re IleXoTrtSa? 
fiera Td')(ov<i dTTLcrrov Kal ToXyti?/? ev TOi<; oirXoi'i 
yevofievo'i, avvex^ov rd re (fypovyj^iara Kal Ta? 
eiTtaTrj/xa'i avrtov ovt(o<; mcttc cjyvyijv Kal (povou 
XTrapriarMv oaov oinro) irporepov yeviadai. 8i6 
Tft) ^ Kirap-eivoovha ^oi,(OTap^oui>Ti p^rj j3ot.(OTap)(^cov, 2J 
Kal ird(7ri<i t'^yovp^vw Tfj<i 8vvdp,e(o<i puKpov p.epov<; 
dp)(^a)v, taov rjveyKaro 86^r)<i tt}? vlki]<; eKeivr]<i Kal 
rov Karopd(ji)p,aro<i. 

XXIV. Et9 pLevroi YVeXoTrovv^idov dp,(f)6r€pai 
^OLwrap'yovvre's ive^aXov Kal rcov idvoyv rd 
frXelcrra TTpocrrjyovro, AaKehaLpLOViwv drroa-rt']- 
cravre<; ^HXiv, "Apyo?, ^ ApKaSiav avpirracrav, 
avrrjf t^9 AaK(oviKrj<; ra irXelara. Kairoi X^i- 
piMvo'i pbev rjaav al rrepl rpoirdi; uKpLal, p,r}v6^ Be 
rov reXevraiov (^divovro<; oXiyai Trepirjaav rjpiepai, 
Kal ri-jv dp'^rjv eSei 7rapaXap,/3dveiv erepou<; ev0u<i 
larap,evov rov Trpoorov p,y]v6<i, rj Ovi^crKeiv rov<; p,r] 

2 irapahihovra^;. ol he dXXoi /3ot(ordp)(^aL Kal rov 
vopiov hehiore'^ rovrov Kal rov ■)(eLp,Mva (f)evyovre<; 
uTrdyeiv eairevhov eV o'Ikov ro arpdrevpua, WeXo- 
7ri8a<; 8e TT/awTO? ^ErrapieivdyvSa. yev6p.evo<i avp,- 
'\fn]<po<i Kal avp,7rapoppL7]aa<i rov<i iroXira^ r]yev 
eirl rrjv S'jrdprrjv Kal Ste/3t/3a^6 rov Kvpcorav, 
Kal TToXXd<; p.ev rjpei iroXeL'i aurcov, irdaav he rrjV 
')(^u)pav eiTopdei p^e^^pi 6aXdrrr)<;, rjyovp.evo<i eirrd 
fjLvpidhcov 'EXX'r)viKrj<; crrparid<;, 7]<; eXarrov ?) 

396 



PELOPIDAS, xxiii. 3-.\'xiv. 2 

confusion upon a change of formation, but to take 
anyone without exception as neighbour in rank or in 
file, and wheresoever danger actually threatened, to 
seize that point and form in close array and fight as 
well as ever. At tiiis time, however, since the 
phalanx of Epaminondas bore down upon them alone 
and neglected the rest of their force, and since 
Pelopidas engaged them with incredible speed and 
boldness, their courage and skill were so confounded 
that there was a flight and slaughter of the Spartans 
such as had never before been seen. Therefore, 
although Epaminondas was boeotarch, Pelopidas, 
who was not boeotarch, and commanded only a 
small portion of the whole force, won as much glory 
for the success of that victory as he did. 

XXIV. Both were boeotarchs, however, when they 
invaded Peloponnesus and won over most of its peo- 
ples, detaching from the Lacedaemonian confederacy 
Elis, Argos, all Arcadia, and most of Laconia itself^ 
Still, the winter solstice was at hand, and only a few 
days of the latter part of the last month of the year 
remained, and as soon as the first month of the new 
year began other officials must succeed them, or 
those who would not surrender their office must die. 
The other boeotarchs, both because they feared this 
law, and because they wished to avoid the hardships 
of winter, were anxious to lead the army back home ; 
but Pelopidas was first to add his vote to that of 
Epaminondas, and after inciting his countrjMiien to 
join them, led the army against Sparta and across 
the Eurotas. He took many of the enemy's cities, 
and ravaged all their territory as far as the sea, 
leading an army of seventy thousand Greeks, of 
which the Thebans themselves were less than a 

1 In •.ilOii.C. 

397 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

3 hwheKarov rjcrav avroi ^rj^Saloi fxipof. aXX t) 
Bo^a TOiv avhpwv avev So7/x(Zto9 kolvov koI y^iy 
<f)LaiJLaTO<; iiroiei rot)? crufi/j,dxov<i eireadai (JiwTrfj 
■navra^ ruov/xevoi-i CKelvoi'i. 6 yap -Trpojro'i, o)? 
eoiKe, KoX KvpLU)Taro<; v6/xo<i tw aw^eaOat heopLevM 
Tov (T(t)^€iv hvvufievov ap^ovra Kara (pvcriv diro- 
SiScoar Kav wairep ol irXeovre^ euSi'a? ouat]<i i) 
Trap' uKrr]v 6ppovvr€<i dcreXyM'i TTpoaeve')(9oi(TL 
Toh KV^€pvi]TaL<i Kal dpaaew<;, aixa tw 'xeip.odva 
Koi KLvhvvov KaraXafji/Sdvecp 7r/3o<f eKeivov^ diro- 
/BXeTTOvai Kal rd<i iX7TLSa<i ev eKeivoi^ exovat. 

4 Kal yap ' Apyeloi Kal 'HXeiot Kal 'A/a/caSe? eV rot'i 
avve8pioi<; ipl^ovre^ Kal Stacpepo/uevoi 7rpo<i tou<; 
Syj^aiovi inrep r)yep.ovLa<i, eir uvtmv tmv dywvwv 
Kal irapa rd heivd Tol<i eKeivwv avdaipeTw; 
TveidopevoL (JTpaT7]yol<; tjkoXovBovv. 

5 'Ey CKelvrj rfj arpaieia irdcrav p^ev ' ApKaBian 
€i<; piav hvvapLV avveaTrjaav, rr]v 8e M€(Tai]VLav 
yddpav vepopuevuiv 'S.TrapriaTMV djroTep-opei'OL tov<; 
TTaXaioix; M€acn]Viov<i eKdXovv Kal Karfjyov 
'I6ci)p7]v avvot-KLaavra, diriovTe'^ he eV olkov 
8id Ke7%pecoi/ ' A67]vaiov<i evLKwv eirix^LpovvTa^ 
d-^ip.ayelv irepl rd arevd Kal KwXveiv ti-jv 
TTopecav. 

XXV. 'Etti Be T0UT0i9 ol pev aXXoi Trdvreq 
VTrepTjydircov Tr]i> dpeTi-jV Kal ttjv TV')(riv edavpa- 
^ov, 6 Be avyyevrj'i Kal 7roXnLKo<i (f)06vo<i dpa Trj 
Bo^rj TMV dvBpoiv (Tvvav^opevo^ ov KaXd<; ovBe 
irpeTTOvaa'i viroBox^'^ nrapecxKeva^ev avroU. dava- 
Tou yap dp,(f)6T€poL BiKa<i e(f)vyov eTTaveX66vre<;, 
on TOV v6p,ov KeXevovrc; ev tm irpcoreo prjvl 
irapaBovvai rrjv ySoicoTa/o^tai' eTepoi<i, ov Bov- 
Kdriov ovopbd^ovcri, rerTapa<; 6Xov<; irpoaeire- 

398 



PELOPIDAS, XXIV. 3-xxv. i 

twelfth part. But the reputation of the two men, 
without a general vote or decree, induced all the 
allies to follow their leadership without a murmur. 
For the first and paramount law, as it would seem, 
namely, that of nature, subjects him who desires to 
be saved to the command of the man who can save 
him ; just as sailors^ when the weather is fair or they 
are lying off shore at anchor, treat their captains 
with bold insolence, but as soon as a storm arises and 
danger threatens, look to them for guidance and 
place their hopes in them. And so Argives, Eleans, 
and Arcadians, who in their joint assemblies con- 
tended and strove with the Thebans for the supre- 
macy, when battles were actually to be fought and 
perils to be faced, of their own will obeyed the 
Theban generals and followed them. 

On this expedition they united all Arcadia into 
one power ; rescued the country of Messenia from the 
hands of its Spartan masters and called back and re- 
stored the ancient Messenian inhabitants, with whom 
they settled Ithome ; and on their way back home- 
wards through Cenchreae, conquered the Athenians 
when they tried to hinder their passage by skirmish- 
ing with them in the passes. 

XXV. In view of these achievements, all the rest 
of the Greeks were delighted with their valour and 
marvelled at their good fortune; but the envy of their 
own fellow-citizens, which was increasing with the 
men's fame, prepared them a reception that was not 
honourable or fitting. For both were tried for their 
lives when they came back, because they had not 
handed over to others their office of boeotarch, as 
the law commanded, in the first month of the new 
year (which they call Boukatios), but had added four 



399 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



0dXovTo /xi]va<;, fv ol? ra Trepl Meaaijvrjv koI 
^ApKaSiav Kal rijv AaKcoviKrjv BiwKrjaav. 

2 FjLcr7]')^di] fxev ovv TT/oorepo? eU to SiKacni]piov 
TleXoTTiSa*?, 8io kol fidWov eKivhvvevaev, d/x(h6- 
repoL he aTreXvOrjaav. to 8e avKocpdvTrjfia koI 
TTjv TTelpav 'E7Ta/bL€Lva)v8a<; rjveyKe 7rpdw<i, fxiya 
/j.€po<; dvhpeia<i kol /j.eyaXoyjrv^ia<i rrjv ev tol<; 
TToXiTiKoU dve^LKaKLav 7roiovfi€i'0<;, DeXoTrtSa? 
Se Kal (pvcrei 6vixo6iheaTepo<i w, Kal irapo^vvo- 
fievo^ viTo TWi' (piXcov d/xuvaadac tol/? e)^Opov^, 

3 €7TeXd^ero Totavrrj^i aiTLa<;. MeveKXeiSa<; 6 prj- 
rwp Tjv fiev et? tmv fierd UeXoTTiSov Kal MeXwvo^ 
el<; rijv Xdpcoi'o<; oiKiav avveXdovrwv, eirel 8e tmv 
I'crcov OVK rj^iovTO irapd rot? %-q^aioi';, Seiv6TaT0<; 
fM€i' Mv Xeyetv, dKoXaaro^; Se Kal KaK0)jd7]<i rov 
TpoTTOV, €XP^]TO rfj (pvaei 7rpo<i rb avKo<pavTeiv 
Kal Bia^dXXeiv tov'; Kpeirrova^;, ovhe fierd Si'ktjv 

4 €Keivrjv "jravad/uevo^;. }L'nap.eivu)vZav jxev ovv 
e^6Kpou(T€ T?}? ^oiwTap'x^ia^ kol KareiroXneva arc 
TToXvv xpovov, UeXoTTiSav Se tt/oo? /nev top hrjiiov 
OVK r(T;^fo-6 hia^aXelv, e7r€X€t,p€i 8e avyKpovcrai 
Tw Xdp(t)Vf Kal KOLvrjv riva tov (pdovov vrapa- 
fivOlav €X0VT0<i, dv o)v avTol /xi] SvvavTat, /3e\TLov^ 
(f)av)]vai, T0VT0V<: d/XM-i ye 7r&)? eTepcov aTrohei^cocn 
KaK[ov<i, 7roXv<i rjv trpo'i tov hrjjxov av^cov Ta tov 
Hdpwvo^ epya, Kal ra? a-TpaTriyia<i Td<i eKcivov 

5 Kal ra? VLKa<; iyKco/jiid^cov. t% Se Trpof UXaTaid^ 
liTTTopba'xJia'i, i)v Tvpo TMv AevKTpLKOiv eviKrjGav 
r)yov/j,evov 2idpu>vo'i, €7re)(^€cpr}(Tev dvadrj/xa TOLovhe 
TTOiyaai. ^AvSpOKvSrj-i 6 Kv^tKt]vo<i eKXa^cov 

400 



29 



PELOPIDAS, xxv. 1-5 

whole months to it, during which tliey conducted 
their campaign in Messenia, Arcadia, and Laconia. 

Well, then, Pelopidas was first brought to trial, 
and therefore ran the greater risk, but both were 
acquitted. Epaminondas bore patiently with this 
attempt to calumniate him, considering that for- 
bearance under political injury was a large part of 
fortitude and magnanimity ; but Pelopidas, who was 
naturally of a more fiery temper, and wlio was egged 
on by his friends to avenge himself upon his enemies, 
seized the following occasion. Menecleidas, the 
orator, was one of those who had gathered with 
Pelopidas and Melon at Charon's house, and since 
he did not receive as much honour among the 
Thebans as the others, being a most able speaker, 
but intemperate and malicious in his disposition, he 
gave his natural gifts employment in calumniating 
and slandering his superiors, and kept on doing so 
even after the trial. Accordingly, he succeeded in 
excluding Epaminondas from the office of boeotarch, 
and kept him out of political leadership for some 
time ; but he had not weight enough to bring 
Pelopidas into disfavour with the people, and there- 
fore tried to bring him into collision with Charon. 
And since it is quite generally a consolation to the 
envious, in the case of those whom they themselves 
cannot surpass in men's estimation, to show these 
forth as somehow or other inferior to others, he was 
constantly magnifying the achievements of Charon, 
in his speeches to the ])eople, and extolling his cam- 
paigns and victories. Moreover, for the victory which 
the Theban cavalry won at Plataea, before the battle 
of Leuctra, under the command of Charon, he at- 
tempted to make the following public dedication. 
Androcydes of Cyzicus had received a commission 

401 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

irapa rrj^ TroXew? irlvaKa ypdyjrat fid')(^r]<; erepaf, 
eTTereXei to epyov iv ©^^ai'i- y€vofxevr]<i 8e r?}? 
airocTTdaeco'i koi rov rroXepov avp,Trecr6vT0<;, ov 
iroXv Tov TeX,09 e^eiv iXXelTrovra top irlvaKa 

C trap eavrol<; ol ^rj^atoi /carecr^^oi'. rovrov ovv 
Mev€KX€i.8a<i eireiaev dva9ivTa<i eTn<ypdy\raL 
rovvofia rov Xdpcovo<;, to? upavpdoawv rrjv YleXo- 
ttlSov Kol 'E7rafxetvd)vSou So^av. r)v Se d^iXTepo<i 
r) cf)iXoTipLa, irapd TocrovTov; koI rtfXiKOVTOV<; 
dyayvat evos epyov Kal p,id<i VLKr^q dyaircopevrj'i, 
iv 7) Tepdvhav rivd rcov dcnjpcov X-rrapTiaTcov Kal 
recraapdKovTa /xer' avrov ireaelv, dXXo Ze ovhev 

7 peya it pa-x^Brivai Xeyovai. tovto to -ylnjcpicrp-a 
ypdcperai UeXoTTiSaf; irapavopoov, lax^pi^o/xevoii 
OTt ^iiJBaioL^ ov irdTpioi' rjv Ihia kut dvhpa 
Tip,av, uXXa ttj TrarplSt KOivcot; to t/}? viKyj^; 
bvop.a aoi^eiv. Kal top pev X.dpa>va irapd irdaav 
Tr]v hiKriv iyKcopid^oiv d<f)06vQ)<i SieTeXeae, tov Be 
^leveKXeiSav /SdcrKavov Kal Trovrjpov i^eXeyyoov, 
Kal Tov<i ©Tj/SaLov; epcoTcov el pr^Sev avTot<i KaXov 
TTeirpaKTai, wcrTe'^ MeveKXeLhav ^rjpiiMaai -yPV' 
p-aaiv, a fX7] hvvdpcevo'i eKTiaat 8id TrXrjOo^, 
vaTepov i-TTexeipi'ia-e Kivrjcai Kal p,eTaa-Tf)aai Trjv 
TToXiTeiav. TavTa pev ovv e^ei Tcvd Kal tov /3lov 
aTToOedipijaiv. 

XXVI. Kirel Be ^AXe^dvhpov tov ^epwv tv- 
pdvvov 7ToXep,ovvTo^ p,ev e'/c TrpohrjXov ttoXXoU 
&€TTaX(t)v, €7ri/3ovXevovTo^ Se irdaiv, err pea ^ev- 
aav el<i ©j;^a? al Tr6Xei<; aTpaTrjyov aiTOvp-evai 
Kal Bvvap.iv, 6po)v o YleXoiriBa'i rov 'E7rap,ei.vcov- 



1 w(TTe Biyan's correction of the MSS. h /xh, which Sintenis 
and Bekker retain, assuming a lacuna in the text. 

402 



PELOPIDAS, XXV. 5-xx\'i. i 

from the city to make a picture of another battle, 
and was finishing the work at Thebes ; but the city 
revolted from Sparta, and the war came on, before 
the picture was quite completed, and the Thebans 
now had it on their hands. This picture, then, 
Menecleidas persuaded them to dedicate with Cha- 
ron's name inscribed thereon, hoping in this w^ay to 
obscure the fame of Pelopidas and Epaminondas. 
But the ambitious scheme was a foolish one, when 
there were so many and such great conflicts, to 
bestow approval on one action and one victory, in 
which, we are told, a certain Gerandas, an obscure 
Spartan, and forty others were killed, but nothing 
else of importance was accomplished. This decree 
was attacked as unconstitutional by Pelopidas, who 
insisted that it was not a custom with the Thebans 
to honour any one man individually, but for the 
whole country to have the glory of a victory. And 
through the whole trial of the case he continued to 
heap generous praise upon Charon, while he showed 
Menecleidas to be a slanderous and worthless fellow, 
and asked the Thebans if they had done nothing 
noble themselves ; the result was that Menecleidas 
was fined, and being unable to pay the fine because 
it was so heavy, he afterwards tried to effect a 
revolution in the government. This episode, then, 
has some bearing on the Life which I am writing. 

XXVI. Now, since Alexander the tyrant of Pherae 
made open war on many of the Thessalians, and was 
plotting against them all, their cities sent ambassa- 
dors to Thebes asking for an armed force and a 
general. Pelopidas, therefore, seeing that Epami- 

403 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Sav Ta? €v YleXoTTovv/jcrw irpd^et^ SioiKeiv,^ avro<i 
eavTov €7reSo)Ke Koi Trpoaevei/jie Tol<i ©ecrcraX-Oi?, 
fj,^T€ Tr]v Ihiav iTriaTrjfirjv /cat 8vva/j.iv dpyoOaav 
irepiopav viro/xevcov, /a7/t6 ottov trdpeaTiv Evra- 
p,eiv(ovBa<i erepov helaOat, arpan^you uo/ni^wv. 

2 0)9 ovv iarpcnevaev eVi ^eacraXiav fxerd hvvd- 
fieo)<i, rrjv re Adpiaaav 6vdv<: trapeXa^e, koI tov 
^ AXe^avhpov eXOovra Koi Beo/xevov SiaXXaTreiv 
iireipciTO koi nroLelv 6« rupdvvov irpaov dp')(^ovTa 
Tot<i &€a(TaXot>; kol v6/J.ip.ov. &)? Be rjv dv)]KeaTO<i 
KOi Or)pi.(t)Br]<i Koi TToXXr] jxev (jofXOTi]<i avrov, 
ttoXXt) Be daeXyeia koi irXeove^la Karrjyopelro, 
rpa^vvofievov rov TieXoTriBov irpo^ avrov koI 
■y^aXeTTalvovTO'i d7ToBpd<i (o^^eTO /j-eTa tmv Bopv- 

3 (fiopcov. 6 Be HeXoTTiBa^ dBeidv re ttoXXtjp diro 
rov rupdvvov rol<; 0ecrcraXot9 d7ro\L7ro)v Kol Trpo? 
uX\ijXov<i ofMOvoiav, avro'i et? MuKeBovtav drrijpe, 
YlroXefiaLOV fiev ^AXe^dvBpw rS) ^aacXevovri rwv 
M.aKeB6vcov TToXefxovvro'i, dfi(j)orep(ov Be fieraTre/x- 
Tro/jLeva)v eKelvov to? BiaXXaKrrjv koI BiKacrrrjv kol 
(Tvp-/jia')(^ov KOL /3oi]0ov rov BoKovvro<; dBi/celadai 

4 yevijcTo/xevov. eXOwv Be kol BiaXvaa<i rd^i Bia- 
(f)opd<; KoX Karaya<yd)v rou<; (pevyovra<i, 6p.y]poi 
eXa/Se rov dBe\(j)ov rov ySacrtXect)? ^iXLTrrrov koi 
rpidicovra rraiBa<i aX\ov<i rcov emc^aveardroiv, 2! 
KOL Karear^-jaev et? S7]/3a<i, eTTcBet^dfievo^ rot? 

"ILWycnv fo)9 TToppco BiJjKei ra %T]j3a'i(ov rrpdy- 
fxara rfj Bo^r) ri)<; Bvvdfieo)^ kol rfj Triarei, t/}<? 
BiKaLoavvrj<;. 

5 Ouro^ r/v <I>i\(7r7ro? 6 tow "KXXi](tiv varepov 
TToXe/UJ/o-a? v-nep riji; eXevdeptWi, rure Be vrat? cbv 

^ SiotKuv Bekker has SioiKovvra, after Coraes. 
404 



PELOPIDAS, XXVI. 1-5 

nondas was busy with his work in Peloponnesus, 
offered and assigned himself to the ThessaHans,^ 
both because he could not suffer his own skill and 
ability to lie idle, and because he thought that wher- 
ever Epaminondas was there was no need of a 
1 second general. Accordingly, after marching into 
Thessaly with an armed force, he straightway took 
Larissa, and when Alexander came to him and 
begged for terms, he tried to make him, instead of a 
tyrant, one who would govern the Thessalians mildly 
and according to law. But since the man was incurably 
brutish and full of savageness, and since there was 
much denunciation of his licentiousness and greed, 
Pelopidas became harsh and severe with him, where- 
upon he ran away with his guards. Then Pelopidas, 
leaving the Thessalians in great security from the 
tyrant and in concord with one another, set out him- 
self for Macedonia, where Ptolemy was at war with 
Alexander the king of the Macedonians. For both 
parties had invited him to come and be arbiter and 
judge between them, and ally and helper of the one 
that appeared to be wronged. After he had come, 
then, and had settled their differences and brought 
home the exiles, he received as hostages Philip, the 
king's brother, and thirty other sons of the most 
illustrious men, and brought them to live at Thebes, 
thus showing the Greeks what an advance the 
Theban state had made in the respect paid to its 
power and the trust placed in its justice. 

This was the Philip who afterwards waged war to 
enslave the Greeks, but at this time he was a boy. 

1 In 3G9 B.C. 

405 

VOL. V O 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

eV Sij^ai<; irapa Ua/jifievei hiairav elx^v. eV he 
rovTOV Kol ^i]\coTr]<; yeyovevai eho^ev ^ 'E-nafxeL- 
voivhov, TO irepl tou? voXi/jLov^ kol ra<; aTparrj- 
yta^ hpaarrjpiov 'Icrw^ KaTavoy](Ta<i,^ o fxiKpov rjv 
Ti]<i Tov av8p6<; aperrj'? fxopiov, iyKpaTeta<i Se Kal 
hiKaiO(Tvvii<; '"^^t pie'ya\o^v)(icL<i kol TrpaoT-qro^;, 
oh rjv dXrjdco'i fM€ya<i e/ceivo^;, ovBev ovre (^vaei 

XXVII. Mero. Se ravra ttoXiv tmv @eTTa\o)v 
alrL(o/jLevQ)v tov <t>€paiov 'AXe^avSpov co? Sia- 
TapuTTOVTa Ta<; TroXet?, airecrTaXri fxeTa 'lcr/jii]viov 
nrpecr^evcov 6 UeXoiriSa^- koL iraprjv outc oIkoOcv 
ayav hvvapiiv oine TroXe/xov 7rpoa8oKrjaa<;, avToh 
he Tot? ©6TTaA,ot9 ^(^pfja-dai tt/jo? to KaTe-rrelyov 

2 TMV TrpayfMciTQyv avayKa^ojjievoq. iv TOVTfo Be 
ttoXlv Tcoy KUTa MaKeSovlav TapaTTo/jLevcov (6 
<yap rTroXe/iato? avrjprjKei tov (BaacXea Kal t>]v 
apxhv icaTea-)(ev, ol he (f)iXoi tou Te6vy]K6T0<; eKci- 
\ovv TOV JJeXoirlhav), ^ovXafieva /xev iinc^avrjvai 
T0t9 TTpdy/xaaiv, lhlov<i he (7TpaTiu>Ta<; ovk €)(0}v, 
fXLcrOo^opov^ Tivd<; auToSev 7rpoaXa^6/j,evo<i p.eTa 

3 TOVTwv evdi)^ e/Sdhc^ev e-rrl top UToXe/jLatov. &)<? 
8' iyyv<i dXX-qXcov eyevovTo, tou? fxev p,ia6o<^6pov<i 
TlToXe/iato? 'X^prjixaai hiacf)Oei,pa<; eTreicrev o)? avTov 
jjbeTaaTrjvai, tov he UeXoTrloou Trjv ho^av avTi-jv 
Kai Tovvofxa hehotKO)<i dTDjvTijaev &)<? Kpeicraovi, 
Kal he^ia)adfMevo<i Kal heydel<i 0D/j,oX6yr}cr€ ttjv fiev 
dpx^W ''■o*'> '''0'^ TedvtiKOTO'i dheX(f)oi<; hia(f)vXn^eiv, 
B7;/3atot9 he tov avTov e^^pov e^eiv Kal (f)i\ov 
6fi7]pov<; S" eVt TovTOi'i tov v'lov ^iXo^evov ehwKe 

4 Kal '7revT>]K0VTa twv eTalpcov. tovtov<; /xev ovv 

^ eSo^ev . . . KaTavo4}cras Bekker has rtalv tSo^tv . , . Kara- 
vo-nffaaiv {to some . . , who observed), after Coraes. 

406 



PELOPIDAS, XXVI. 5-xxvii. 4 

and lived in Thebes with Pammenes. Hence he 
was believed to have become a zealous follower of 
Epaminondas, perhaps because he comprehended his 
efficiency in wars and campaigns, which was only 
a small part of the man's high excellence ; but in 
restraint, justice, magnanimity, and gentleness, 
wherein Epaminondas was truly great, Philip had no 
share, either naturally or as a result of imitation. 

XXVII. After this, when the Thessalians again 
brought complaint against Alexander of Pherae as a 
disturber of their cities, Pelopidas was sent thither 
on an embassy with Ismenias ; ^ and since he brought 
no force from home with him, and did not expect 
war, he was compelled to employ the Thessalians 
themselves for the emergency. At this time, too, 
Macedonian affairs were in confusion again, for 
Ptolemy had killed the king and now held the reins 
of government, and the friends of the dead king 
were calling upon Pelopidas. Wishing, therefore, to 
appear upon the scene, but having no soldiers of his 
own, he enlisted some mercenaries on the spot, and 
with these marched at once against Ptolemy. When, 
however, they were near each other, Ptolemy cor- 
rupted the mercenaries and bribed them to come 
over to his side ; but since he feared the very name 
and reputation of Pelopidas, he met him as his 
superior, and after welcoming him and supplicating 
his favour, agreed to be regent for the brothers of the 
dead king, and to make an alliance with the Thebans ; 
moreover, to confirm this, he gave him his son 
Philoxenus and fifty of his companions as hostages. 

» In 368 B.C. 

407 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

aireaTeCkev 6i<? Srj^a<i o IleXoTrtSa?, avTo^; Se 
^ape(o<; (f)6p(ov Tr)v rwv fiicrBoffiopwv irpohoaiav, 
Koi TTvvOavofievo'i to. irXelaTa roiv ')(^p7]ixdT(i)v 
avTol^ Kol 7ratBa<; Kal yvvaiKa'; aTroKelaOai irepX 
^dpaaXov, Mcrre tovtwv KpaT>~jaa<i iKavrjV hiKrjv 
S)v KaOv^pixTTai X^'i^^ea-Oai, avva'ya'yoov rtov @6cr- 

5 adkoiv TLva<s rj/cev 6t<f ^^dpaaXov. dpno)^ 8' avrov 
7rape\r]\v66To<; \\Xe^avBpo<i 6 Tvpavvo<i eire^ai- 
V6T0 fierd Tr)<; hvvdfJLew^. Koi vopiaavre<; ol irepl 
rov TleXoirihav aTroXoyyjaopevov r]K€LP i^dSi^ov 
avTol 7rpo<i avTov, i^coXyj p,ev ovTa Kat piaicjioTov 
elBore^;, Sid Be rd'i %n^a<i Kat to wepl avTov<; 
d^icopa Kal So^av ovSev av iradelv irpoaSoKij- 

6 craf T69. o Be, <w? etSev dvoirXov; kuc povovi irpoa- 
i6vTa<i, eKcivov^ /mei' evdvi avveXajSe, ttjv 8e 
^dpcraXov /careV^e, (^piKrjv he Kal (f)6/3ov iveip- 
ydcraTO rot? iiTrrjKooL'i Trdaiv o)? ye pera t7]v rrjXi- 
KavTTjv dSiKiav Kal roXp^av d(f)etBy]aQ)v aTrdvTcov, 
Kal 'X^ptjcrop.evo'i ovroi toI<; TrapaTmnovcTiv dvQpd}- 
TTOf? Kal irpdypbaaiv cb? rore ye Kopuhf] rov eavrov 
fiiov d7reyvo}K(JO<i. 

XXVIII. Ol p,ev ovv %riJ3aloi ravra dKov- 
aavT€^ e(f)epov ^apeax; Kal arpariav e^iirepTrov 
ev6v<i, hi opyt]v Tiva tt/oo? tov ETrapeivcovhav 
erepovi dirohei^avTe'i dp^ovra'^. rov he IleXo- 
irihav et? ra? ^epd<^ drrayaycov a rvpavvo<i ro p,ev 
irpojrov eta rov'i /3ovXopevov<; avrw hiaXeyeaOai, 
vop'il^wv eXeeivov yeyovevai Kal raireivov vrro rf]<i 
2 avp^opd^- errel he tou<? piev ^epaiov<; 6 IleXo- 
TTihwi ohvpopevovs irapeKdXei Oappelv, u><; vvv 
pidXiara hd)aovro<; rov rvpdvvov hiKTjv, tt/jo? he 
avrov eKslvov drroaretXa^ eXeyev &><? dro7ro<i ecrri 



408 



PELOPIDAS, xxvii. 4-xxviii. 2 

These, then, Pelopidas sent off to Thebes ; but he 
himself, being indignant at the treachery of his mer- 
cenaries, and learning that most of their goods, to- 
gether with their wives and children, had been placed 
for safety at Pharsalus, so that by getting these into 
his power he would sufticiently punish them for their 
affront to him, he got together some of the Thessa- 
lians and came to Pharsalus. But just as he got there, 
Alexander the tyrant appeared before the city with 
his forces. Then Pelopidas and Ismenias, thinking 
that he was come to excuse himself for his conduct, 
went of their own accord to him, knowing, in- 
deed, that he was an abandoned and blood-stained 
wretch, but expecting that because of Thebes and 
their own dignity and reputation they would suffer 
no harm. But the tyrant, when he saw them coming 
up unarmed and unattended, straightway seized 
them and took possession of Pharsalus. By this 
step he awoke in all his subjects a shuddering fear ; 
they thought that after an act of such boldness and 
iniquity he would spare nobody, and in all his 
dealings with men and affairs would act as one who 
now utterly despaired of his own life. 

XXVIII. The Thebans, then, on hearing of this, 
were indignant, and sent out an army at once, 
although, since Epaminondas had somehow incurred 
their displeasure, they appointed other commanders 
for it. As for Pelopidas, after the tyrant had brought 
him back to Pherae, at first he suffered all who 
desired it to converse with him, thinking that his 
calamity had made him a pitiful and contemptible 
object ; but when Pelopidas exhorted the lamenting 
Pheraeans to be of good cheer, since now certainly 
the tyrant would meet with punishment, and when 
he sent a message to the tyrant himself, saying that 

409 



PLUTARCH S LIVES 

roi)^ fjbev ad\iov<i TToXira? Kal fii]hev ahiKovvTa<i 
6(T7]fjLipai arpe^Xoiv Kal <^ovevcov, avrou 8e (f)ei86- 
fievo'i, ov fiaktara yivuxrKei TifKoprjcro/xevov avrov 

3 (ivTrep Biacpvyrj, dav/xda-a<; to (ppovi-jixa Kal T7]U 
clSetav avTov,' "Tl Se," ctiv^ri, "crTreuSet OeXo- 293 
Tziha^ ajToOavelv; " Ko.Keivo'i aKOV(ra<i, ""Ottco?,' 
elire, " av tuxI'OV aiToXfj, fiaWov r) vvv 6eo/jLLar}'i 
yev6/jb€vo<;.'" e« tovtov hieKwikvcrev evTvyx^dveiv 
avrw TOV<i ekto'^. 

'H Se @J//3>;, OuyaTrjp jiev 'Idaovo^ ovaa, yvvrj 
he ^AXe^dvhpov, irvvdavojxevr) Tvapa tmv (fyuXar- 
TovTcov YleXoTrlBav to dappaXeov avrov Kal yev- 
valov, iTreOufxrjaev ISeiv rov dvSpa Kal irpoaeLirelv. 

4 ft)9 he rfkde Trpo? auToi^ Kal are Brj yvvr) ro fi,h 
fxeyedof rov rj6ov<; ovk ev9v<i ev Toaavrr) avfx(f)opa 
Karelhe, Kovpa Be Kal (TroXfi Kal BtaiTj] reKfiaipo- 
fxem] XvTTpa Kal firj TTpeirovTa rf} ho^ij Trdaxei-v 
avrov drrehdKpvae, ro fxei> irpoirov dyvoiov o 
Tle\oTTiha<i Tt9 etr) yvvaiKwv, eOavixat^ev, to? Be 
eyvoi, wpoariyopevaev avrrjv rrarpoOev rjv yap 
Tft) 'ld(T0vi avv7)dt]<; Kal cf)b\o<;. elrrova-y]'; Be 
eK€lvr]<;, " 'EXew crov rrjv yvvalKa," " Kal yap 
iyco ae," elrrev, "ort, dhera ovaa u7ro/xevei<i 'AXe^- 

5 avBpov." ovro<; eOtye ttw? 6 \6yo<i rr)^ yvvaiKo^i'^ 
e/Bapvvero yap rrjv oDfxorrjra Kal rr]v v^piv rov 
rvpdvvov, fierd t?)? dX\r]<; daeXyela'i Kal rov 
vecorarov avrr}<^ rcov dBeX(f>MV TraiBtKa irerroLii- 
/xevov. Bto Kal o-ui/6%co9 (^oirwaa irpo^ rov 
UeXoirlBav Kal Trapptjo-tal^o/jLevr] rrepl mv erraaxev 
vTreTTLfiTrXaro dvjxov Kal <f)povi]p.aro'i Kal Bva- 
fieveia<i irpo^ rov 'AXe^avBpov. 

XXIX. 'Ettci Be ol arparriyol roov ^-q^aiayv 
ek rr]V SerraXtav efi^a\6vre<i errpa^av ovBev, 

410 



PELOPIDAS, xxviii. 2-xxix. i 

it was absurd to torture and slay the wretched and 
innocent citizens day by day, while he spared him, a 
man most certain, as he knew, to take vengeance on 
him if he made his escape ; then the tyrant, amazed 
at his high spirit and his fearlessness, said : "And why 
is Pelopidas in haste to die?" To which Pelopidas 
replied : " That thou mayest the sooner perish, by 
becoming more hateful to the gods than now." 
From that time the tyrant forbade those outside of 
his following to see the prisoner. 

But Thebe, who was a daughter of Jason, and 
Alexander's wife, learned from the keepers of Pelo- 
pidas how courageous and noble the man was, and 
conceived a desire to see him and talk with him. 
But when she came to him, woman that she was, she 
could not at once recognize the greatness of his 
nature in such dire misfortune, but judging from his 
hair and garb and maintenance that he was suffering 
indignities which ill befitted a man of his reputation, 
she burst into tears. Pelopidas, not knowing at first 
what manner of woman she was, was amazed ; but 
when he understood, he addressed her as daughter 
of Jason ; for her father was a familiar friend of his. 
And when she said, "I pity thy wife," he replied, 
"And I thee, in that thou wearest no chains, and yet 
endurest Alexander." This speech deeply moved 
the woman, for she was oppressed by the savage 
insolence of the tyrant, who, in addition to his other 
debaucheries, had made her youngest brother his 
paramour. Therefore her continued visits to Pelo- 
pidas, in which she spoke freely of her sufferings, 
gradually filled her with wrath and fierce hatred 
towards Alexander. 

XXIX. When the Theban generals had accom- 
plished nothing by their invasion of Thessaly^ 

411 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

aWa Si aireipiav rj Bvcnvx^'Cii' aLcrxpo)<; dvex^o- 
prjaav, eKelvcov fxev eKacrrov rj 7r6\i<; fMvpLai<i 
hpaXfJLai<i i^rj/jiicoa-ev, 'FATra/jieivcovSav 5e /xeTO. 

2 hvvd/u.€a)<; cnrecrreiXev. evdv^; ovv tcivrjal'^ Tt<? /x€- 
•yaXr] @€Tra\iov r)V eTTaipofxivcov tt/oo? tt)v Bo^av 
Tov (TTpaTrjyov, koI to. Trpdyfiara tov jvpavvov 
poTTriq eBeiTO /jLiKpd<; dvoXuiXevai' TOcrovro<i ive- 
ireTTTooKei (po^o^ Toh irepl avrov 7)yep.6cn koX 
(piXoi^, Toaavry-j Se tou? vrrtiKoovi opfjur) Trpo? 
dTToaraaiv eZ^e Kal X"P^ "^^^ /j.eXXovro'i, &><? vvv 

3 iiro^frofxivovi SIktjv ScBovtu tov rvpavvov. ov 
p,r)v dXX^ ^1^7TafMetvd)vBa<; ttjv avrov So^av ev 
varepw t^? HeXovihov awTripia<i riOe/xevo'i, icai 
8e8oiKOL)<i fxrj TMV TrpajfiaTMV t a pax^ ^vr wv airo- 
yvov<; eavTov ^ AXe^av8po<; coarrep Oripiov rpdirr-jrat 
irpo^ eKelvov, iirrjuipelTO tw TroXe/xo), Kat kukXw 
•nepuwv, rrj TrapaaKevfj Kal rfj /xeXX-qaet Kare- 
cKeva^e Kal crvvecrTeXXe tov rvpavvov, otxi p-t^re 
dvelvai to avdahe^ avrov Kal dpaavvopLSvov pi'^re 

4 TO TTiKpov Kal dvp.o€i8e<i e^epeOlaai, irvvOavo- 
'X€VO<i TTjv (Jifxorrjra KoX rrjv oXtycoptav roiv kuXmv 
•cal SiKaicov, d)<i i^oivra^ p.ev dvOpcorrovi Karcopvr- 
rev, erepoi^ Se hepp,ara crvcov dypltov Kal dpKTwv 
TreptrtdeU Kal toi'9 dr^pariKoix; iirdycov Kvva<; Kal 
Bieaira Kal KarrjKovri^e, irathia ravrj] ^^/Dco/iei^o?, 
MeXi/Soia Be Kal ^Korovarj, rroXecnv ivarrovBon; 
Kal (f}iXai<;, eKKXijaia^ova-aa Trepto-T^j'o-a? d/xa 
Tov<i Bopv(p6pov<i I'j^jjBov direaipa^e, rrjv Be Xoy- 
X^v fi IloXv(f)pova TOV delov drreKreLve Ka0t.epcoaa<i 

412 



PELOPIDAS, XXIX. 1-4 

but owing to inexperience or ill fortune had re- 
tired disgracefully, the city fined each of them ten 
thousand drachmas, and sent out Epaminondas 
with an armed force. ^ At once, then, there was 
a great stir among the Thessalians, who were filled 
with high hopes in view of the reputation of this 
general, and the cause of the tyrant was on the 
very verge of destruction ; so great was the fear 
that fell upon his commanders and friends, and so 
great the inclination of his subjects to revolt, and 
their joy at what the future had in store, for they 
felt that now they should behold the tyrant under 
punishment. Epaminondas, however, less solicitous 
for his own glory than for the safety of Pelopidas, 
and fearing that if confusion reigned Alexander 
would get desperate and turn like a wild beast upon 
his prisoner, dallied with the war, and taking a 
roundabout course, kept the tyrant in suspense by 
his preparations and threatened movements, thus 
neither encouraging his audacity and boldness, nor 
rousing his malignity and passion. For he had 
learned how savage he was, and how little regard he 
had for right and justice, in that sometimes he 
buried men alive, and sometimes dressed them in 
the skins of wild boars or bears, and then set his 
hunting dogs upon them and either tore them in 
pieces or shot them down, making this his diversion ; 
and at Meliboea and Scotussa, allied and friendly 
cities, when the people were in full assembly, he 
surrounded them with his body-guards and slaugh- 
tered them from the youth up ; he also consecrated 
the spear with which he had slain his uncle Poly- 
phron, decked it with garlands, and sacrificed to it 

1 367 B.o. 

413 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Kal KaTaaT€-\lra<i, edvev wairep 6e& Kai Tv)(^(ova 

5 TrpoarjjSpeve. Tpay(p86v Se irore deoiiJLevo<; Ef/Of- 
ttlSov TpcoaSa? vTroKpivofxevov ft);;^eTO airicov e'/c 
rov OeciTpov, Kal Tre/xyfrwi Trpo^ avrbv eKeXeve 
dappelv Kal /xrjSeu dycovil^eadat Bia rovro "^elpov, 
ov jap eKeivov Karac^povoiv cnrekOelv, aW aicr- 
■)(yv6fxevo<i tov^ TroXtVa?, el /jLrjBeva TtciiTTore tmv 
utt' avrov (f>ov€VOfjL6V(i)V -i^\€r]KW<i, iirl rot? E/ca/Srj? 
Kal ^AvSpofxd'^rj'; KaKol^ oc^drjcreTai haKpvcov. 

6 ovTO<i fiivTOt TTjv ho^av avri-jv Kal Tovvop,a Kai 
TO 'np6a')(rjp,a Trj<i 'KTrap-eivcovSov <npaTi]yla'i 
KaraTr\a<y6l<i, 

eTTTYj^^ d\€KTcop Bov\o<; &)9 K\iva<; inepov, 

Kal Tovq uTroXoyrjao/jLevovi ra'X^v nrpo^ avrov 
errepLTTev. o he avvdeaOai p,ev elpy^vrjv Kal <^i\iav 
irpo^ TOiovrov avBpa @rj/3aL0t<i ovx virifieive, 
a'Treicrdp,evo<i Se TpiaKovOrjp.epov^ ai'o^as' rov 
TToXepLov Kal \a/3a>v rov YleXoTTiSav Kal rov 
'lap.7]VLav dve)((i)pi]a€v. 

XXX. Ot 8e &7]l3aloi irapd tmv AaKeBai/xouicov 
Kal TCt)v Adrjvaiwv alaQopievoi irpo'i rov p,ejav 
^acriXea 7rpecr/3e/? dva/3aLvovTa<i uirep avp,jjLa')(^ia<;, 
€7rep,\lrav Kal avrol UeXoTTicav, dpiara ^ouXeu- 
adp,evot TT/Dof rr)V Bo^av avrov. rrpcorov p,ev 
yap dve^aive Std ro)v /SaaiXecoq i7rap)(i(bv ovo- 
pia(Tro<i wv Kal rrepi^oriros' ov jdp r]pep.a ZuKro 
rrj<i 'Aaia^ oyS' iirl puKpov rj Bo^a rcov tt/jo? 
2 AaK€8atp.oviov^ dycovoiv, dXX', to? tt/jwto? rrepl 
T?}? €v AevKrpoL<; pbd')(ri<i i^eBpap^e X6yo<;, del rivo<i 
Kaivov TTpoartdep^evov Karopdoop,aro<; av^avop^evrj 



414 



294 



PELOPIDAS, XXIX. 4-xxx. 2 

as to a god, giving it the name of Tycho.^ Once 
when he was seeing a tragedian act the "Trojan 
Women" of Euripides, he left the theatre abruptly, 
and sent a message to the actor bidding him be of 
good courage and not put forth any less effort be- 
cause of his departure, for it was not out of contempt 
for his acting that he had gone away, but because he 
was ashamed to have the citizens see him, who had 
never taken pity on any man that he had murdered, 
weeping over the sorrows of Hecuba and Andro- 
mache. It was this tyrant, however, who, terrified 
at the name and fame and distinction of the 
generalship of Epaminondas, 

" Crouched down, though warrior bird, like slave, 
with drooping wings," - 

and speedily sent a deputation to him whicii should 
explain his conduct. But Epaminondas could not 
consent that the Thebans should make peace and 
friendship with such a man ; he did, however, make 
a thirty days' truce with him, and after receiving 
Pelopidas and Ismenias, returned home. 

XXX. Now, when the Thebans learned that am- 
bassadors from Sparta and Athens were on their way 
to the Great King to secure an alliance, they also 
sent Pelopidas thither ; and this was a most excel- 
lent plan, in view of his reputation. For, in the 
first place, he went up through the provinces of the 
king as a man of name and note ; for the gloi-y of 
his conflicts with the Lacedaemonians had not made 
its way slowly or to any slight extent through Asia, 
but, when once the report of the battle at Leuctra 
had sped abroad, it was ever increased by the addition 

^ That is, Luck. 

* An iambic trimeter of unknown authorship ; cf. the 
Alcibiades, iv. 3. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Kat ava^aivovcra TroppcoTaTO) Karea^ev eireira 
TOtf 67rt dvpai.<i aarpdirai^ Kol aTpaTr)yot<i Koi 
r\'^ep,oaLV ocpOel^ Oavjxa Kai Xoyov irapecrj^ev, &)? 
ovTO<i np/jp eaTLV o 7>}9 Kal 6a\cnTi]<i eKJBaXwv 
Aa/ceSai/JLovLovi kol a-vareiXwi vtto TavyeTOv Ka) 
TOP ILvpcoTav Trju ^7rdpTi]v rrjv oXvyov ejJurpoaOev 
^aaikel tm /xejdXw koi Yiepaai'^ 8i' ^ AjrjaiXdov 
TOP TTepl Sovacov koI 'EK^aTavcov eTrapa/xevr^v 

3 TToXep-op. ravT ovv 6 \\.pra^ep^i^^ €')(^aipe, Kal 
Tov YleXoTT iZav idav/ma^e eirl ttj ho^r) ' kol fxiyav 
etToiei Tat9 Ttfiai<;, vtto tmv /jLCjiarcov evSai/xo- 
vi^eaOau Kal OepanreveaOai /3ovX6fievo<i hoKelv. 
iirei he koX ttjv 6-\^lv avrov etSe Kal tou? Xoyov^; 
Karevorjae, rcov p,ev 'Attikmv ^e^aio-repov^, twv 

4 he AaKeSat/jiOVLcov aTrXovcnepov^ ovra'^, en p,dX- 
Xov i^yuTrrjcye, Kal Trd$o<; ^aaiXtKov TraOcov ovk 
aTreKpv^aTo ttjv Trpo? top dvhpa rifir^v, ovh' 
eXaOe tou? dXXov<i irpea^ei^i irXelarov ve/xcov 
eKeivw. Ka'noL hoKsl ^dXcara rcov EXXtjvcov 
'AvTaXKiBav Tip^rjcrav rov AaKeBai/jLoviov, on tov 
crretpavov, ov ttlvcov irepieKeiTO, ^d'xfra'^ et? fxvpov 

5 direcTTeCXe. HeXoiriBa he ovrco /j,ev ovk everpv- 
(f)rjae, hbipa he Xa/juTrpoTara Kal p,eyi(TTa tmv 
vo/xi^o/Lievcov e^eirep-yp-e Kal rd'; d^iwaei^; etre- 
Kvpwaev, avTOv6/j,ou^ p,ev elvai tous "EXXT]va<;, 
OLKeiaOai he Meacryjvyji', @r]^alov<i he 7rarpi,Kov<i 
(plXov<; iw/xi^eadai /SacriAeaj?. 

Taura? ^X^^ '^^'^ d'rroKpiaei'i, tmv he hcopwv 
ovhev n p-r) y^dpiTO^ rjv avp,^oXop Kal (f)iXo- 

1 firl Tj) 56^7] Bekker, after Coraes : rfi S6^ti. 
416 



PELOPIDAS, XXX. 2-5 

of some new success, and prevailed to the farthest 
recesses of the interior ; and, in the second place, 
when the satraps and generals and commanders at 
the King's court beheld him, they spoke of him with 
wonder, saying that this was the man who had ex- 
pelled the Lacedaemonians from land and sea, and 
shut up between Taygetus and the Eurotas that 
Sparta which, a little while before, through Agesilaiis, 
had undertaken a war with the Great Kmg and the 
Persians for the possession of Susa and Ecbatana. 
This pleased Artaxerxes, of course, and he admired 
Pelopidas for his high reputation, and loaded him 
with honours, being desirous to appear lauded and 
courted by the greatest men. But when he saw him 
face to face, and understood his proposals, which 
were more trustworthy than those of the Athenians, 
and simpler than those of the Lacedaemonians, he 
was yet more delighted with him, and, with all the 
assurance of a king, openly showed the esteem in 
which he held him, and allowed the other ambassa- 
dors to see that he made most account of him. And 
yet he is thought to have shown Antalcidas the 
Lacedaemonian more honour than any other Greek, 
in that he took the chaplet which he had worn at a 
banquet, dipped it in perfume, and sent it to him. 
To Pelopidas, indeed, he paid no such delicate com- 
pliment, but he sent him the greatest and most 
splendid of the customary gifts, and granted him his 
demands, namely, that the Greeks should be in- 
dependent, Messene ^ inhabited, and the Thebans 
regarded as the king's hereditary friends. 

With these answers, but without accepting any 
gifts except such as were mere tokens of kindness 

1 Messene was the new capital of Messenia, founded on 
the slopes of Mt. Ithome (cf. chapter xxiv. 5) by Epaminondas, 
in 369 B.C. 

417 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

(f)po(Tvvri<; Be^d/jLevo^, dvel^ev^ev o kul /idXicrTa 

6 Tou? aWoi/9 TT/oecrySei? Sie^aXe. Ti/xayopav yovv 
' A67]vatoi KpLvavre<; direKTeLvav, el fx.€v eVl tm 
TrXtjOei Tcov hwpewv, 6pd(b<i kuI hiKaiw<i' ov yap 
[jLovov ^(^pvaiov ovhe dpyvpiov eXajBev, dWd Ka\ 
kXlvtjv TroXvTeXrj kuI arpdiTa'i Oepdirovras, co? 
Twv 'YjXXtjvwv ovk e7ri<7Ta/jLev(op, ert Se /SoO? 
6y8o7]KovTa Kal ^ovk6Xov<;, o)? Br) Trpo? appcoa-Tiav 
Tivd ydXaKTO's ^oelov Seofievo^;, TeXo<i Se Kare- 
^aivev iirl daXaaaav iv ^opeiw Kop,i^6/j,ei'o<;, Kal 
recraapa TaXavra rot? Ko/j,i!^ovcn p,Lado<i eSoOr] 
irapd ySacrtXeco?* dXX eoiKev ovy^ rj BcopoBoKLa 

7 fidXiara irapo^vvai tou? ^AOrjvalov^;. ^KiriKpd- 
Tov<; yovv irore tov aaKe(r(f)opov fiyjre dpvov/j,evov 
Scopa Se^aadat Trapd ^aaiXew^, yjryjcpKT/jLd re 
ypd(f)ei.v (pdaKOVTO^ uvtI twv ivvea dp-^ovrcov 
')(^eipoTove'iaOai kut eviavrov ivvea Trpecr/Set? Trpo? 
^aaiXea t(ov Btj/jlotikcov teal irevt'^TOiv, oirwi Xap.- 
^dpovTe<i evTTopMatv, iyeXaaev o Br}/xo<i' dXX' on 
^rj/3aiOi<; eyeyovei iravra ^aXevroii? ecpepov, ov 
Xoyt^ofievoi Trjv TieXoTrlBov Bo^av, oacov r)v prj- 
Topeicov Kal Xoyoiv Kpeirrwv Trap dvdpooTrcp depa- 
ireuovn toi/? tw;' oirXoiv del KpaTovvra^;. 

XXXI. 'H p,ev ovv Trpea^eia tw YleXoTriBa 
'7rpo(7e6i]Kev ov p,iKpdv evvoiav eiraveXdovTi, Bid 295 
TOV Mecrcrr/tiT;? avvoiKia/xov Kal rrjv tmv dXXcov 
'EiXX>']va>v avTOvo/xtav ^AXe^dvBpov Be tov ^epalov 
TrdXcv 619 T?)z^ avTov (jivcnv dvaBpap^ovTO^ koI 
@e(TaaXo)v fiev ovk 6Xiya<; 7TepiK07rT0VT0<i TroXet?, 
^OicoTa<; Be ' K')(ai,ov<i d7ravTa<i Kal to Mayvij- 

418 



PELOPIDAS, XXX. 5-xxxi. i 

and goodwill, he set out for home ; and this conduct 
of his, more than anything else, was the undomg of 
the other ambassadors. Timagoras, at any rate, was 
condemned and executed by the Athenians, and it 
this was because of the multitude of gifts which he 
took, it was right and just ; for he took not only gold 
and silver, but also an expensive couch and slaves to 
spread it, since, as he said, the Greeks did not know 
how ; and besides, eighty cows with their cow-herds, 
since, as he said, he wanted cows' milk for some 
ailment ; and, finally, he was carried down to the sea 
in a litter, and had a present of four talents from the 
King with which to pay his carriers. But it was not 
his taking of gifts, as it would seem, that most 
exasperated the Athenians. At any rate, Epicrates, 
his shield-bearer, once confessed that he had received 
gifts from the King, and talked of proposing a decree 
that instead of nine archons, nine ambassadors to the 
King should be elected annually from the poor and 
needy citizens, in order that they might take his 
gifts and be wealthy men, whereat the people only 
laughed. But they were incensed because the The- 
bans had things all their own way, not stopping to 
consider that the fame of Pelopidas was more potent 
than any number of rhetorical discourses with a man 
who ever paid deference to those who were mighty 
in arms. 

XXXI. This embassy, then, added not a little to 
the goodwill felt towards Pelopidas, on his return 
home, because of the peopling of Messene and the 
independence of the other Greeks. But Alexander 
of Pherae had now resumed his old nature and was 
destroying not a few Thessalian cities ; he had also 
put garrisons over the Achaeans of Phthiotis and the 



419 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Twv edvos €ii(f>povpov Trewotrjfjievov, irvvdavofievai 
YleKoirlhav eiravriKeiv al TToXet? €vOv<; ivpea^evov 
€49 ^^^a^ ahov/xevai hvvapnv koX arpariryov 

2 eK€LVOV. y\n-i(^Laaixevwv Be tmv ^rj^alwv rrpo- 
6v/jiu><;, Kal rax^ irdmuiv eTOL/jLcou ^evo/xevwv Kai 
Tov a-TpaTr]yov irepl e^ohov 6vro<i, o /xev rjXio^; 
i^iXiTre kuI aKoro^; iv VH-epa T-qv iroXiv ecr%6i^, 
o he IleXoTriSa? opoov vrpo? to (pda/jLa crvvTC- 
rapayfxivov*; aTTavra<; ovk aiero Seiv fiid^eadaL 
KaTa(f)6^ov<i KOL SvaeX'mSa'i 6vTa<;, ovSe diroKiv- 

3 hvveveiv kTrjaKiaxiXiOL<i TToXlrai'i, aXX eavrov 
fxovov TOt? Sea-aaXoU i7TiBov<; kol rpiaKocnov; 
TMV iTTirewv eOeXovTa<i dvaXa/dwv Kal ^evov^ 
i^ojpixrjaev, ovre ro)V fxdvrecov i(ovTOiv ovt€ t(ov 
aXXwv av/uTrpodufiovfievoyv iroXnwv p,eya yap 
iBoKei teal irpo'; dvBpa Xa/xTrpov i^ ovpavov yeyo- 
vivai (Trjp^elov. 6 Be rjv p,ev Kal Bt opyi-jv mv 
Kadv^piaro Oepjxorepo^ eVi tov 'AXe^avBpov, t^X- 
TTi^e Be Kal rijv oiKiav avrov voaovaav riBrj Kal 
BLe(f>dap/jbevr)v €vp/]aeiv e^ 0)v BieiXeKTO rfj ©j;'/???. 

4 fj,dXi(TTa S' avTov Kal irapeKdXei to t?}? Trpd^eax; 
KaXXof;, e7ri6vfiovvTa Kal (f)iXoTifMOVfievov, iv oh 
Xpovoi<i AaKeBaifiovioi Aiovvo-lm tw liKeXla^ 
Tvpdvvfp aTpaTTjyoix; Kal apfio(TTa<i eirefiTTOV, 
'A6r]i'aloi Be pnadoBoTi-jV 'AXe^avBpnv elx^v Kal 
yaXKOvv 'laTaaav co? eu€pyeTr]v, Tore tol<; EWt;- 
aiv eircBel^aL &r)/3a[ov^ fj,6vov<; virep twv Tvpav- 
vovfievcov (TTpaTevo/ji€]'ov<; Kal KaTaXvovTa<i ev 
Tot9 "^XXr)(TL tck; Trapavofxavf; Kal ^iaiov(; Svva- 
(TTeia'i. 

420 



PELOPIDAS, XXXI. 1-4 

people of Magnesia. When, therefore, the cities 
learned that Pelopidas was i-eturned, they at once 
sent ambassadors to Thebes requesting an armed 
1 force and him for its commander. The Thebans 
I readily decreed what they desired, and soon every- 
thing was in readiness and the commander about to 
set out, when the sun was eclipsed and the city was 
covered with darkness in the day-time. ^ So Pelo- 
pidas, seeing that all were confounded at this 
manifestation, did not think it meet to use compul- 
sion with men who were apprehensive and fearful, 
nor to run extreme hazard with seven thousand 
citizens, but devoting himself alone to the Thes- 
salians, and taking with him three hundred of the 
cavalry who were foreigners and who volunteered for 
the service, set out, although the seers forbade it, 
and the rest of the citizens disapproved ; for the 
eclipse was thought to be a great sign from heaven, 
and to regard a conspicuous man. But his wrath at 
insults received made him very hot against Alex- 
ander, and, besides, his previous conversations with 
Thebe - led him to hope that he should find the 
tyrant's family already embroiled and disrupted. 
More than anything else, however, the glory of the 
achievement invited him on, for he was ardently 
desirous, at a time when the Lacedaemonians were 
sending generals and governors to aid Dionysius the 
tyrant of Sicily, and the Athenians were taking 
Alexander's pay and erecting a bronze .statue of him 
as their benefactor, to show the Greeks that the 
Thebans alone were making expeditions for the relief 
of those whom tyrants oppressed, and were over- 
throwing in Greece those ruling houses which rested 
on violence and were contrary to the laws. 

' July 1.3, 364 B.C. » Cf. chapter xxviii. 3 fif. 

421 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XXXII. 'fi9 ovv et<f ^dpcraXov iXOcov rfOpoiat 
rrjv hvvajxiv, evdv^ e^dhtt^ev iirl tov 'We^avSpov. 
6 8e 077ySatou9 p^ev 6\ljov<; irepl tov ^e/^.07rtSa^ 
6po)v, auTov Se TrXeuov^ ^X^^ V SfTrXacrioL'if ott- 
\iTa<; TMV fieaaaXcov dirr'jVTa irpo^ to ©ertSeioi'. 
etTrovTO? 8e Tcvo<i ro) YleXoTriSa TroWouf e)(ov- 
ra TOV rvpavvov €7rep)(ea0ai, " BeXTiov, e(f)Vy 
" irXeiova^ yap viKt](jop6v. ' 

2 ^ AvareLvovrwv he rrpos to peaov Kara rd<i 
KaXovpeva<; Kui^o? K€(f)aXd<i Xofjxov trepiKXivciiv 
Koi xjy^rrjXwv, Mpp,i](Tav dp(f)OTepoi rovrovi Kara- 
Xa^elv TOt? Tre^ot?. tov^ 8 iTTTret? o ne\o7rt8a? 
TToXXoix; Kayadoii^ 6vTa<i i(f)7]K€ TOt? iTnrevat tmv 
TToXep^iMv. ft)? Se ovTOi p^ev eKparovv Kal avve^- 
eireaov eh to irehlov Tot? (pevyovaiv, o 8e AXe^- 

3 av8po<; ecfidrj roii'i X6^ou<; KaraXa^oiv, Tot? ottXl- 
rat? TO)v SecraaXwv varepov e7repxop€vot.<; Kal 
TTpo'i icr-^vpa Kal p^erewpa ■y^copia /3La^op.evoi<i 
ep/3aX(J0V eKTeive rov<i irpcorovi, ol 8e aXXot irXr]- 
yd<; Xa^6vTe<i ov8ev errpacraov. KaTi8(tJV ovv 6 
TTeXoTTiSa? tol*? pev iTnreh dveKaXelro Kal Trpo? 
TO avi'eaTrjKo<i rcov TroXepicov eXavvetv eKeXevev, 
avTO<i 8e crvvepi^e 8p6pM toT? ^repl tov<; Xocpov; 

4 payopevoi^ ev9v^ ttju ao"7rtoa Xapcov. Kai oca 
TMV oTTicrdev ftxra/tet'O? eh toi)? irpcarov^ roaav- 
Ti-jV eveTToirjae pcop^rjv Kal irpodvpiav diracyLV Mare 
Kal Toh TToXepioi<; erepov^ 8oKelv yeyovora^ Kal 
(7(i)p,acn Kal ■^vxah eTrepx^f^dcLi. Kal 8vo pev y) 
rpeh direKpovaavTO Trpocr^oXch, 6pcJi'Te<i he Kal 
TOVTOv; e7ri/3aiV0VTa^ evpoicrrwi Kal ttjv ittttov 
aTTO t?79 8i(io^eo)<; dvaarpec^ovaav el^av, errl (7K€Xo<i 

5 iroiov p^evoi rrjv dva-x^coprjaLV. o he YleXoirlha^ 



422 



PELOPIDAS, xxxii. 1-5 

XXXII. Accordingly, when he was come to Phar- 
salus, he assembled his forces and marched at once 
against Alexander. Alexander, also, seeing that 
there were only a few Thebans with Pelopidas, while 
his own men-at-arms were more than twice as many 
as the Thessalians, advanced as far as the temple of 
Thetis to meet him. When Pelopidas was told that 
the tyrant was coming up against him with a large 
force, " AH the better," he said, " for there will be 
more for us to conquer." 

At the place called Cynoscephalae, steep and lofty 
hills jut out into the midst of the plain, and both 
leaders set out to occupy these with their infantry. 
His horsemen, however, who were numerous and 
brave, Pelopidas sent against the horsemen of the 
enemy, and they prevailed over them and chased 
them out into the plain. But Alexander got posses- 
sion of the hills first, and when the Thessalian men- 
at-arms came up later and tried to storm difficult and 
lofty places, he attacked and killed the foremost of 
them, and the rest were so harassed with missiles 
that they could accomplish nothing. Accordingly, 
when Pelopidas saw this, he called back his horse- 
men and ordered them to charge upon the enemy's 
infantry where it still held together, while he him- 
self seized his shield at once and ran to join those 
who were fighting on the hills. Through the rear 
ranks he forced his way to the front, and filled all 
his men with such vigour and ardour that the enemy 
also thought them changed men, advancing to the 
attack with other bodies and spirits. Two or three 
of their onsets the enemy repulsed, but, seeing that 
these too were now attacking with vigour, and that 
the cavalry was coming back from its pursuit, they 
gave way and retreated step by step. Then Pelo- 

423 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

aTTo Tcov oLKpoiv fcaTihwv dirav to aTparoireSov 
Tftiv 'jToXe/xLwv ovirco fiev 6t? (f)V'yrjv Terpa/jLfxevov, 
r]8r) Se OopvjBov koI Tapay^i]<; avaTTifiTrXdf^evov, 
ecrrrj koI Trepte^Xe^jrev avrov ' l^rjTMV rov 'AA.e^- 
avSpov. to? 5' el8ev iirl rov he^iov -napaOappv- 296 
vovTa Kal crvvTCLTTovTa rov<i fj,iado(f)6pov<;, ov 

6 Kare(7')(e rw XoyLafio) tt)v opyijv, dXXd 7rp6<; rrjv 
/BXe-yfriv dvacfiXex^et^'i koI to5 Ovfio) Trapahov<i to 
awp-a Kal ri]v 7)yep.oviai' rr}? Trpd^ew^, iroXv rrpo 
TMV dXXtov i^aXo/x€vo<i €(f)ep€TO ^ooyv Kal irpoKa- 
\ovfievo<i Tov Tvpavi'op. €Keivo<; /xev ovv ovk 
iSe^aTO rrjv op/xrjv ovSe vTrep.eivev, dXX^ dva^vyoov 
7rpo<i TOi'9 8o(f)V(p6pov^ iveKpvyjrev kavrov. twv 
he fJ,iaOo(j>opa)V ol jxev irpoiTOi aufi/3aX6vTe<i et? 
')(elpa<; dveKOTrrjaav viro rov YieXoirihov, Tipe<i 8e 

7 Kal 7r\r]y€VT€<i eTeXevrrjaav, ol he iroXXol Tol<i 
hopaai iroppwdev Sid t(ov ottXwv TvirTovre'^ avrov 
KaTeTpav/xdri^ov, eo)? oi (^ecrcraXol TrepnraOr']- 
aavre<i drro tmv X6(f)a)v Spofifo irpoaej^oi^drjaav, 
rjorj ireTTTooKOTO'i, oi re linrel'i 7rpo(T€Xdaavr€<i 
6\r]v eTpe-^avTO Tr]v (fidXayya Kal hico^avTe'^ eirl 
TrXelcTTov iveTrXyjaav veKpcjv rrjv ')(^copai', irXeov rj 
Tpicr)(^cXiov<; KaTa^a\6vre<i. 

XXXIII. To fiev ovv (*^i]^ai(ov tol)? ■irap6vra<i 
iirl Tji TOV UeXoTTiSov reXevrj] ^apewi (^epeiv, 
iraTepa Kal acorypa Kal hiSdaKaXov tojv p^eyicnoyv 
Kal KaXXiaT(t)V dyaOoiv diroKaXovvra^ eKelvov, 
ov irdvv davpaarov rjv ol he ^eaaaXol Kal ol 
(Tvp.pba'y^oi irdaav dvOpoynivr] Trpeirovaav dperfj 
rip,r)v TOt? yp-ijcplap-aa-iv v7Tep/3aXovT€<;, en p,dX- 

^ Trepi€0\e\p(v avTov Sintenis' correction of the MSS. irtpif- 
aTt)<xiv avTov ; Bekker, after Coraes and Amyot, corrects to 
irepie(TK6irr](Tev axn6v, 

424 



PELOPIDAS, xxxii. 5-xxxiii. i 

pidas, looking down from the heights and seeing 
that the whole army of the enemy, though not yet 
put to flight, was already becoming full of tumult 
and confusion, stood and looked about him in search 
of Alexander. And when he saw him on the right 
wing, marshalling and encouraging his mercenaries, 
he could not subject his anger to his judgement, but, 
inflamed at the sight, and surrendering himself and 
his conduct of the enterprise to his passion, he sprang 
out far in front of the rest and rushed with challenging 
cries upon the tyrant. He, however, did not receive 
nor await the onset, but fled back to his guards and 
hid himself among them. The foremost of the mer- 
cenaries, coming to close quarters with Pelopidas, 
were beaten back by him ; some also were smitten 
and slain ; but most of them fought at longer range, 
thrusting their spears through his armour and cover- 
ing him with wounds, until the Thessalians, in dis- 
tress for his safety, ran down from the hills, when he 
had already fallen, and the cavalry, charging up, 
routed the entire phalanx of the enemy, and, fol- 
lowing on a great distance in pursuit, filled the 
country with their dead bodies, slaying more than 
three thousand of them. 

XXXIII. Now, that the Thebans who were present 
at the death of Pelopidas should be disconsolate, 
calling him their father and saviour and teacher of 
the greatest and fairest blessings, was not so much 
to be wondered at ; but the Thessalians and allies 
also, after exceeding in their decrees every honour 
that can fitly be paid to human excellence, showed 



425 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

\ov errehei^avTo toc<; TrdOeai ryjv tt/jo? tov dvhpa 

2 y^dpiv. TOV<i ixev -yap irapa^eyovora'i tq> epyci) 
Xeyovcri p^rjre OcopaKa OeaOai /xi'jre Xttttov €K)(^aXi- 
VMaat fMTjTe Tpau/na SijaaaOat irporepov, &)? 
eirvdovTO rrjv eKe'tvov reXevri'jv, aWa /xera tmv 
birXfov depfiov^ lovTa<i eirl rov vexpov Mairep 
ataOavoixevov, ra roiv iroXefxiwv kvkXm irepl to 
ao)/j.a acopeveiv Xd<pvpa, Kelpat Se 'ittttov^, kcl- 

3 paadai Se Kal avrov<i, d'm6vTa<;'h^ TToXXov<i iirl 
(TKTjvd'i fiyjre irvp uvdxjrai fxtjre helirvov eXeadat, 
o-Ljr]v 8e Kal Kar>](f>eiau elvai tov aTpaToirehov 
TravTO's, Mcnrep ov vevLKrjKoTwv eirK^aveaTaT-qv 
viKi]v Kal fxejLaTrjv, dXX' r}TTi^p,evu)v inro tov 

4 rvpdvvov Kal KaTahehovXwjxeiwv. e'/c Se Ttav 
TToXeoyv, &)? aTrrjyyeXOT] TavTa, Traprjaav aC re 
dp^al Kal (XST avTOiv ecptj^oi Kal TratBe^i Kal lepeU 
7Tpo<i TrjV viroZo^riv tov rrw/u.aTO'i, Tpoirata Kal 
(TT€(^dvov<^ Kal rravoTrXia'^ ■)(^pvad'i i7n<f)6povTe<i. 
CO? 8e e/xeXXev eKKop^i^eadat to crw/za, TrpoaeX- 
OovTe^ ol Trpecr^vTaTOL tmu %eaaaXo)v tjtovvto 
TOV<i (^r]/3aiov<; 8t avTwv Odyp-ai tov veKpov. eh 
Se avTMv eXejev ""AvSpe^ avpifjiaxoi, %«/oa' 
aiTovpLev Trap v/xcov Kocrfxov rj/xlv eVt dTV)(^La 

5 ToaavTr] Kal 7rapap,v6Lai> cpepova-av. ov <ydp 
l^oiVTa SeaaaXol UeXoTrtSav 7rpo7rep,-^ovaiv, ovBe 
alo-6avop,ev(p ra? a^ta? Tip,d<; aTToSoocrovaiv, dXX" 
iai' ^{ravcrai tc tov vsKpov Tvywpiev Kal St avTcov 
K0crp,7]aat Kal ddyjrai to awpua, So^ofxev vpuv ovk 
aTTiaTetv oTi p^ei^cop rj (Tvp,(f)opd jeyope ©eTraXot? 
Tj %ri^aioL<i- vp,iv p,ev yap rjy€p.6po<; dyaOov 
pLOvov, 7)pui> he Kal tovtov kuI tt}? iXevOepla^ 
(TTepeoOai avp,^el3riKe. ttw? yap eTc ToX/xi'jcrop.ei' 



426 



PELOPIDAS, XXXIII. 1-5 

still more by their grief how grateful they were to 
him. For it is said that those who were in the action 
neither took off their breastplates nor unbridled 
their horses nor bound up their wounds, when they 
learned of his death,, but, still heated and in full 
armour, came first to the body, and as if it still had 
life and sense, heaped round it the spoils of the 
enemy, sheared their horses' manes, and cut off their 
own hair ; and when they had gone to their tents, 
many neither kindled a fire nor took supper, but 
silence and dejection reigned through all the camp, 
as if they had not won a great and most brilliant 
victory, but had been defeated by the tyrant and 
made his slaves. From the cities, too, when tidings 
of these things reached them, came the magistrates, 
accompanied by youths and boys and priests, to take 
up the body, and they brought trophies and wreaths 
and suits of golden armour. And when the body 
was to be carried forth for burial, the most reverend 
of the Thessalians came and begged the Thebans for 
the privilege of giving it burial themselves. And one 
of them said ; " Friends and allies, we ask of you a 
favour which will be an honour to us in our great 
misfortune, and will give us consolation. We men 
of Thessaly can never again escort a living Pelopidas 
on his way, nor pay him worthy honours of which he 
can be sensible ; but if we may be permitted to 
compose and adorn his body with our own hands and 
give it burial, you will believe, we are persuaded, that 
this calamity is a greater one for Thessaly than for 
Thebes. For you have lost only a good commander ; 
but we both that and freedom. For how shall we 

427 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

alrijaai crTpaTrjyov aWov Trap" vfxwv ovk utto- 
Soi'Te? ITeXoTrtSai';" ravra fiev oi ©rj^aioi avve- 
')(^Mprj(xav. 

XXXIV. ^EKeCvcov Se tmv ra(f)(bv ov SoKovatv 
erepai Xa/xTrporepat <yevea6at Tot^ to XafMirpov 
OVK €v eX€(f>avTt koL ')(^pva&) /cal 7rop(f)upai<i ecvai 
vofii^oucrtv, wairep *t>i\LaTO<i vfivcov Kol 6avp,d^o)v 
rrjv AiovvcTLOv Ta<pi]v, olov TpayaySiWi p.ejaXrj'i rr}? 

2 TvpavviSo'i i^ohiov OearpiKov yevofievt'iv. WXe^av- 
Bpo<; Be 6 p,eya<i 'HcpaiarLcovo^; a7rodavoi>TO<i ov 
pbovov XiT'irov<i €K€ip€ Kul rjfjbi6vov<i, aWa kul Ta? 
eVaX^ef? a^eZXe tmv rei-x^iav, 009 av BoKolev ai 
TToXei? irevOtZv, avrX Trj<; TrpoaOev fMop(j)7]<i Kovpi- 
jxov (T')(rjixa kol ari/uiov avaXap^^dvovcrai. ravTU 
fMev ovv 7rpocrTdyp,aTa BecnroTMv ovra, Koi ixera 2 9 J 
TToX\rj<i dvdy/crj'i rrepaivop^eva koi p.€Ta (f)dovov 
rwv rv^uvToyv koX fiiaovi tmv ^la^ofjievcov, ovBe- 
/jLid<i ^a/0iTO9 rjv ovBe riyu,/}?, oyKOV Be jBaplBapiKOv 
Kol Tpv(f)ri<; Koi dXai^oveia<; eTTiBei^L^, et? Keva Koi 

3 a^rfXa ttjv irepiovaiav BiariOefievcov dvrjp Be 
B7}p,oriKO<i iirl ^evrjf; TeOvr]K(o<i, ov yvvaiKO'i, ov 
iraiBwv, ov avyyeiSiv irapovTCOv, ov Beofievov 
TLv6<i, OVK dvayKa^ovTO^, iiiro Btjikdv rooovrcov 
KoX TToXewv dp.iX\(jL)fxevo)v 7rpo7repL7r6/jievo<; Ka] 
crvveKK0/xL^6/xevo<; koI (TT€(f)avov/u.evo<i, eiKOTOi<i 
iBoKet TOP TeXeiorarov uTrex^i^v evBaifiovccr/xov, 

4 ov ydp, (jo<i AtaooTTO'i e<paaKe, ;^aXe7ra)TaT09 ecrnv 
Toiv evTV)(^ovvT(i)v ddvaro<i, d\Xa p,aKapicoTaTo<;, 
619 aa^aXi) ^wpav Ta<; evirpa^ia'^ KaTaTtde/xevot; 
TOiv dyaOoiV koI tv^W p-era^dXXeadai p.r] diro- 
XecTTcov. Bio ^eXriov 6 AdKwv tov ' OXv uttlovlktjv 
Aiayopav, firiBovra jxev vlov<; cne^avovp-evovs 

428 



PELOPIDAS, xxxni. 5-xxxiv. 4 

have the courage to ask another general from you, 
when we have not returned Pelopidas?" This 
request the Thebans granted. 

XXXIV. Those funeral rites were never surpassed 
in splendour, in the opinion of those who do not 
think splezidour to consist in ivory, gold, and purple, 
like Philistus, who tells in wondering strains about 
the funeral of Dionysius, which formed the pompous 
conclusion of the great tragedy of his tyranny. 
Alexander the Great, too, when Hephaestion died, 
not only sheared the manes of his horses and mules, 
but actually took away the battlements of the city- 
walls, in order that the cities might seem to be in 
mourning, assuming a shorn and dishevelled appear- 
ance instead of their former beauty. These honours, 
however, were dictated by despots, were performed 
under strong compulsion, and were attended with 
envy of those who received them and hatred of 
those who enforced them ; they were a manifestation 
of no gratitude or esteem whatevei', but of barbaric 
pomp and luxury and vain-glory, on the part of men 
who lavished their superfluous wealth on vain and 
sorry practices. But that a man who was a com- 
moner, dying in a strange country, in the absence of 
wife, children, and kinsmen, none asking and none 
compelling it, should be escorted and carried forth 
and crowned by so many peoples and cities eager to 
show him honour, rightly seemed to argue him su- 
premely fortunate. For the death of men in the hour 
of their triumph is not, as Aesop used to say, most 
grievous, but most blessed, since it puts in safe 
keeping their enjoyment of their blessings and 
leaves no room for change of fortune. Therefore the 
Spartan's advice was better, who, when he greeted 
Diagoras, the Olympian victor, who had lived to see 

429 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

0\vfxTn,acnv, eirLBovra ^' vi(ovov<i /cal Ovyarpi- 
Bov<i, d(T7raad/j.evo<i, " KdrBave,'' elire, " Aiayopa- 
5 ovK ei9 Tov "OXvfXTTov dva^Tjarj." Td<; Be ^OXv/j.- 
TTiUKWi Kal WvdiKa<; VLKa<i ovk av, ol/xai, Ti<i 619 
TO avTo avv^eU oTracra? evl rdv UeXoTTiSov 
irapa^aXelv dywvwu d^Koaeiev, ov<i iroWov'i 
dy(ovccrdjj,€vo^ Kal Karopdwaa^, Kal tov ^iov to 
TrXelarov ev Bo^rj Kal Ti/xfj ^iwaa<i, Tt'Xo? ev ttj 
TpKTKaiBeKdTTj l3oio)Tap-)(^ia, TvpavvoKTOvia fiep-iy- 
p-evrjv dpiaTeiav dpiaTev(ov, vrrep t^9 tmu ©ecr- 
aaXwv eXevdepia'i direOavev. 

XXXV. O ^e OdvaTc; avTov fxeydXa fiev 
eXvTrrjcre tov<; avfifiaxovi, nei^ova Be cocpeXrjcTe. 
Sr)^aiot ydp, ox? eTTvdovTO rrjv tov HeXoTriBov 
TeXevTijv, ovBepiiav dval3o\r)v 7ron]a-d/j.evoi Tr}<; 
Ti/xo}pia<i KaTCL Ta;^o? eaTpdTevcrav oirXiTai.'i 
e7rTaKia')(^i-Xt,oi<i, iTrTrevai 8' eTTTaKocrioL^, r\yovp.e- 

2 vol' WaXKiTov Kal ^LoyeiTova. KaTaXa^ovTef Be 
(Tvve<TTaXp.h'ov Kal 7repiKeKop,/j.evov t^? Bvud/xeo)^ 
' We^avBpov TjvdyKaaav @€aaaXoi<i p.ev aTToBov- 
vai Td<i TToXfi? a? elx^v avTcbv, Mdyi>7]Ta<i Be Kal 
^dioora<i A-)(^aiov<i dc^elvai Kal rd^ (f)povpd^ 
e^ayayelv, op.oaai Be avTov e'(/)' ou? av rjyoovTai (^ij- 
/Baioi Kal KeXevaoyaiv dKoXov6j]<reiv. ®r)/3acot fiev 
ovv TovToi<i r/pKeaOrjaav rjv Be oXiyov vaTepov rol<i 
6eol<i iiTtep TleXoTrlBov Blk7]v eBcoKe Bitjyijaofiai. 

3 ®r]^r]v Ti]v avvoiKovaav avTW TrpMTOv fiev, co? 
ecpTjTai, UeXoTTiBa^ eBlBa^e /jltj ^o^eladat ti-jv 
e^co XafX7rpoT}]Ta Kal TrapacrKevrjv t^? rvpavviBo^, 
evTo<i TMV ottXcov Kal T(ov (^vXdKcov ovaav eireiTa 
Be (po^ov/jLevrj rrjv diricrTiav avTov Kal fiicrovaa 
TTjv OD/jLOTijTa, avvde/xevj] p-erd Ta)v dBe\<f}a)v, 
Tpicjv ovTcop, Ticri(f)6vov, HvdoXdov, AvK6(f)povo<f, 

430 



I 



PELOPIDAS, XXXIV. 4-xxxv. 3 

his sons crowned at Olympia, yes, and the sons of his 
sons and daughters, said ; " Die now, Diagoras ; thou 
canst npt ascend to Olympus." But one would not 
deign, 1 think, to compare all the Olympian and 
Pythian victories put together with one of the 
struggles of Pelopidas ; these were many, and he 
made them successfully, and after livmg most of his 
life in fame and honour, at last, while boeotarch for 
the thirteenth time, performing a deed of high 
valour which aimed at a tyrant's life, he died in 
defence of the freedom of Thessaly. 

XXXV. The death of Pelopidas brought great 
grief to his allies, but even greater gain. For the 
Thebans, when they learned of it, delayed not their 
vengeance, but speedily made an expedition with 
seven thousand men-at-arms and seven hundred 
horsemen, under the command of Malcitas and 
Diogeiton. They found Alexander weakened and 
robbed of his forces, and compelled him to restore 
to the Thessalians the cities he had taken from 
them, to withdraw his garrisons and set free the 
Magnesians and the Achaeans of Phthiotis, and to 
take oath that he would follow the lead of the 
Thebans against any enemies according to their 
bidding. The Thebans, then, were satisfied with 
this ; but the gods soon afterwards avenged Pelo- 
pidas, as I shall now relate. 

To begin with, Thebe, the tyrant's wife, as I have 
said, had been taught by Pelopidas not to fear the 
outward splendour and array of Alexander, since these 
depended wholly on his armed guards ; and now, 
in her dread of his faithlessness and her hatred of 
his cruelty, she conspired with her three brothers, 
Tisiphonus, Pytholaiis, and Lycophron, and made an 



43' 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

4 eiTe\elpei Tovhe rov rpoirov. rrjv fxev aWrjv oLKiav 
Tov Tvpdvvov Karelxov al (pvXaKol tmv irapavv- 
KTepevovTCOv, 6 Be 6d\a/jL0<i, ev w KadevSeiv eloode- 
aav, u7Tepa)o<i y)v, kuI Trpo avTOv (f)v\aKr)v elx^ 
KV(ov SeSe/x€vo<;, trdcn 4>ojBepo'i -nXrjv avrol^ eVet- 

VOi? /cat €vl TWV oIk6TWV TW Tp€<pOVTl. KuO^ OV 

ovv epeWe Kaipbv eTTixeipelv i) Si]/3ri, tou? p.€v 
dheXcpov^ d(f>' r]fM6pa<; el^e 'rrXyalov iv olkw tlvI 

5 K€Kpv/xfievou<;, elae\6ovaa he, coanrep elwdei, p-ovrj 
Trpo? TOV ' AXe^avSpov rjBrj KaOevhovra koi fxera 
fxiKpov 'TToXiv TrpoeXdovcra, rw pev olKerr) irpocre- 
ra^ev aTrdyetv e^o) rov Kvva- j3ov\ea9ai 'yap 
dvairaveaOai p.e6' rjav^ia^ eKelvov avri] 8e ttjv 
KXip-aKU (f)o^ovpievri /irj ktvttov irapdaxv "^^^ 
veaviaKwv dvajSatvovruiv eptoL^ KareaTopeaev 

6 elra ovTcoq dvajayovaa tou? d8e'X(f)ov<; ^i(f)i]p€c<i 
Kai crT7]aa(Ta irpo tmv dvpwv ela?]\6ev avTi], /cal 
KadeXovaa to ^L<po<; virep rf]'; KecpaXrj'i Kpep^dp-e- 
vov crripeiov elvai rod Kare)(€aOai. rov dvhpa koI 
KudevSetv eSei^ev. eK7re7rX7]yp.ev(ov Se rcov veavi- 
aKcov /cal KaroKvovvrwv, KaKL^ovaa Kal Biopivu- 2£ 
p,€vr] p.€r opyrj^ avT7] rov ^AXe^avSpov i^eyapaaa 
p.i]vv(jeiv Ti]V Trpd^iv, alaxvv6ei'Ta<i avrov'i dp,a Kac 
(f)0^r]6evra<i ela-qyaye Kal Trepiearrjae rfj kXivt}, 

7 7rpoa(f)epov(Ta rov Xvx^ov. rcov 8e 6 fiev rov'; TroSa? 
Kareix^ meaa^, 6 Be r7]v Kec^aXr^v Xa/36p.€vo<; roiv 
rpLXOiV dveKXaaev, 6 Be rpiro^ rw ^icpei rvTrrcov 
aurov Ste^pT^craTO, rw jiev rdxei' t?)<> reXeuT?}? 
rrpaorepov ia(i)<i r] irpocrrjKov tjv drrodavovra, to) 
Be fiovov rj Trpcorov rvpdvvwv vrro yvvaiKO'i lBia<i 
d-TToXeadai, Kal rfj puera ddvarov aiKta rov ad)p,a- 
T09 'pL(^evro<i Kal TrarrjOevra vrro rcov ^Pepatcov, 
d^ia ireTTOvOevai Bo^avra rdv rrapavop-'qp.droiv. 

432 



PELOPIDAS, XXXV. 4-7 

attempt upon his life, as follows. The rest of the 
tyrant's house was guarded by sentries at night, but 
the bed-chamber, where he and his wife were wont 
to sleep, was an upper room, and in front of it a 
chained dog kept guard, which would attack every- 
one except his master and mistress and the one servant 
who fed him. When, therefore, Thebe was about to 
make her attempt, she kept her brothers hidden all 
day in a room hard by, and at night, as she was 
wont, went in alone to Alexander. She found him 
already asleep, and after a little, coming out again, 
ordered the servant to take the dog outdoors, for 
his master wanted to sleep undisturbed ; and to 
keep the stairs from creaking as the young men 
came up, she covered them with wool. Then, after 
bringing her brothers safely up, with their swords, 
and stationing them in front of the door, she went 
in herself, and taking down the sword that hung 
over her husband's head, showed it to them as a 
sign that he was fast asleep. Finding the young 
men terrified and reluctant, she upbraided them, 
and swore in a rage that she would wake Alexander 
herself and tell him of the plot, and so led them, 
ashamed and fearful too, inside, and placed them 
round the bed, to which she brought the lamp. Then 
one of them clutched the tyrant's feet and held them 
down, another dragged his head back by the hair, 
and the third ran him through with his sword. The 
swiftness of it made his death a milder one, perhaps, 
than was his due ; but since he was the only, or the 
first, tyi-ant to die at the hands of his own wife, and 
since his body was outraged after death, being cast 
out and trodden under foot by the Pheraeans, he 
may be thought to have suffered what his lawless 
deeds deserved. 

433 



MARCELLUS 



MAPKEAA02 

I. MdpKov Se K\av8iov tov Trevrd/ci'; v-naTev- 
cravTa VwfxaLMV Ma/j/cou fiev vlov <yevea6aL 
Xeyovcri, KXrjOrjvai Se tcov citto ri]<; otKLWi irpoiTov 
^dpKeWov, oirep earlv ^Kpriiov, ai? </)?;crt Ilocret- 
8(ovio<;. Tjv yap rfj /xev ip,TTecpla 7ro\€piK6<;, tw 
Se crcopari p(ofxa\eo<;, rfj 8e %etpl 7r\?//cTj;9, ttj Se 
(pvaei (piXoTToXe/MO'i Kav tovtco 8r} ttoXv to yavpov 

2 Kal ayepo)')(ov €7Ti(f)aLV(ov ev TOi? dyoicn, tco 5e 
aXX(ti T/ooTTft) a(i)(f)p(ov, (j)tXdvdp(i)TTO<i, '¥jXX^]VLKf](; 
iraiheia^ Kal Xoycov d-^pt rov Tip,dv kuI 6avp.d^eiv 
Tov<i Karop6ovvTa<i ipaaTrj<;, avT6<i 8e l/tt' <icy)(^o- 
\i(ov 60 ocTov rjv 7rpoOupo<; daKijaac Kal fiadeiv 
OVK e^iKo/jLevo<i. el yap dXXoi<; jialv dv6p(07roi<; 
o Be6<;, coa7r€p"0/j,y]po'i etprjKev, 

€K veori]ro<; ehwKe Kal ei9 yrjpa'^ roXvireveiv 
dpyaXiov<i TroXe/iOf?, 

3 Kol Toi<; Tore Trpcorevovai, Pcofialcov, o'l veoi /xev 
6vTe<; irepl SiKeXiav ls.ap)(rihovioi<;, dKp.d^oi'Te<; Se 
FaXuTai^ virep avrr)^ 'IxaXia? iTToXepLovv, 7]8i] 8e 
yrip(t)VT€<; Avvi/Sa irdXiv avveL^ovTO Kal K.ap')(^i]- 
Sovioi^, OVK e-y^ovre^, Mcnrep ol ttoXXol, 8id yfjpa<; 
dvairavaiv crrpaTeiMV, dXX eVt (npaTr)yia<; woXe- 
fiwv Kal rjy€fj,opia<; kut evyevecav Kal dperrjv 
dyofMevoi. 



436 



MARCELLUS 

I. Marcus Claudius, who was five times consul of 
the Romans, was a son of Marcus, as we are told, 
and, according to Poseidonius, was the first of his 
family to be called Marcellus, which means Martial. 
For he was by experience a man of war, of a sturdy 
body and a vigorous arm. He was naturally fond of 
war, and in its conflicts displayed great impetuosity 
and high temper ; but otherwise he was modest, 
humane, and so far a lover of Greek learning and 
discipline as to honour and admire those who excelled 
therein, although he himself was prevented by his 
occupations from achieving a knowledge and pro- 
ficiency here which corresponded to his desires. For 
if ever there were men to whom Heaven, as Homer 
says/ 

" From youth and to old age appointed the accom 
plishment of laborious wars," 

they were the chief Romans of that time, who, in 
their youth, waged war with the Carthaginians for 
Sicily ; in their prime, with the Gauls to save Italy 
itself ; and when they were now grown old, con- 
tended again with Hannibal and the Carthaginians, 
and did not have, like most men, that respite from 
service in the field which old age brings, but were 
called by their high birth and valour to undertake 
leaderships and commands in war. 
' Iliad, xiv. 86 f. 

437 

VOL. V P 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

II. Map/ceXXo? Se Trpo? ovSev fxkv yv iJLd')(^rj<i 
€L8o<i apyo<; ovSe dvdcrKT}TO<i, avTo<i S' kavrov 
KpdTi(TTO<i ev TO) ixovofxax^i'V yevofxevo^ ovSefilav 
irpoKXrjcnv 6<^u<ye, 7rdvTa<i 8e Tov<i irpoKaXeaa- 
/jL€vov<; aTreKTeivev. ev Be XiKeXia tov dSeXcfeov 
^OtuklXiov KivSvvevovra hiecrwaev vTrepaairLaaf 

2 Kai d7roKreLva<i tov<; eirKpepofievov^. dv6^ wv 
ovn jjiev €Ti veo) crrecfiavoi koI <yepa irapa t&v 
crrpaTrjycov rjcrav, evBoKifiovvra Se pdXXov dyopa- 
vop'Ov fiev direhei^e t^? eTricpaveaTepa^ rd^ew^; 6 
Brjpo'i, ol he iepel<i avyovpa. tovto S' iarlv lepco- 
(jvv')]'i etSo?, a> pidXiara rrfv a7r' olwvcov pavriKrjv 
e-m^XeTreiv xal 7Tapa(f)vXdTTecv v6po<i 8e8a>Kev. 

3 'HvayKdcrdi] Be dyopavopLwv Slktjv d^ovXrjTOv 
eicreveyKelv. ijv yap avTUi irai^ opi(avvpiO<; ev copa, 
Tr)V o^jriv eKir peirrj'i , ov-)(^ rJTTOV Be rw (Tux^povelv 
Kol TreTratBevaOai Trepi^Xeinof; vtto tmv ttoXltcov' 
TOVTO) KaTreT(i)Xlvo<i o tov MapKeXXov avvdp)(^(i)v, 
daeXyr)<i dvi]p kol dpaav's, epMv Xoyov^ Trpoat]- 
veyKe. tov Be 7rai8b<; to puev TrpwTov avTov Kad^ 
kavTov d7roTpf\frap,€vov ttjv irelpav, w? Be av6i<i 
eTre)(^et,pi]ae KaT€i7r6vTo<i TTyoo? tov iruTepa, ^apeo)<{ 
eveyKoov o ^ldpKeXXo<i irpoarjyyeiXe ttj j3ovXfj tov 

4 avOptOTTov. 6 Be 7roXXd<; pev dTroBpdcr€C<i koX 299 
7rapaypa(f)a'i epiri')(^avdT0, Tov<i Brjpdp-^ov^ erriKa- 
Xovpevo^, eKeivcov Be p,r] TrpoaBe-yop.evwv ttjv 
eTTiKXrjaiv dpv7]aei ttjv aoTLav ecfievye. Kal pdp- 
Tvpo^ ovBev6<i Tcov Xoywv yeyovoTO'i eBo^e p,eTa- 
TrepiTreadai tov TralBa ttj ^ovXfj. irapayevopevov 

8' lB6vTe<; ipvOrjpa Kal BdKpvov /cal p,€pcyp,evov 
uTravaTO) ^ Tcp dvpovpevcp to alBovpLSvov, ovBevof 

^ aitavartf Bekker corrects to a,ir\aaTif (uiifeigiied), after 
Euiperius. 



MARCELLUS, ii. 1-4 

II. Marcellus was efficient and practised in every 
kind of fighting, but in single combat he surpassed 
himself, never declining a challenge, and always kill- 
ing his challengers. In Sicily he saved his brother 
Otacilius from peril of his life, covering him with 
his shield and killing those who were setting upon 
him. Wherefore, although he was still a youth, he 
received garlands and prizes from his commanders, 
and since he grew in repute, the people appointed 
him curule aedile,^ and the priests, augur. This is 
a species of priesthood, to which the law particularly 
assigns the observation and study of prophetic signs 
from the flight of birds. 

During his aedileship, he was compelled to bring 
a disagreeable impeachment into the senate. He 
had a son, named Marcus like himself, who was in 
the flower of his boyish beauty, and not less admired 
by his countrymen for his modesty and good training. 
To this boy Capitolinus, the colleague of Marcellus, 
a bold and licentious man, made overtures of love. 
The boy at first repelled the attempt by himself, but 
when it was made again, told his father. Marcellus, 
highly indignant, denounced the man in the senate. 
The culprit devised many exceptions and ways of 
escape, appealing to the tribunes of the people, and 
when these rejected his appeal, he sought to escape 
the charge by denying it. There had been no witness 
of his proposals, and therefore the senate decided to 
summon the boy before them. When he appeared, 
and they beheld his blushes, tears, and shame mingled 

1 Literally, aedile oj the more illustrious class, i.e. patrician, 
in distinction from plebeian, aedile. 

439 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

dWov BetjOevTeii reKfjbrjpiov KaT€-\jrr](f)Laai'To koX 
y^prjixacTLv e^r]/xto)aav KaTreTcoXivov, i^ o)v 6 
MdpKeWo^ dpyvpd \oi/3eia Troirjcrdfx.evo'i rot? 
Oeol^ KaBiepfocrev. 

III. 'ETret he rov Trpcvrov tmv l^apxrjSovLcov 
TToXeficov €T€i Sevripu) Kal elKoaru) avvaLpedevro^ 
dp-)(^a\ TTuXiV TaXart/CMV djcovoyv Si€8€')(^ovto rrjv 
'Pcofirjv, ol he rrjv vTraXTreiav veixopievoi rrj^ 
'Ira/Vta? "Ii'cro/i./S/96<?, KeX,Ti«oy edvo^, /j,e'y dXot Kal 
KaB" eauTov^ ovre^, hwdfjuei'^ eKdXovv, koL [xere- 
TTCfiTTovTO TaXaTMv Tovf; fiiadov <n parevo jxevovi , 

2 ot Vaicrdrai KuXovvrai, Oavfiaarov jxev ehoKei Kal 
Tvyn-j^ dyadrj^; yeveaOai to fMrj avppwyrjvai, rov 
K-cXtikov ei"? TO avro tw Al^vkw rroXe/xov, dXX" 
coairep ic^ehpetav elXri^ora^; tou? TaXdra';, 6p66)<i 
Kal 8iKaio}<; drpejjit^aavTa'i /j,a)(^ofjievo}v cKeivcov, 
ovToo Tore hr] rot? veviKijKoaiv eTrairohveadai Kal 
irpoKaXeladat a-^oXrjv dyovTa';' ov fir)v dXXd 
fieyav ij re %co/3a irapelxe (f)6/3ov, 8id Ttjv yeiT- 
viaaiv o/xoyoco Kal irpoaoiKw TroXefiw avvoiao- 
fxevoi^, Kal TO iraXaLov d^LO)/xa tmv VaXaTcov, 
0V9 fMaXiaTa 'Pcofiaioi heicrai hoKovaiv, aTe St] 

3 Kal Trjv TToXiv vir avTOiv d7ro^aX6vT€<i, e^ eKelvou 
Be Kal Oe/xevoi, vo/jlov areXet? ecvai aTpaTeia'^ toi)? 
lepea'i, 7rXi]v el fir/ TaXaTiKo^; TrdXiv eireXdoi 
TToXep.o'i. eS/jXav 8e Kal tov ^o^ov avTwv rj re 
irapaaKevi] (fivpidSes yap ev oTrXot? cip^a Toaav- 
Tui 'PcofxaLMV ovT€ TTpuTepov ouT€ v(TT€pov yev€- 
adai XeyovTai) Kal to, irepl ra? dvaia^; KaivoTu/xov- 



440 



MARCELLUS, II. 4-111. 3 

with quenchless indignation, they wanted no further 
proof, but condemned Capitolinus, and set a fine upon 
him. With this money Marcellus had silver libation- 
howls made, and dedicated them to the gods. 

III. After the first Punic war had come to an end 
in its twenty-second year, Rome was called upon to 
renew her struggles with the Gauls. ^ The Insubrians, 
a people of Celtic stock inhabiting that part of Italy 
which lies at the foot of the Alps, and strong even 
by themselves, called out their forces, and summoned 
to their aid the mercenary Gauls called Gaesatae. 
It seemed a marvellous piece of good fortune that 
the Gallic war did not break out while the Punic 
war was raging, but that the Gauls, like a third 
champion sitting by and awaiting his turn with the 
victor, remained strictly quiet while the other two 
nations were fightnig, and then only stripped for 
combat when the victors were at liberty to receive 
their challenge. Nevertheless, the Romans were 
greatly alarmed by the proximity of their country 
to the enemy, with whom they would wage war so 
near their own boundaries and homes, as well as by 
the ancient renown of the Gauls, whom the Romans 
seem to have feared more than any other people. 
For Rome had once been taken by them,^ and from 
that time on a Roman priest was legally exempt from 
military service only in case no Gallic war occurred 
again. Their alarm was also shown by their prepa- 
rations for the war (neither before nor since that 
time, we are told, were there so many thousands of 
Romans in arms at once), and by the extraordinary 
sacrifices which they made to the gods. For though 

1 The First Punic War lasted from 265 B.C. till 241 B.C., 
and the Insubrians invaded Italy in 225 B c. 
* In 390 B.C. See the GamiUiis, xix.-xxiii 

441 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

4 ^leva' ^ap^apiKov fiev yap ^ ovBev ovS' €K(f)vXov 
eTTiTt^BevovTe';, dX,X' to? evt pLoKicna ral'; oo^ai<i 
'EiWr]viKCi)<i SiaKeifievot, fcal irpawi tt/jo? Ta dela. 
Tore rov TroXifiov (TVjj,7rea6vTO<; rjva'yKdaOi]aav 
el^ai \oyiot<i Tialv eK tmv ^.L^vWelcov, kuI 8uo 
fjL€v "EWr]va<i, dvhpa koX yvvalica, hvo he Va\a- 
Ta<i 6/jiol(0'i ev rfi KaXov/j-evr) ^oo)v dyopd tcaTopv- 
^ai ^wfTa?, ol<; eri koX vvv ev tw NoefM^piui /xrjvl 
hpwcriv "FjWrja-L kuI raXdTai.<; dTTopp-qrovs Koi 
dOedrovi lepovpyia<;. 

IV. Ot jMev ovv irpoiroi tmv dycovcov vLKa<; re 
/xeydXa^ xal cr(f>d\fxara rol<; 'Vcofialoa eveyKavre^ 
et? ovhev erekevr-qaav irepa^ ^e^aiov '^Xapuviov 
he Kal *^ovp'iov rwv vTvdrwv p,eydXai<; e/carparev- 
crdvTMv Svvdfiecnv eVt T01/9 "lv(TOfi^pa<;, (acfyOr) fjuev 
aifiari pewv 6 8id t?}? UiKtjvlBo^ ')((i)pa<; rrora/xo'i, 
eXex^V he rpet? aeX7]va<i (f)avr]vai Trepl rroXiv 

2 ^Aplfiivov, 01 he eVt rah uTrart/cat? y\rri^o(^opiai^ 
rrapa^vXdrrovre^ olwvoix; iep€i<i hiefSe^aiovvro 
fj,ox0VP^'> '^'^^ huaopvidaq avroU yeyovevai rd<; 
roiv virdrcov dvayopev(Tei<i. ev6v<; ovv eirefiylrev j) 
(TvyKX')]ro<i iirl to arparorrehov ypd/xfiara Ka- 
Xovcra Kal fiera'rrep.'rrop.evr] rov<; vvdrou^, ottcu? 
eiraveXdovre^ rj rd^icrra rrjv dpxv^ dTTeiTroivrat 
Kal firjhev d)<; vrraroi (pOdawai, irpd^ai Trpo? rov<; 

3 7roXep,LOV^. raura he^dp.evo<; rd ypdp,p,aTa ^t>Xa- 
/jLivia ov rrporepov eXucrev i) p^d^r] avvdyjra<; rpe- 
■yjracrdai rov<; ^ap^dpovq Kal rrjv x^P^^ avrdyv 
emhpapbelv. cb? ovv eTTavy)X6e p,era ttoXXmv Xa- 
(fiupcov, ovK diry^vrrja-ev o hi)ixo<;, aXX on KaXou- 
pevo<i OVK evdv<i vm]Kovaev ovh' eireLcrOr] rol<i 
ypd/jLp,a(Tiv, dXX^ evv^piae Kal Karec^povrjae, 

1 Hfv yap Bekker, after Coraes : ^eV . 
442 



MARCELLUS, iii. 4-iv. 3 

they have no barbarous or unnatural practices, but 
cherish towards their deities those mild and rever- 
ent sentiments whicli especially characterize Greek 
thought, at the time when this war burst upon them 
they were constrained to obey certain oracular com- 
mands from the Sibylline books, and to bury alive 
two Greeks, a man and a woman, and likewise two 
Gauls, in the place called the " forum boarium," or 
cattle-market ; and in memory of these victims, they 
still to this day, in the month of November, perform 
mysterious and secret ceremonies. 

IV. The first conflicts of this war brought great 
victories and also great disasters to the Romans, and 
led to no sure and final conclusion ; but at last 
Flaminius and Furius, the consuls, led forth large 
forces against the Insubrians. At the time of their 
departure, however, the river that flows through 
Picenum was seen to be running with blood, and it 
was reported that at Ariminum three moons had ap- 
peared in the heavens, and the priests who watched 
the flight of birds at the time of the consular elec- 
tions insisted that when the consuls were pro- 
claimed the omens were inauspicious and baleful 
for them. At once, therefore, the senate sent letters 
to the camp, summoning the consuls to return to 
the city with all speed and lay down their office, and 
forbidding them, while they were still consuls, to 
take any steps against the enemy. On receiving 
these letters, Flaminius would not open them before 
he had joined battle with the Barbarians, routed 
them, and overrun their country. Therefore, when 
he returned with much spoil, the people would not 
go out to meet him, but because he had not at once 
listened to his summons, and had disobeyed the 
letters, treating them with insolent contempt, they 

443 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

fiiK/jov fiev eBeyaev diroyfrijcfilcracrOat top Opia/x^ov 
avrov, dpia^^eucravra Be Ihuorrjv evoitjaev, dvay- 
Kaaa<; e^o/xoaaadai rrjv viraTeiav fxera tov avv- 
4 ap-)^ovro<i. ovTco irdvra ra TrpajfiaTa 'Pwpaioi^ 
etV TOV deov dvyjyero, pavreiwv he koi Trarpiwv 
VTrepoyfriav ovS" ctti Tal<; p€yLaTai<i evirpa^iaa 
drrreBexovro, pei^ov r)yovp.evoL tt/oo? awTTjpiav 
TToXew? TO 6avp,d^€iv rd 9ela TOv<i dp'^ovTa<i tov 
KpaTelv TMv TToXe/jiicov. 

V. Ti^epio^ ovv %ep,Trp(i)Vio<i, dvrjp 8i dvhpeiav 
KaX KaXoKayadlav ovBevo^ tjttov dya~y^6e\<i vtto 
Vwpaiwv, direhei^e pev viraTevoyv Bia86')(^ov<i "Skt]- 
TTLCova ^aaiKav Kal Tdiov MdpKiov, ijSr} 8e ix^v- 
Twv avTMV eirapxict^ koI aTpaTevpuTa, i6paTiK0i<; 
vTTopvi-jpacnv evTu^oov evpev rjyvoyj pievov u^' avTOv 

2 Tt Tbiv TraTpiwv. rjv Be tolovtov otuv dp^wv 
eTr" opvtat Kade^opevo^ e^co TroXe&x? oIkov i) ctkv- 
vrjv pbepiadu)pevo<i utt' aiVta? tivo<; dvay/caa^rj 
prjiTW yeyovoTwv crrjpeioyv ^e/3aicov eiraveXOelv el<; 
TToXiv, d(f)eivai XP^l'^ "^^ TTpopeptadcopevov o'lKijpa 
KoX Xa^elv €Tepov, e^ ov irou'^creTai ttjv deav 
avdi<i i^ VT!-apxr}<;. tovto eXaOev, co? eoifce, tov 
Ti^epiov, Kal BU Tw avTU) %p77crayu-ei/09 direBet^e 
TOV<; elprjpevov^; dvBpa^ virdTov^;. vaTspov Be 
yvovs TTjV dpapTiav dvr]veyKe T:pQ<i Tr]v avyKXi]Tov. 

3 rj Be ov KaTetppovrjae tov kutu piKpov outu)<; 
eXXeippaTo^, dX'X! eypayjre toi<; dvBpdar Kal 
cKelvoi Ta<; eTrap^ia? diroXnrovTe'i eTTavPjXdov el<; 
'V(t)pr]v Ta^v Kal KaTedevTo t?]v dp^^jv. dXXd 
TavTa pev vcTTcpov eirpaxGr}' irepl Be Toi"? avToix; 

444 



MARCELLUS, iv. 3-v. 3 

came near refusing him his triumph, and after his 
triumph, they compelled him to renounce the consul- 
ship with his colleague, and made him a private citizen. 
To such a degree did the Romans make everything 
depend upon the will of the gods, and so intolerant 
were they of any neglect of omens and ancestral 
rites, even when attended by the greatest successes, 
considering it of more importance for the safety of 
the city that their magistrates should reverence re- 
ligion than that they should overcome their enemies. 
V. For example, Tiberius Sempronius, a man most 
highly esteemed by the Romans for his valour and 
probity, proclaimed Scipio Nasica and Caius Marcius 
his successors in the consulship, but when they had 
already taken command in their provinces, he came 
upon a book of religious observances wherein he 
found a certain ancient prescript of which he had 
been ignorant. It was this. Whenever a magistrate, 
sitting in a hired house or tent outside the city to 
take auspices from the flight of birds, is compelled 
for any reason to return to the city before sure signs 
have appeared, he must give up the house first hired 
and take another, and from this he must take his 
observations anew. Of this, it would seem, Tiberius 
was not aware, and had twice used the same house 
before proclaiming the men I have mentioned as 
consuls. But afterwards, discovering his error, he 
referred the matter to the senate. This body did 
not make light of so trifling an omission, but wrote 
to the consuls about it ; and they, leaving their 
provinces, came back to Rome with speed, and laid 
down their offices. This, however, took place at a 
later time.^ But at about the time of which I am 

^ Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus, father of the two famous 
tribunes, was consul for the second time in 163 B.C. 

445 



.11 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

fK€LVOV<s '^pOVOU^i Kal SvO 16/3649 €77 1<^ aV e (TT aT O L Ttt? 

lepcocrvva'i acfiypeOrjaai', Kopv)']Xio<; fiev Yiedrjyo'i 
OTi TO, atrXd'y^ya tov lepe'iov irapa rd^iv eVeStu/ce, 

4 KovlvTO's Se iouA-TTtActo? eVt tw dvouTo<; avrov 
TOV Kopv(f)aLov (iTToppvyjvai t/}? Ke<pa\rj<i ttIXov, ov 
01 Kokovpevoi ^'>\apLvioL (f)opovac. Mivovklov Be 
hiKTCLTOpci 'iTTTvapxov aTTohei^avTO^ Tdlov 4>\a- 
fiLVioP, eVet Tpi<x/xo? rjKovaOi] p,vo<i bv aopiKa 
KaXovatv, diroy^i^c^LadpevoL tovtov^ avOt^ erepof? 
KaTeaT7]aav. Kal Tr]v iv ovrco piKpol'i uKpi^eiav 
(^fXaTTOvre? oiihepla irpoaepl'yi'vaav SecatSai- 
p,ovia, Tw pr)hkv dWdrreiv yu,?/5e irapeK^aLveiv 
Twv irarpiwv. 

VI. 'n? S' ovv e^oopoaavro T-qv dp')(r]v at rrepl 
TOV ^\ap,iviov, Sta Tciyv KoKovpevwv peao^aai- 
\ecov v7raT0<; dTToheiKvvTaL M.dpKeX\o<i. Kai irapa- 
Xa^Qiv Tr]v dpxv^ aTToSeiKwaLV avTw awdp^ovra 
Tvatov Kopvi]Xiov. iXex^V P^^v ovv co? tvoXXcl 
(Xvp^aTiKCL TMV FaXaTMV XeyovTcov, Kal Trj<i 
/SoyX?}? elprjvala ^ovXop6v>]<i, 6 MdpK€XXo<; i^e- 

2 Tpd')(yv€ TOV hrjpov iirl tov iroXepov ov p,7]v aXXa 
Kal yevopevi]<i 6lp>]V7]<i dvaKaiviaai tov iroXepov oi 
TaiadTaL SoKovai, Ta<? "AA-Trei? inrep^aXovTe^ Kal 
Tov<i 'lva6p^pov<i eTTapavTe^- Tpiapivpiot yap 
6vT€<i TrpoaeyevovTO 7roXX(i7rXacTLOi<i eKCLvoi^ ovai, 
Kal peya (f)povovvT€<; evOvs eV W.Keppa<; oypprjaav, 
ttoXlv virep iroTapov Wdhov dv(pKiap.evr]v. eKel- 
dev 8e pvpiov<; tmv TacaaTcov 6 ^acnXev<; BpiTO- 

' Cf. the Numa, vii. 5. 

' In 222 B c. In republican times, an interrex was elected 
when there was a vacancy in the supreme power, held office 
for five days, and, if necepsary, nominated his successor. 
Any number of interreges might be successively ap- 

446 



MARCELLUS, v. 3-vi. 2 

speaking, two most illustrious priests were deposed 
from their priesthoods, Cornelius Cethegus, because 
he presented the entrails of his victim improperly, 
and Quintus Sulpicius, because, while he was sacrific- 
ing, the peaked cap which the priests called flamens^ 
wear had fallen from his head. Moreover, because 
the squeak of a shrew-mouse (they call it "sorex") 
was heard just as Minucius the dictator appointed 
Caius Flaminius his master of horse, the people 
deposed these officials and put others in their places. 
And although they were punctilious in such trifling 
matters, they did not fall into any superstition, be- 
cause they made no change or deviation in their 
ancient rites. 

VI. But to resume the story, after Flaminius and 
his colleague had renounced their offices, Marcellus 
was appointed consul^ by the so-called "iuterreges." 
He took the office, and appointed Gnaeus Cornelius 
his colleague. Now it has been said that, although 
the Gauls made many conciliatory proposals, and 
although the senate was peaceably inclined, Marcellus 
tried to provoke the people to continue the war. 
However, it would seem that even after peace was 
made the Gaesatae renewed the war ; they crossed 
the Alps and stirred up the Insubrians. They num- 
bered thirty thousand themselves, and the Insubrians, 
whom they joined, were much more numerous. With 
high confidence, therefore, they marched at once to 
Acerrae, a city situated to the north of the river Po.^ 
From thence Britomartus the king, taking with him 

pointed, until the higiiest office was filled. Cf. the Numa, 
ii. 6 f. 

' According to Poljbius (ii. 34), no peace was made, 
although the Gauls offered to submit, and the consuls 
marched into the territory of the Insubrians and laid siege 
to Acerrae. 

447 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

fMapTo<; ava\a/3cbv ti-jv r/repl IldSov '^(^clopav eTropdec. 

3 Taura MapAreXXo? TTvOofievo^ rov jxev awdp^ovra 
7rpo<i ^AK€ppai<; aTreXiTre ttjv 7Te^i]v koI ,8apetav 
6/jLOv -ndcrav €)(0VTa 8vva/j.tv /cat tmv LTnrewv 
fX6po<; rpiTOU, avTO^ 8e Tov<i Xonrovi nriret'; ava- 
Xa^uiV Koi T0U9 iXa(^pOTdTov<; twv ottXitmi' irepl 
e^uKoalovi rjXavvev, ovre rjfiepa's ovre vvKTO<i 
dvteU rov Spo/xov, etu? eire^aXe to?? /j,vpioi<; Vai- 
adrat^ irepi to KaXov/u.evov KXaa-nSiov, TaXa- 

TlKrjV KCO/XTJU OV TT pO TToXXoV Pw/iatOi? VTnJKOOV 

4 yeyevrjfjLevriv. diaXa/Secv 8e Kol hiai'aTravaat rov 
(TTparov ovx virrjp^ev aiiTcp' rax^ "y^P alarOrjaiv 
TOi<; ^ap^dpoL<i d(f)iK6p,€vo<i irapeax^, ^al Kare- 
(ppoinjOr] irei^MV fxev oXljcov TravTairaa-iv ovrcov 
crvv avTW, to 8' ittttikov ev ovBevl Xoyw tmv 
KeXrcof Tidefxevoiv. KpaTiaTOi jap oVtc? itttto- 
/max^lv Koi fxaXcara tovtw Siacpepeiv Bo/<ovvr€<;, 
TOTe fcal TrXrjOei ttoXv tov ^IdpKsXXov uirepe- 
^aXXov. €v6u<; ovv eir avrov 00*; dvapiTaaopevoi 30] 
pbCTCi ^LWi TToXXrji; kol SeiVMV direiXcov ec^epovTO, 

5 TOV /3acr<Xea)9 irpoi'mTevovTO';. 6 he Map/ceXXo?, 
CO? fxrj (f)6ai€v avTOV iyKVKXcocTdfxevoL kul Trepiyy- 
BevTe<i oXt'yocrTov ovra, ra? tXa<; rj'ye rroppco to)P 
iTnricov kuI rrepu'^Xavve, Xenrov eKTeivwv to Kepas, 
a')(,pi' OV fiiKpov dirkaye tmv iroXefxiav. i']hr} he 
TTW? et9 ifxjSoXrjv eVto-rpe^ot'TO? avTov avvruy- 
■^dvei TOV iTTTTOv TTTvpevra ttj yavpoTrjTi twv 
TToXefXioyv aTTOTpaTreaOat Kal ^la (f)epeiv OTrtcro) 

6 TOV MdpKeXXov. 6 he tovto heiaa'^ fxi] Tapaxhv 
€K heio-i,hai/xovia<; toI<; 'Vwp,aLOL<i ivepydaTjTai, 
Ta^v Trepi(nrdaa<; e'^' rjvlav tw xP-Xlvu) koi irept- 
(TTpe^a<i TOV Xttttov evavTiov Tol<i 7roXefxioi<;, tov 
rjXiOv auTO? TrpoaeKvvrjaev, a)9 hrj fxrj Kara tv^V^, 

448 



MARCELLUS, vi. 2-6 

ten thousand of the Gaesatae, ravaged the country 
-about the Po. When Marcellus learned of this, he 
left his colleague at Acerrae with all the heavy-armed 
infantry and a third part of the cavalry, while he 
himself, taking with him the rest of the cavalry and 
the most lightly equipped men-at-arms to the number 
of six hundred, marched, without halting in his course 
day or night, until he came upon the ten thousand 
Gaesatae near the place called Clastidium, a Gallic 
village which not long before had become subject to 
the Romans. There was no time for him to give his 
army rest and refreshment, for the Barbarians quickly 
learned of his arrival, and held in contempt the in- 
fantry with him, which were few in number all told, 
and, being Gauls, made no account of his cavalry. 
For they were most excellent fighters on horseback, 
and were thought to be specially superior as such, 
and, besides, at this time they far outnumbered Mar- 
cellus. Immediately, therefore, they charged upon 
him with great violence and dreadful threats, think- 
ing to overwhelm him, their king riding in front of 
them. But Marcellus, that they might not succeed 
in enclosing and surrounding him and his few follow- 
ers, led his troops of cavalry forward and tried to 
outflank them, extending his wing into a thin line, 
until he was not far from the enemy. And now, 
just as he was turning to make a charge, his horse, 
frightened by the ferocious aspect of the enemy, 
wheeled about and bore Marcellus forcibly back. 
But he, fearing lest this should be taken as a bad 
omen by the Romans and lead to confusion among 
them, quickly reined his horse round to the left 
and made him face the enemy, while he himself 
made adoration to the sun, implying that it was not 



449 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

aX.X' €Vf.Ka TouTou rfi irepiwywy^ ')(^pr](Tdix€vo^' 
ouTQ) yap edo<i eari 'Pa)yu.atOf9 TvpoaKweiv roii^ 
Oeov^ 7repLaTp€(f)OfX€vov'i. xai avrov r]Sy] irpoafxi- 
yvuvra toI^ evavriois Trpocrev^acrdai rcf) (^eperpKii 
Atf la KoXXicTTa tmv -napa TOL<i TroXe/LitoiV 6ttXo)v 
KaOiepuxreiv. 

VII. El' TOUTO) 8fc Karihoiv o roiv TaXarSiv 
^aaiXeix; koi TeKp,r]pdp,evo<i cnro tmv crvp^jBoXuiv 
ap\ovTa TOVTOv elvai, ttoXv Tipo tmu aWcou 
6^6\a(Ta9 Tov iTTTTOv uTTTjvTiaaev, dp,a rfj (poyvfj 
npoKXrjTiKoii (TraXaXd^cov xal to 8opv KpaSaivayv, 
uvrjp fMcyeOei re a-cofxaros e^o^O'^ VaXarMV, kuI 
TTavoTrXia ev dpyvpw koI )(^puaw Koi 0a(j)ai<i koi 
TTaai TToiKlXp,ao-ii>, oxnrep darpain'}, hiac^epcov 

2 ajiX^ovar}. fov ovv e7n^Xe\}ravTi ttjv (f)dXayya 
TO) Map/ceWft) ravra tmv ottXwv eSo^e KaXXicTTa 
Kol KaTo. TOVTUiv vTTeXa^e TreTroirjaOai tw 6eG> 
TTjv KaTev)(i]v, Mp/jLijaev eVi tov dvhpa, koi tw 
hopaTL SLa/c6ylra<; tov OoopaKa Kal auveirepeiawi 
TTj pvfir] TOV 'lttttov i^oiVTa /Jiki' avTOv 7repieTp6\jre, 
hevTepav he Kal TpLT7]v TrX-qyi]i' eveU evdv<i dire- 

3 KTeivev. dTroTrriht)aa<i he tov lttttov, Kal tmv 
ottXmv tov veKpov Tat<; ■^epalv ecpayp-d/xevof;, Trpo? 
tov ovpavov eLTTev "^D, p-eydXa aTpaTyycov Kal 
rjyep^ovMv epya Kal 7rpd^ei<i eTTi^XeTToiv ev iroXe- 
lxoi>i Kal pbdy^aisi (JyepeTpie Zev, jxapTvpopLai ae 
'YMfxaiMV TpLTOf dp^MV dp^ovTa Kal jBaatXea 
(TTpaT-qyo^ Ihia X^i-pl Tovhe tov dvhpa KaTepyaad- 
pi€vo^ Kal KTeiva<i croi KaOiepovv ra irpoiTa Kal 
KoXXiaTa Twy \a(f)vpMv. av he hihov tv^V^ o/xotav 
eTrl TO, Xotird tov iroXep-ov TrpoTpeiro/ievoii;. 

4 'E/t TOUTOU avvepLiayov oi iTTTretv ov hcaKCKpi- 



45° 



MARCELLUS, VI. 6-vii. 4 

by chance, but for this purpose, that he had wheeled 
about ; for it is the custom with the Konians to turn 
round in this way when they make adoration to the 
gods. And in the moment of closing with the enemy 
he is said to have vowed that he would consecrate 
to Jupiter Feretrius the most beautiful suit of armour 
among them. 

VII. Meanwhile the king of the Gauls espied him^ 
and judging from his insignia that he was the com- 
mander, rode far out in front of the rest and con- 
fronted him, shouting challenges and brandishing 
his spear. His stature exceeded that of the other 
Gauls, and he was conspicuous for a suit of armour 
which was set off" with gold and silver and bright 
colours and all sorts of broideries ; it gleamed like 
lightning. Accordingly, as Marcellus surveyed the 
ranks of the enemy, this seemed to him to be the 
most beautiful armour, and he concluded that it was 
this which he had vowed to the god. He therefore 
rushed upon the man, and by a thrust of his spear 
which pierced his adversary's breastplate, and by the 
impact of his horse in full career, threw him, still 
living, upon the ground, where, with a second and 
third blow, he promptly killed him. Then leaping 
from his horse and laying his hands upon the armour 
of the dead, he looked towards heaven and said : 
" O Jupiter Feretrius, who beholdest the great deeds 
and exploits of generals and commanders in wars and 
fightings, I call thee to witness that I have over- 
powered and slain this man with my own hand, being 
the third Roman ruler and general so to slay a ruler 
and king, and that I dedicate to thee the first and most 
beautiful of the spoils. Do thou therefore grant us a 
like fortune as we prosecute the rest of the war." 

His prayer ended, the cavalry joined battle, fight- 

451 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

fX€voi<i Tot? iTTTrevaiv, dWa kol vpo'i rovq Tre^oi;? 
ofxov 7rpocr(f)€po/jL€vov<i fiaxofxevoi, Kal fiKoxri vlkiju 
ISia T€ Kal TpoTTO) 'Trepnrrjv fcal vapdho^ov 
iTnreL<i 'yap nnrel'; kul Tre^oi"? dfjia roaovroi 
roaovrov^ ovre Trporepov ovt6 uarepov viKriaai 
XeyovTUi. KTeLva<i Se tov<; irXeiaTOVi Kal Kparr)- 
cra? oirXcov Kal 'X^prip^uTwv eiravrfKOe 7rp6<; rbv 
(rvvdp)(ovTa p,o^drip(h^ iroXepbOvvTa KeA-rot? irepl 
ttoXlv p.eyicTTrjv val iToXvavd pwrroraTr^v tcov Va- 

5 XariKcov. ^leSLoXavov xaXelrai, Kal fXTjrpoTroKiv 
avTTjv ol TTjBe KeXrol POfU^ov(Tiv dOev eKOvfico^ 
fjLaxo/J-evoi Trepl avTrjf dvTeiroXiopKovv top Kopvij- 
Xiov. eTreXdovro^ 8e ^apKeXXov, Kal tmv Facaa- 
ro)v, ft)? eTTvOovro ttjv rov ^aaiXecc; y)TTau Kal 
TekevTTjV, direXOovroiv, to iikv Me8t6Xai'Of dXi- 
(TKerai, rd^; Be ciXXwi iroXet'i avroi, irapaSiSoaaiv 
01 KeXrot Kal rd Kad^ eavrov^ iirnpeTTOvari vavra 
'Y'cofxaioi'i. Kal TovTOi<; fxev rjv elptjvt] /xerplcov 
TU^oOcrt. 

VIII. '^7](f)iaap^vy]^ Be rr}? avyKX7]Tov ixovo) 
M^apKeXXo) Opiap^^ov, el(Ti]Xavve rfj p,ev dXXt] Xap.- 
7r/ooT?;Ti Kal ttXovtw Kal Xacf)vpoi'i Kal acop.aaiv 
inrepcpvecriv al')(^pi,aXcoTU)v ev 6Xi'yoi<; Oavp^aaro^, 
■^Bicrrov Be Trdvrwv Oeap,a Kal Kaivorarov eTTiBei- 
KVvp,evo<i avrov Kop^i^ovra rw dew rrju rov ^ap- 

2 ^upov TTavorrXiav. Bpvo<^ jdp evKredvov irpepvov 
opdiov Kal p,e<ya rep-oov Kal daKtjaa^ axTTrep 302 
Tpoiraiov dveBtjaaTO Kal Kart^pTrjcrev e^ avrov rd 
Xd(f)vpa, K6crp,a> BiaOel^i Kal ireptapfiocra^ eKaarov. 
TTpoiovarj'i Be ttj<; TTopL7rr)<i dpdp.evo<i avro'i eire^r] 

452 



MARGELLUS, vii. 4-vni. 2 

ing, not with the enemy's horsemen alone, but also 
with their footmen who attacked them at the same 
time, and won a victory which, in its sort and kind, 
was remarkable and strange. For never before or 
since, as we are told, have so few horsemen con- 
quered so many horsemen and footmen together. 
After slaying the greater part of the enemy and 
getting possession of their arms and baggage, Mar- 
cellus returned to his colleague, who was hard put 
to it in his war with the Gauls near their largest and 
most populous city.i Mediolanum was the city's 
name, and the Gauls considered it their metropolis ; 
wherefore they fought eagerly in its defence, so that 
Cornelius was less besieger than besieged. But when 
Marcellus came up, and when the Gaesatae, on learn- 
ing of the defeat and death of their king, withdrew, 
Mediolanum was taken, the Gauls themselves sur- 
rendered the rest of their cities, and put themselves 
entirely at the disposition of the Romans. They 
obtained peace on equitable terms. 

VI 11. The senate decreed a triumph to Marcellus 
alone, and his triumphal procession was seldom 
equalled in its splendour and wealth and spoils and 
captives of gigantic size ; but besides this, the most 
agreeable and the rarest spectacle of all was afforded 
when Marcellus himself carried to the god the armour 
of the barbarian king. He had cut the trunk of a 
slender oak, straight and tall, and fashioned it into 
the shape of a trophy ; on this he bound and fastened 
the spoils, arranging and adjusting each piece in due 
order. When the procession began to move, he took 
the trojjhy himself and mounted the chariot, and 

* Acerrae had, in the meantime, been taken by the 
Romans, who had then advanced and laid siege to Medio- 
lanum (Milan). Cf. Polybius, ii. 34. 

453 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Tov reOpLTTTTov, Kal TpoTraio^opov ayaXfia rcov eV 
€K€LVov KaXXLGTov KOL hian p€TT€ararov eTTO/JLTTeve 
oia rrjs iroXewi. 6 Be crT/oaro? eiVeTO Ka\XiaToi<s 
OTrXoi? KeKoafMr]/u,evo<;, aScov cifia TreTroit-jixeva p,iXri 
/cat Tratavwi iiriviKLovf; et? tov Oeov kol tov 

3 arpariryov. ovrco Be Trpoj3a<i Kal irapeXduiv eh 
TOV vediv TOV (f)ep€Tpi,ov Aio9, aveaT7]ae Kal KaOie- 
pcocre, T/3tT0<f Kal reXeuTato? a^pc tov Kad^ r]p,a<i 
aiSiva. TrpajTCi jxev 'yap dvrjve'yKe (TKvXa 'Pco- 
/xvXo<; aTTO "AKpcovo^ tov K.aivtV7]Tov, BevTepo^i Be 
Kocrtro? K.opvijXco'i diro ToXovp^vlov Tvpprjvov, 
fieTCL Be T0VT0v<; MdpKeXXo<i diro MpLTopdpTov, 
/3ao-tA,e&»? TaXaTOiv, fieTa Be MdpKeXXov ovBe et?. 

4 KaXeiTai Be 6 jxev deof &> Tre/inreTai (^eperpio^ 
Zei;?, 609 p.ev evLoi (pacrtv, aTrb tov cfiepeTpevo/xevou 
TpoTraiov, KaTa ttjv EiXXrjviSa yXcoaaav eVt 
TToXXrjv Tore av/jifiep.iyfiev7)v tjj AaTLvcov, d)<{ Be 
6Tepoi, Aio9 eaTiv r) nrpoawvvixia Kepavvo^oXovv- 
T09. TO yap TVTTTeiv (peplpe ol 'Pcopaloi KaXovcriv. 
ciXXoi Be Trapd ttjv tov TroXe/xLov TrXrjyijv yeyo- 
vevat Tovvopua Xeyovcrr Kal yap vvv iv ratv 
pid'^aL';, OTav BtwKcoaL tou? 7roXep,iov<i, ttvkvov to 
(f)epi, TOVTcaTi irale, irapeyyvMaiv dXXi]\oL<;. ra 
Be cTKvXa avoXia piev KOivoo'i, t'Stw? ^e oiripLia 

5 TavTa KaXovai. KaiTOi (paalv ev roi? vTropivrjpLaat 
^opdv YiopiTTLXiov Kat TTpoiTOiv OTTLpicov Kal Bev- 
Tepcov Kal TpLTcov pLvrjpioveveLv, tcl p,ev Trpcbra 
X7](f)66VTa Tft) (pepeTpio) Aii KeXevovTa KaQtepovv, 
TO, BevTepa Be tw A pet, to. Be Tp'iTa tS> Kvpipo), 
Kal XapL/Sdveiv yepa<i dacrdpia TpiaKocna tov 

454 



MARCELLUS, viii. 2-5 

thus a trophy -bearing figure more conspicuous and 
beautiful than any in his day passed in triumph 
through the city. The army followed, arrayed in 
most beautiful armour, singing odes composed for the 
occasion, together with paeans of victory in praise 
of the god and their general. Thus advancing and 
entering the temple of Jupiter Feretrius, he set up 
and consecrated his offering, being the third and last 
to do so, down to our time. The first was Romulus, 
who despoiled Acron the Caeninensian ; ^ the second 
was Cornelius Cossus, who despoiled Tolumnius the 
Tuscan ; and after them Marcellus, who despoiled 
Britomartus, king of the Gauls ; but after Marcellus, 
no man. The god to whom the spoils were dedicated 
was called Jupiter Feretrius, as some say, because 
the trophy was carried on a " pheretron," or car; 
this is a Greek word, and many such were still 
mingled at that time with the Latin ; ^ according 
to others, the epithet is given to Jupiter as wielder 
of the thunder-bolt, the Latin " ferire " meaning to 
smite. But others say the name is derived from the 
blow one gives an enemy, since even now in battles, 
when they are pursuing their enemies, they exhort 
one another with the word " feri," which means 
smitel Spoils in general they call " spolia," and 
these in particular, "opima." And yet they say 
that Numa Pompilius, in his commentaries, makes 
mention of three kinds of " opima," prescribing that 
when the first kind are taken, they shall be conse- 
crated to Jupiter Feretrius, the second to Mars, and 
the third to Quirinus ; also that the reward for the 
first shall be three hundred asses,^ for the second 

' Cf. the Romuhis, xvi. 4-7. 

* Cf the Romulus, xv. 3 ; Numa, vii. .5. 

^ The Roman as corresponded nearly to the English penny. 

455 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TrpcoTov, TOP 8e hevrepov SiaKoaia, top 8e Tp'nov 
eKarov. o /juiproi 7to\v<; ovto<; iiriKparel X0709, 
<it>9 €Keivu)P /Mopcop OTTifiLoyp OPTMP, 6(Ta Kal rrapa- 
ra^€0)<i ov(Tr)<; koI Trpcora Kal crrparrj'yov crrpaTT]- 
<yop apeXoPTO<;. irepl /xep ovp tovtcop eVt roaovrop. 
6 0/ oe Vwixaloi ttjp pIk7]p eKeiprjp kuI tov 
TToXefxov TTJP KaraXvcriP ouro)? vTreprjydTrrjaai' 
ftXTTe Kal ra> Uvdiw ')^pvcrovp Kparrjpa cltto 
XtrpoiP ^ . . . €t? Ae\(povi; aTToareVKai '^^^aptartj- 
piop, Kal T(t)p \a(f)vp(JOP Tat? re avpipba-)(iai [xera- 
Sovpai TToXeai \a/M7rp(t)<;, Kal 7rpb<i 'lipcopa ttoWo. 
TTepuylrai, top Xvpa/covcrLcop ^aaiXea, (f)[Xop opra 
Kal (Tvixfxa')(^op. 

IX. AvvL^ov 8e ip-^aXovTos elg 'IraAiai/ eVe'/i- 
(f>dr] p,€P 6 Ma/3/ceAAo? eVt HLKcXtav aroXov 
aywp' eVei 8e rj irepl Kai^i^a? aTf^^ta avpeTTecre 
Kai Po)p.ai(i)v OVK oXtyai p,vpidhe<i ip rfj P'd-)(r] 
Bi,e(f>0dp7)(Tap, oXljot Se acoOepre'i 619 Kapvaiop 
aup€7r€(f)€vy€crap, rjp Se TrpoahoKLa top \\ppi0ap 
evdi/^ iirl ttjp 'P(i!)p,r}p iXdp, oirep rjp Kpdriarop 

2 T?}? 8vpdp,eQ)^ dpript-jKOTa, npcoTOP p,ep MdpKeX- 
Xo? airo TOiP pecop eTreyu-'v^e tj} TroXet (j)vXaKt]p 
irepTaKoaLOu^ Kal ')(^lXlov<; dpSpa^, eirecTa 86yp,a 
T^9 /3ofX?;9 he^dp,epo<i et9 Kapvacop TraprjXOe, Kal 
Toi/? eKel aupeiX€yp,ePOV<; 7rapaXa/3a)p i^yjyaye 
TOiP ipvp,droiP ft)? ov 7rpoi]a6/xepo<i rijp ')(^u>pap. 
'PQ}p.aioi<i 8e Toyp i]yep,opLKOip Kal hvpaiMP dphpoip 
01 p.ep iTeOp/]K€(Tap ep ral<; p,d^ai<;, ^a^iov he 
yia^Lp^ov TOV TrXelcTTOP e')(OPTO<i d^i(op.a TrlaTea)^ 
Kal crvpeaeco'i, to Xuav diri'jKpi^wp.epop ep to?? 
virep TOV p,r} TraOeiP Xoyicrp.ol'^ &)? dpyop iirl Ta^; 

3 7rpd^et<f Kal dToXp,op yTicoPTO' Kal pop.i^opTe'i 

* oirb Xirpiiiv Sintenis^, Coraes and Bekker : dirb \vTpuv. 
456 



MARCELLUS, viii. 5-ix. 3 

two hundred, and for the third one hundred. How- 
ever, the general and prevailing account is that only 
those spoils are " opima " which are taken first, in 
a pitched battle, where general slays general. Sd 
much, then, on this subject. 

The Romans were so overjoyed at this victory and 
the ending of the war that they sent to the Pythian 
Apollo at Delphi a golden bowl 1 ... as a thank- 
offering, gave a splendid share of the spoils to their 
allied cities, and sent many to Hiero, the king of 
Syracuse, who was their friend and ally. 

IX. After Hannibal had invaded Italy,^ Marcellus 
was sent to Sicily with a fleet. And when the dis- 
aster at Cannae came,^ and many thousands of Romans 
had been slain in the battle, and only a few had saved 
themselves by flying to Canusium, and it was expected 
that Hannibal would march at once against Rome, 
now that he had destroyed the flower of her forces, 
in the first place, Marcellus sent fifteen hundred men 
from his ships to protect the city ; then, under orders 
from the senate, he went to Canusium, and taking 
the troops that had gathered there, led them out of 
the fortifications to show that he would not abandon 
the country. Most of the leaders and influential 
men among the Romans had fallen in battle ; and 
as for Fabius Maximus, who was held in the greatest 
esteem for his sagacity and trustworthiness, his ex- 
cessive care in planning to avoid losses was censured 
as cowardly inactivity. The people thought they had 

' The indication of its source or value which follows in 
the (ireek, is uncertain. 
I 2 218 B.C. " 216 B.C. Cf. the Fabius Maximus, xv. f. 

457 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

cLTTOXpoivra tovtov e-^^eiv TTpo<i aa^xxXeiav, ov 
SiapKy) 8e tt/oo? d/u.vvai> en parn^yov, iirl tov Map- 
KeWov a^eoopwv,^ koI to dappakeov avjov kuI 
opaaT7]piov Trpo^ Tr)v eKelvov KepavvvvT€<i Kai 
ap/xoTTOVT€<i evXd/SeLav koI irpovoiav, irork pev 
ap,(f)or€pov<i dp,a 'x^eipoTOvovvTe<i UTraTou?, TTore Se 
ev p,epei, tov p,ev virarov, tov he avdviraTov, e^- 

4 eTre/xTTOf . o Be YloaeiSoivio'i (ptjai tov p,ev ^d^iov 
Ovpeov KaXeladai, tov 8e MdpKeXXov ^L<f)o^. avTO'; 
8e 6 AvvL/3a<; eXeye tov p,ev ^d^iov 0)9 TraiSayco- 
ybv (jio/Betadai, tov 8e MdpKeXXov C09 avTaycovi- 
aT7]v 1/0' ou pev yap KwXveadai kukov ti iroielv, 
vcp ov 8e KoX 7rda")^eu'. 

X. YlpoyTov pev ovv dviaeo)<i ttoXXt)'; Kai dpaav- 
T77T09 e'/c TOV KpuTeiv tov ' Avvi^av toi<; aTpa- 
TL0OTai<i eyyevop^evT]^, toi)v dTTooKLhvapLevov<; tov 
(TTpaToireZov kol KUTaTpe'x^ovTa^ ttjv ')(^(i)pav 
eTriTiOep.evo'i KUTeKOTTTe Kal viravrjXiaKe tt}? 
Svvdpecos- eireiTa 7rp6<; Neav iroXiv koI NcoXav 
^oyjOijawi NeaTToXtra? pev eireppcoaev avTOu<; 
Ka9' eavTOv<; 0e/3aiov<; 6vTa<i 'Pa)paiOi<;, ek 8e 
NwXaf elaeXdoov aTdaiv eupe, tt}? /SovXrj^; tov 
SyjpLOv dv7H^l^ovTa p,eTa')(^eipiaacr6aL kuI xaTap- 

2 Ticrai p,T) hvvapevri<;. rjv yap Ti'i dvrjp evyeveia 
re TrpcoTevcov ev ttj TroXei Kal KaT dvhpeiav €7ri- 
(pav/)^, dvopa BdvSio<;- tovtov ev Kdvvais -rrepi- 
OTTTW? dywvicrdpevov koL TToXXou<i pev dveXovTa 
T(ov K.ap)(^y]Sovia)v, TeXo<; 8e avTov ev Tol<i veKpolf 
evpeOevTa ttoXXmv /SeXcov KaTd-nXewv to awpa, 
davp,daa<; 6 ^Avvi^a<; ov povov d^rjKev dvev 

^ a(ptiipccu Coraes and Bekker have Kariiptvyov [took refuge), 
after Stephauus. 

458 



MARCELLUS, ix. 3-x. 2 

in him a general who sufficed for the defensive, but 
was inadequate for the offensive, and therefore turned 
their eyes upon Marcellus ; and mingling and uniting 
his boldness and activity with the caution and fore- 
thought of Fabius, they sometimes elected both to 
be consuls together, and sometimes made them, by 
turns, consul and proconsul, and sent them into the 
field. Poseidonius says that Fabius was called a 
shield, and Marcellus a sword. ^ And Hannibal him- 
self used to say that he feared Fabius as a tutor, but 
Marcellus as an adversary ; for by the one he was 
prevented from doing any harm, while by the other 
he was actually harmed. 

X. To begin with, then, since Hannibal's victory 
had made his soldiers very bold and careless, Mar- 
cellus set upon them as they straggled from their 
camp and overran the country, cut them down, and 
thus slowly diminished their forces ; secondly, he 
brought aid to Neapolis and Nola. In Neapolis he 
merely confirmed the minds of the citizens, who 
wer-e of their own choice steadfast friends of Rome ; 
but on entering Nola, he found a state of discord, 
the senate being unable to regulate and manage the 
people, which favoured Hannibal. For there was a 
man in the city of the highest birth and of illus- 
trious valour, whose name was Bantius. This man 
had fought with conspicuous bravery at Cannae, and 
had slain many of the Carthaginians, and when he 
was at last found among the dead with his body full 
of missiles, Hannibal was struck with admiration of 
him, and not only let him go without a ransom, but 
' Cf. the Fabius Maximus, xix. % 

459 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Xvrpwv, aWa Kol Biopa irpocredriKe Kal (jyiXov 

3 eTTODjaaro Kal ^evov. a/xei^6/ji€V0<i ovv rrjv %a/jt/' 
6 BafSto? eU r/v Tcoi/ avvifSi^ovTwv TrpoOu/xco^, Kal 
Tov hrjjxov lcr~)(^v(ov i^ijye 7rpo<; cnrocTTacnv. o oe 
MdpKeX\o<i dveXelv /juev avhpa Xa/M-rrpov ovtw ti)v 
TV')(r]v Kal KeKocvcovrjKora twv /xeylcrTwv Fu>- 
/xaLoa dyoivcov ovx oaiov rjyeiTo, irpo'i Be rw 
(pvcrei (f)iXav6p(07r(p Kal iriOavo'i mv opLLXiaTTpoad- 
yeaQai ^iXoTipuOV 7]6o^, dairaaafievov Tvore tov 
JiavBiOV avTov r/poorrjaev o(TTL<i dvdpwirwv elr}, 
irdXat fxev ev elh(i)<;, dpxv^ Be Kal irpo^acnv ev- 

4 T6v^eco<i ^rjTMV. co? yap elire, "AevKio<; Bai^Sto?," 
olov ijaOeU Kal 0avfxdaa<; 6 Map/ceXXo?, " H yap 
iKetvo<i," ecfii], " av BdvBio^, ov irXelaro'i ev 'Pm/jlj] 
X6yo<; TMv ev Kdvvai'; dywviaufievcov, &)9 fiovov 
HavXov Al/xiXiov TOV ap^ovTa p,rj npoXiTrovTOf;, 
dXXci Tci irXeta-Ta tmv eKetvo) (pepofxevMV /SeXayr 

5 uTToaTavTO^ tw crwfiaTi Kal dvaBe^afxevov ; (f)i]- 
cravTO^ Be tov BavBlov Kai ti Kal TrapacpijvavTa 
avT(p TMV TpavfMaToyv, " EZra," €(f)rj, " TijXiKavTa 
yiJwplafiaTa cpepcov Trj<; tt/OO? rifid'i (piXla'i ovk 
evdv'i 7rpoa^ei<i; rj KaKoi aoi BoKovfiev dpei-qv 
dfiei^ea-dai ^lXwv oh ea-Ti tl/jlt) Kal irapd toU 
7roXe/jiioi<; ;" TavTa (pcXocjipovrjOeU Kal Be^iw- 
crdfjievo<; 'lttttov t€ BcopecTat, TToXepaaTriv avrw 
Kal BpaxfJ'^'i dpyvplov 7revTaK0(na<i. 

XI. 'E/c TOVTOV /3e/3at,6TaTO<i fxev rjv MapKeXXw 
7rapa(TTdT7]<i Kal cruyctyu-a^o?, Beiv6TaT0<; Be p.r}- 
vvTr)<i Kal KaT7]yopo<i tmv TavavTia (j^povovvToyv 
6 BdvBto^. Tjaav Be iroXXoi, Kal BievoovvTO tmv 
'Vcopbaiwv eire^iovTcov Toh TroXefiloi'i avTol Biap- 
2 TTaaai Ta<i diroaKevd^. Bto avvTu^a^ o Mdp- 



460 



MARCELLUS, 



X. 2-XI. 2 



actually added gifts, and made him his friend and 
guest, fn return for this favour, then, Bantius was 
one of those who eagerly favoured the cause of Han- 
nibal, and was using his great influence to bring the 
people to a revolt. Marcellus thought it wrong to 
put to death a man so illustrious in his good fortune 
who had taken part with the Romans in their greatest 
conflicts, and, besides his natural kindliness, he had 
an address that was likely to win over a character 
whose ambition was for honour. One day, therefore, 
when Bantius saluted him, he asked him who he 
was, not that he had not known him for some time, 
but seeking occasion and excuse for conversation 
with him. For when he said, " I am Lucius Ban- 
tius," Marcellus, as if astonished and delighted, said : 
" What ! are you that Bantius who is more talked 
of in Rome than any of those who fought at Cannae, 
as the only man who did not abandon Paulus Aemi- 
lius the consul, but encountered and received in his 
own body most of the missiles aimed at him ? " And 
when Bantius assented and showed him some of his 
scars, "Why, then," said Marcellus, "when 30U bear 
such marks of your friendship towards us, did you 
not come to us at once ? Can it be that you think 
us loath to requite valour in friends who are honoured 
even among our enemies ? " These kindly greetings 
he followed up by making him presents of a war 
horse and five hundred drachmas in silver. 

XI. After this Bantius was a most steadfast partisan 
and ally of Marcellus, and a most formidable de- 
nouncer and accuser of those who belonged to the 
opposite party/* These were many, and they pur- 
posed, when the Romans went out against the 
enemy, to plunder their baggage. Marcellus there- 

' The story of Lucius Bantius is told by Livy also (xxiii. 
15, 7-16, 1). 

461 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

K€XXo<; Trjv hvvafxLV evro<i irapa Ta<i 7rv\a<i harriae _; 
TO. (TK€Vo4>6pa, Koi T0£? '^wXavol'i Sia Krjpvy- W 
fiaTO<; ciTTelTTe Trpo? to, tclxV TTpocrTreXd^eiv. r)v 
ovv oirXoiv eprifxia koX tov ^Avvi(3av iireaTracTaTO 
irpoad'yeiv draKTorepov, oj? TWf ev ttj iroXei 
rapaTTO/xevayv. 'Kv rovrrp 8e Trjv Ka6 ainov 
TTvXt^p dvaireTdaai KeXevaa's 6 MdpK€\Xo<; i^i]- 
Xaaev, e)((av /xe^' eavTov tmv ittttotojv to 1)9 
Xafj.iTpoTdTOV<i, Koi rrpoaiTeaoov Kara crrofia 

3 a-vvei^eTO rol<i TToXep.loi'i. fxer oXi<yov 8' 01 Tre^oi 
Kad^ erepav TrvXr/v e~)(^u>povv /xerd Spo/iov Kal 
^or]<;' Kal irpo^; rovTOVi auOi<i av rov Avvi/3a 
p,epi^ovro<i ttjv Svva/uLiv rj rpirr] tmv itvXmv 
dvecoyvvTO, Kal Si avrrj^ e^edeov 01 \017roi Kai 
irpoaeKeivTO iravraxoOev iKTreirXrjy/jievoL^ rw 
d7rpocrSoKr]T(p Kal KaKco<i dfivvofMevoi^ tou? iv 
■y^epalv i]8r] Bid Toy? varepov e7n(f)€po/ji€vov<;. 
Kavravda "irpwrov ol avv Wvvi^a VcoixaioL's ive- 
ha>Kav, co6ov/xevoi (f)6v(p ttoXXo) kqI rpavfiacn 

4 7rpb<i TO <TT paroTreSov. "XeyovTai yap virep Trevra- 30^ 
KiCT'X^LXlov'i diTodaveZv, dTTOKrelvat Se 'PcojuloIwv 

ov 7rXeiova<; ?) irevraKoalovi. Be At/Sio? oi'tw 
fiev ov Bia^e^aiovTUL yevecrdai /jbeydXrjv rjTrav 
ovhe Treaelv veKpov<i Toaovrov<; twv TroXe/xKov, 
/c\eo9 Be jxeya Map«eA,X&j koI 'VcofiaLoi^; Ik KaKO)v 
Odpao'i diro Tr}<i /jLd)(^^]<; eVetVr;? vrrdp^at 6av- 
fiaarov, ov^ <^9 7rpo<; d/xa)(^ov ovBe dtJTTrjrov, 
dXXd Tt Kal iradelv Bvvdfieiov BiaywviXop-evois 
TToXe/xiov. 

XIL Ato Kal Oarepov rwv VTraTiov diroOavovTO'i 

462 



MARCELLUS, xi. 2-xii. i 

fore drew up his forces inside the city, stationed his 
baggage-trains near the gates, and issued an edict 
forbidding the men of Nola to come near the city 
walls. Consequently there were no armed men to 
be seen, and Hannibal was thus induced to lead up 
his forces in some disorder, supposing the city to be 
in a tumult. But at this juncture Marcellus ordered 
the gate where he stood to be thrown open, and 
marched out, having with him the flower of his 
horsemen, and charging directly down upon the 
enemy joined battle with them. After a little his 
footmen also, by another gate, advanced to the attack 
on the run and with shouts. And still again, while 
Hannibal was dividing his forces to meet these, the 
third gate was thrown open, and through it the rest 
rushed forth and fell upon their enemies on every 
side. These were dismayed by the unexpected onset, 
and made a poor defence against those with whom 
they were already engaged because of those who 
charged upon them later. Here for the first time 
the soldiers of Hannibal gave way before the Romans, 
being beaten back to their camp with much slaughter 
and many wounds. For it is said that more than five 
thousand of them were slain, while they killed not 
more than five hundred of the Romans. Livy, how- 
ever, will not affirm^ that the victory was so great 
nor that so many of the enemy were slain, but says 
that this battle brought great renown to Marcellus, 
and to the Romans a wonderful courage after their 
disasters. They felt that they were contending, not 
against a resistless and unconquerable foe, but against 
one who was liable, Hke themselves, to defeat. 

XII. For this reason, on the death of one of the 

' Vix equidem ausim adfirmare, xxiii. 16, 15. 

463 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

cKiiXei MapKeWov 6 87}fio<; eVi rrjv BtaSoxh'^ 
a-novra, koI ^ia rwv dpy^ovrwv vnepeOero ttjv 
Kard<TTacnv '4o)<i eKetvo<; yXSev ciiro rov arparo- 
irehov. KoX 7rd(Tai<; /xev aTreSelx^V T«t? ^lr>](f>OL<i 
viraro^, e7ril3povrj]cravTO<; Be rov Oeov Kal roiv 
Upecov ovK aiaiov Tide/u-ivtov to ay-jixtlov, e/j,(f)avco<i 
Se KU)\v€iv OKVOVVTCov Kal SehiOTCov top Srjfjiov, 

2 avro<; i^wjxoaaTO Ti]v dpXV^- ov p^evToi t7]v 
(TT pareiav e(jiv<yev, dW' dvOvTvaro^ dpayopevdeh 
Kal irdXiv tt/so? NcoXai/ eTraveXOcov eU to crrpa- 
TOTreBov KaKQ)<i eiroiei T01/9 yptjfievov^ tu tov 
(poiviKO'i. &)<> Be o^elav eV avTOv 6e/u,evo<; ^or']- 
deiav eKelvo<i rjKe, TrpoKaXovfxevo) jxev e'/c irapa- 
Td^€co<; OVK r]^ov\i]dri Biaycovlaacrdai, TpeyjravTi 
Be TO irXelcTTOv e'^' dpjrayrjv tov aTpaTOv Kal 
/jbr}K€Ti TrpoaBexofJievu) f^d^V^ e7r€^y]\6e, BiaBov^ 
BopaTa T(ov vavfjid^f^v pbeydXa toI<; Tre^ot?, /cai 
BiBd^a'i TToppwOev avvTrjpovai iraieiv Tom Kap- 
X'H^oviov^, dK0VTi(TTa<i fiev ovk 6vTa<;, alxfial^ Be 

3 ;^/9(u/iez/ou? eK %ei/909 ^paxeicii<i. Bib Kal BoKovat 
Tore Bel^ai to. vcoTa 'Vco/iaiOL<; bcroi avve/SaXov 
Kal (fivyijv dirpocpdaiaTOV cfivyelv, dTTojSaXovTe^ 
i^ eavTcJv veKpov'; /xev y€vo/j,evov<i irevTaKLaxi^'Xi- 
ov<;, at^/^taX&JTOU? Be e^aKoaiov?,^ Kal T(»iv e\e- 
(f)dvTO)v Teaaapa<i fiev TreaovTa^, Bvo Be ^coov<i 
dX6vTa<i. b 3' ^v ixeyiCTTOV, rjfiepa TpiTr) fxeTa 
Tr]v fidxV^ iTTTrel'i 'l^yjptoi' Kal No/U.aS(yi^ paydBe^ 
avTO/xoXovcTiv virep tov<; TpiaKO(Xiov<i, ovtto) irpo- 
Tepov ^Avvi^a tovto iradovTO^, dW e« ttolkiKwv 
Kal TToXvTpoTTWV (Tvvrjpfxoafievov eOvwv ^ap^api- 

^ alxi^a.\wTovs Si i^oKOffiovs added to the text by Sintenis 
and Bekker, after Livy, xxiii. 46, 4. 

464 



I 



MARCELLUS, xii. 1-3 

consuls,^ the people called Marcellus home to succeed 
him, and, in spite of the magistrates, postponed the 
election until his return from the army. He was 
made consul by a unanimous vote, but there was a 
peal of thunder at the time, and since the augurs 
considered the omen unpi-o})itious, but hesitated to 
make open opposition for fear of the people, he re- 
nounced the office of himself He did not, however, 
lay aside his military command, but having been 
declared proconsul, he returned to his army at Nola 
and proceeded to punish those who had espoused the 
cause of the Carthaginian. And when Hannibal came 
swiftly to their aid against him, and challenged him 
to a pitched battle, Marcellus declined an engage- 
ment ; but as soon as his adversary had set the greater 
part of his army to plundering and was no longer 
expecting a battle, he led his forces out against him. 
He had distributed long spears used in naval combats 
among his infantry, and taught them to watch their 
opportunity and smite the Carthaginians at long 
range ; these were not javelineers, but used short 
spears in hand to hand fighting. This seems to have 
been the reason why at that time all the Cartha- 
ginians who were engaged turned their backs upon 
the Romans and took to unhesitating flight, losing 
five thousand of their number slain, and six hundred 
prisoners ; four of their elephants also were killed, 
and two taken alive. But what was most important, 
on the third day after the battle, more than three 
hundred horsemen, composed of Spaniards and Nu- 
midians, deserted from them. Such a disaster had 
not happened before this to Hannibal, but a barbarian 
army made up of varied and dissimilar peoples had 

' Lucius Postumius, who was utterly defeated and slain 
by the Gauls in 215 B.o. Cf. Livy, xxiii. 24. 

465 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Kov (TTpdrevfMa irXeicrrov ')^p6pop ev fiia yvco/j.r) 
Sia(f>vXd^avTo<;. ovtol /xev ovv tticttoI Trapefieivav 
ei<? UTTav avTU) re tu) MapK€Wa> Koi T0t9 /Lter' 
avTOv (nparrj^ol^. 

XIII. 'O he ^dpKeWo<i diroSeix^^l'^ v7raTo<; 
TO rpirov et? ^iKeXiav eTrXevaev. ai yap ^Avvl- 
/3ov irept rov iroXe/xov evirpa^lac Kap-^rjSoi'iov^ 
errrjpav avOi'i dvTiXa/M^dveadai t^? vi'^aov, fid- 
Xiara Terapay/xevcov tmv irepi rd<; XvpaKovaa<i 
fieTo, Ttjv 'lepcopv/jLov rov Tvpdvvov TeXeury'jv. 
Bio fcal 'VwixaioiV rjv eKsl tt poaTreaTaXfievr) hvva- 

2 ^49 Kol <TTpaTrjyo<; "A.Tnrio'i. TavTt]v irapaXap.- 
^dvovTL TO) M^apKeXXw irpocnrl'TrTOvai Pa)/j,aioc 
TToXXol (7VfM(f)opa Ke^pr]p,ivoL ToiavTTj. tmv rrepl 
K.dvva^ Trapara^a/jLevcov tt/oo? Avvi^av ol fiev 
€(j)vyov, 01 Be ^coj^Te? ■ijXwaav, roaovTov irXtjOo^ 
0)9 BoKelv 'Pcofiaioi'i v7roXeXei(p6ai fiijBe T0119 xa 

3 reixv Bia(f)vXd^ovTa<i. Tot9 Be dpa roaovro tov 
<ppovr]/jLaTo<i Koi fxeyaXoylrv^LWi Trepirjv ware tov<; 
fiev ai)(/jLaX(OT0v<i eVl fiiKpoi<; XvTpoi<; d7roBcB6uTo<; 

AvvtlBov fXT) Xa/Selv, dXX d7royjrr](f)LaaaOat koI 
TTepiiBelv Toi'9 /xet- dvaipedevra^, T01/9 Be irpadev- 
Ta9 e^o) T779 'lTa\ta9, Tcof Be (f>vy^ irepiyevofxevoiv 
TO 7TXrjOo<; 6i9 ^LKeXiav aTroaTelXai, BtUKeXevaa- 
fjLevovi iTaXtat fxr] eiTL^aiveiv e&)9 TroXefiovai 

4 7r/909 ^ hvvi^av. ovtol Bi] tw MapKeXXco irapa- 
yevo^evu) TrpoaTreaovTef ddpoot, kuI '^^a/j.al kutu- 
j3aX6vTe<; avT0v<i, tjtovv Td^iv eTriTi/xov aTpaTeia<i 
IxeTo. TToXXrj'i ^or)^ koi BaKpvwv, eirayyeXXofievoi 
Bei^eiv Bi epycov utv^lu tlvL /xdXXov rj Bi dvav- 

466 



MARCELLUS, xii. 3-xiii. 4 

for a very long time been kept by him in perfect 
harmony. These deserters, then, remained entirely 
faithful both to Marcellus himself, and to the generals 
who succeeded him.' 

XIII. And now Marcellus, having been appomted 
consul for the third time,^ sailed to Sicily. For 
Hannibal's successes in the war had encouraged the 
Carthaginians to attempt anew the conquest of the 
island, especially now that Syracuse was in confusion 
after the death of the tyrant Hieronymus. For this 
reason the Romans also had previously sent a force 
thither under the command of Appius. As Marcellus 
took over this force, he was beset by many Romans 
who were involved in a calamity now to be described. 
Of those who had been drawn up against Hannibal 
at Cannae, some had fled, and others had been taken 
alive, and in such numbers that it was thought the 
Romans had not even men enough left to defend 
the walls of their city. And yet so much of their 
high spirit and haughtiness remained that, although 
Hannibal offered to restore his prisoners of war for 
a slight ransom, they voted not to receive them, but 
suffered some of them to be put to death and others 
to be sold out of Italy ; and as for the multitude 
who had saved themselves by flight, they sent them 
to Sicily, ordering them not to set foot in Italy as 
long as the war against Hannibal lasted.^ These 
were the men who, now that Marcellus was come, 
beset him in throngs, and throwing themselves on 
the ground before him, begged with many cries 
and tears for an assignment to honourable military 
service, promising to show by their actions that their 

1 Cf. Livy, xxiii. 46, 1-7. 

• In 214 B.C. Fabius Maximus was his colleague. 

=» Cf. Livy, xxiii. 25, 7. 

467 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



I 



hpiav avTMV ttjv rpoTrijv €K€ivr]v 'yevofievrjv. 
0iKT€ipa<i ovv avToi)^ 6 MdpKeWo^ eypayjre tt/oo? 
rrjv (TvyK\7]rov abTOvp,evo<i e'/c tovtcov ael Trj<; 
5 (TrpaTca<; to eirCKei-nov avairXripovv. \6ycov oe 
TToWcov yevop,evwv eTVOLi'^craro yvoop^rjv rj ^ov\r] 
fxrjSev 619 hrjfjioaia Trpdy/xara helcrOat, VcopaLov^ 
dvOpoiTTcov dvdvhpwv el he /SovXctui ')(^pi]cf6aL 
M.dpKeWo<i avToU t'cro)?, p,7}8evo<i rwv eir uvhpeia 
vop,i^o/j.evo)v crre(f>dva}v Kal yepojv Tvxeiv vrr 
dpxovTO'i. rovTo TO Soyfia MdpxeXXov i^vtaae, 
Kal fxeTO, TOP ev '%iKe\ia TToXepov eTraveXOoov 
efxefi'^aTo ttjv /BovXtjp, cb? uvtI ttoWcov kul fieya- 
Xcov ov TrapacT'^ova-av avTW ToaovTcov hvcTTvyiav 
e7ravop6d)(Taadat ttoXltmv. 

XIV. Tore S' ev SiKeXia frpwTOV /xev dSiKtjdel'i 
viro 'iTTTro/cpaTOf? ^vpaKovaiwv (TTpaTrjyov, 09 
l^ap-vrihoviOi<i ')(^api^6fj,evo<i kcu TVpavviha ktco- 
fxevo'i avT& TroXXov<; Siecfideipe 'Ycopaicov irpo^ 
A.eovTivot<i, etXe ^ ttjv tmv AeovTivcov ttoXiv kutu 
KpdTo<i, KoX KeovTivov^ fxev ovk •^SUrja-e, tmv he 
avTop,6X(ov oaov^ eXaySe jxaaTLydxja^ direKTeive. 

2 Tov 8' 'IinroKpdTOV^ TrpwTov fiev Xoyov ei<? ra? 
'S.vpaKovcra'i 'jrpoireiJi-^avTO<i wf KeovTivov<i 7)^t]Bov 
d7Toacf)dTTei MdpKeXXo^, eireiTa he TeTUpayp^evoL^ 
iTTcrrecrovTO'i koL ttjv ttoXlv KaTaXaj36vTO<i, dpa<; 
6 lS/ldpKeXXo<i tS> (TTpaTW ttuvtI irpos ra? Iivpa- 
K0vaa<i e%ft)/?6i. Kal KaTaaTpaTovreheuaa'? ttXtj- 
aiov elceTTcp-y^e p.ev 7rpea^ei<; irepl twv ev AeovTi- 
voi<; hihd^ovTa^;, o)? he ovhev rjv 6(peXo^ prj -TTeiOo- 
fievcov SvpaKOva-iwv {eKpdTOVv yap ol irepl tov 

3 'linroKpdT'qv), 7rpocr^oXd<; eTTOietTO KaTO, yijv dpa 

• elAe with Reiske and Coraes : . . . Ka\ eT\e, the lacuna to 
be filled from Livy xxiv. 30, 1. 

468 



MARCELLUS, xiii. 4-xiv. 3 

former defeat had been due to some great misfortune 
rather than to cowai-dice. Marcellus, therefore, 
taking pity on them, wrote to the senate asking 
permission to fill up the deficiencies in his army 
from time to time with these men. But after much 
discussion the senate declared its opinion that the 
Roman commonwealth had no need of men who 
were cowards ; if, however, as it appeared, Marcellus 
wished to use them, they were to receive from their 
commander none of the customary crowns or prizes 
for valour. This decree vexed Marcellus, and when 
he came back to Rome after the war in Sicily, he 
upbraided the senate for not permitting him, in 
return for his many great services, to redeem so 
many citizens from misfortune. 

XIV. But in Sicily, at the time of which I speak, 
his first proceeding, after wrong had been done him by 
Hippocrates, the commander of the Syracusans (who, 
to gratify the Carthaginians and acquire the tyranny 
for himself, had killed many Romans at Leontini), 
was to take the city of Leontini by storm. He did 
no harm, however, to its citizens, but all the de- 
serters whom he took he ordered to be beaten with 
rods and put to death. Hippocrates first sent a 
report to Syracuse that Marcellus was putting all 
the men of Leontini to the sword, and then, when 
the city was in a tumult at the news, fell suddenly 
upon it and made himself master of it. Upon this, 
Marcellus set out with his whole army and came to 
Syracuse. He encamped near by, and sent ambas- 
sadors into the city to tell the people what had 
really happened at Leontini ; but when this was of 
no avail and the Syracusans would not listen to him, 
the power being now in the hands of Hippocrates, 
he proceeded to attack the city by land and sea, 

469 

VOL. V Q 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Kal Kara OdXarrav, 'Attttioi/ fiev rov ire^ov fTrd- 
yovTO<; (TTparov, avTO'i Be tt evTrj pei<s €')(ot)v e^rjKovra 
TTavjohaTTWV ottXcov koI QeXoiv ■jrXrjpei'^. virep 5e 
/jbeydXov ^evy/xaro^ veoii oktw irph^ dXXr}Xa<i aw- 
SeSe/xevwi' ixriy^avrji' dpa< fTreTrXei Trpo? to T6t^o?, 
Tu> 7rX)]0ei Kal rfj Xa/jLTrpoTrjTi tt}? wapaaKevy^; 
Kal rfj So^T) TTj irepl avrov TT6TToi9(o<i' J79 cipa 
X6yo<; ovSelii r)v \p\iiJ.r)heL Kal toI^ Apx^^/J-V^ov; 

4 /j,i])f^av7]/u,aaiv. a)v a)<> fxev epyov d^iov cnrovoi)^; 
ovhev o dvrjp Trpovdero, j€(i)/x€Tpia<i Be Trat^oi/cr?;? 
eyeyovei Trdpepya la TrXelara, irporepov (fiiXort- 
pLrjOevro's ']ep(vvo<i rov ^aaiXi(i)<s Kai TretaavTO^ 
^ Ap-^ifj^rjSr) Tpeyfrat tl t?}? le'Xyr)^ diTQ 7oi)V votjtwv 
eirl rd (Tw/xaTLKa Kal rov Xoyov a/iw? ye 7r&)<? Bi' 
alaOr](TeQ)<i fxi^avra ral's ;\;petat9 efKpavecrrepoi' 
Karaarrjaai toI<; ttoXXoI'^. 

5 Trjv yap dyaTrco/xei'rjv Tavrrjv Kal irepi^orjrov 
opyaviKrjV fjp^avro fiev Kivelv 01 rrepl FjvBo^ov Kal 

Apyvrav, TroiKiX\ovre<i rw yXacpvpcp yewfxerpiav, 
Kal XoyiKri<; Kal ypafx/jbiKri<; dir ohei^e(o<i ovk eviro- 
povvra TTpo^Xy'jfxara 81 aladijrwv Kal opyaviKwv 
TrapaheiyixdTwv virepeihovre^, co? to trepl hvo fxe- 
aa<i dvd Xoyov TTp6l3\r]/j,a Kal aTOL')(^elov eVt ttoX- 
Xd TMv ypa(^Ofxev(i)v uvayKalov et? opyaviKa<; 
e^Yjyov dfMcjiOTepoc KaraaKevd^, fJbeaoypa(J30V<; Tiva<i 
diTo KafiTTvXtov ypa/x/jLMv Kal rfiy-jfxdTcov fxeOapiio- 

6 ^ovTe<i' eVei 8e HXdrcov rjyavdKT7](Te Kal 8ieT€i- 
varo TTpo? auTOV'i &)? diroXXvvTa'i Kal oia<puei- 
povTa<i TO yeco/xerpia'^ dyaOov, dirb row daMfiarwv 



1 See chapter xv. 3. According to Polybius (viii. 6). 
Marcellus had eight quiiiqueremes in pairs, and on each 
pair, lashed together, a "sambuca" (or harp) had been 

470 



MARCELLUS, xiv. 3-6 

Appius leading up the land forces, and he himself 
having a Heet of sixty quinqueremes filled with all 
sorts of arms and missiles. Moreover, he had 
erected an engine of artillery on a huge platform 
supported by eight galleys fastened together,^ and 
with this sailed up to the city wall, confidently rely- 
ing on the extent and splendour of his equipment 
and his own great fame. But all this proved to be 
of no account in the eyes of Archimedes and in 
comparison with the engines of Archimedes. To 
these he had by no means devoted himself as work 
worthy of his serious effort, but most of them were 
mere accessories of a geometry practised for amuse- 
ment, since in bygone days Hiero the king had 
eagerly desired and at last persuaded him to turn 
his art somewhat from abstract notions to material 
things, and by applying his philosophy somehow to 
the needs which make themselves felt, to render 
it more evident to the common mind. 

For the art of mechanics, now so celebrated and 
admired, was first originated by Eudoxus and 
Archytas, who embellished geometry with its subt- 
leties, and gave to problems incapable of proof by 
word and diagram, a support derived from mechani- 
cal illustrations that were patent to the senses. For 
instance, in solving the problem of finding two mean 
proportional lines, a necessary requisite for many 
geometrical figures, both mathematicians had re- 
course to mechanical arrangements, adapting to 
their purposes certain intermediate portions of 
curved lines and sections. But Plato was incensed 
at this, and inveighed against them as corrupters 
and destroyers of the pure excellence of geometry, 

constructed. This was a penthouse for raising armed men 
on to the battlements of the besieged city. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Kal vorjTcov ciTToSiSpaaKOvcn]^ eVt ra aladiird, 
Kol TT/ooo-^^pw/ieV?;? av6i<i av aa)/xacn ttoXX?}? kql 
(f)opTCKr]<; ^avavaovpyiWi Seofievofi, outco hieKpWr) 
y€a)/ji€Tpia<; iKTiecrovaa piri-)(^aviici], Kai ireptopo)- 
fievr] iroXvv y_p6vov vtto ^i\ocro<^La<i fiia tmv 
(jrpaTLWTihoyv rexvoiv ijeyovei. 

7 Kal fievTOi Kal 'Apxt/J-V^Vi' 'lepcovt tw ^aaiXel 
crvyyevr]'^ mv Kal (f)i\o<i, eypayp-ev co? t^ BoOeLa-rj 
8vvdfjL€i TO Sodev l3dpo<; Kivrjaai hvvarov ecrrr 306 
Kal veavievadfievo'i, m <paai, pdof^j) t% d-TTohei- 
feftx? eiirev cw?, et yrjv elx^^ erepav, iKLvrjaev av 

8 TavTTjv jxeTajBa^ el<i eKelvrjv. 6avp,daavTo<; Se rov 
'lepcDVO^, Kal herjOevTo^ eU epjov i^ayayelv ro 
TTpo^Xrifxa Kal hel^al n tmv fieyaXoyv Kivov/xevov 
VTTO cr/jLiKpas Svvdfji,€Ci)<;, oXkuSu rpidp^ievov tmv 
^acrikiKOiV irovw fieyaXo) Kal X^'-P^ ■jroWfj vewX- 
Krjdelaav, ip.j3aXwv dvOpdairovi re ttoXXov; /cat 
Tov avv7]0r] ^oprov, avTO<i dirwOev KaOi^fievo^, ov 
fiera a7TOu8r]<;, dXXd rjpe/jia Trj %6ipt aeiwv dpxvv 
Tiva TToXvcTTrdcrrov "jrpoarjydyeTO Xetca Kai aiTTai- 

9 o-T&)9 Kal axTTrep Sid daXdTTr]<i eiriOeovaav. eK- 
TrXayeU ovv 6 /Sao-tXeu? Kal avvvo^cra^; Tr]<; rexi'V^ 
T7JV Svva/JLLV, eTTeiae rov 'Apxt^M^V^ ottw? avrw 
rd fiev d/jLVvo/jbevcp, rd 8' eTTLX^Lpovvn p.t]xav7]- 
/jiara KaraaKCvdarj tt/oo? irdaav IBiav iro\LopKia<s, 
oh avro<i fiev ovk ixPW^'^°> '^^^ ^iov ro irXelarov 
uTToXe/jiOV Kal iravriyvpiKov /3iwo-a?, rore S' vrrripx^ 
roL<; XvpaKovcrioa et? Beov rj irapaaKev-q Kal fiera 
rrj<; 7rapaaKevr]<; 6 Brjp.iovpyo'i. 



472 



MARCELLUS, xiv. 6-9 

which thus turned her back upon the incorporeal 
things of abstract thought and descended to the things 
of sense, making use, moreover, of objects which re- 
(juired much mean and manual labour. For this reason 
mechanics was made entirely distinct from geometry, 
and being for a long time ignored by philosophers, 
came to be regarded as one of the military arts. 

And yet even Archimedes, who was a kinsman 
and friend of King Hiero, wrote to him that with 
any given force it was possible to move any given 
weight ; and emboldened, as we are told, by the 
strength of his demonstration, he declared that, if 
there were another world, and he could go to it, he 
could move this. Hiero was astonished, and begged 
him to put his proposition into execution, and show 
him some great weight moved by a slight force. 
Archimedes therefore fixed upon a three-masted 
merchantman of the royal fleet, which had been 
dragged ashore by the great labours of many men, 
and after putting on board many passengers and the 
customary freight, he seated himself at a distance 
from her, and without any great effort, but quietly 
setting in motion with his hand a system of com- 
pound pulleys, drew her towards him smoothly and 
evenly, as though she were gliding through the 
water. Amazed at this, then, and comprehending 
the power of his art, the king persuaded Archimedes 
to prepare for him offensive and defensive engines 
to be used in every kind of siege warfare. These 
he had never used himself, because he spent the 
greater part of his life in freedom from war and 
amid the festal rites of peace ; but at the present 
time his apparatus stood the Syracusans in good 
stead, and, with the apparatus, its fabricator.^ 

^ Cf. Polybius, viii. 5, 3-5 ; 9, 2 ; Livy, xxiv. 34. 

473 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XV, n? ovv rrpoae^aXov ol ' Pa) fxaloi hixoOev, 
eKTrXij^tq tfv tmv XvpaKovatcov Kal atyr) 8ia 8eo?, 
/jLTj8ev av dvOe^eiv tt^o? /Bluv kuI 8vua/xcv oloixevwv 
roaavrriv. a^dcravro^ Be TO.'i /u.yjxai'd^; rov 'Ap^( - 
titjSov^ a/jLa TOt<? fxeu Tre^ois ciTTijvTa To^ev/xard re 
TravTooaira Kal \l6o3v vTrepoy/ca fxeyedrj, poL^w 
Kal rd^ei Karatfiepo/jLiucov dirLaTU), Kal /j,'t]S6v6<; 
oA,&)9 TO 0plOo<i areyovTO^ dOpoovi dvarpeTTovTCov 
Tou? v7ro7rL7rTovTa<i Kal ra? xa^ei? avy^eovTcov, 

2 Tal<i he vavalv diro rwv Tef^cov d(j)i'(i) vTrepaicopov- 
fjLevai Kepaiai rd'; /xev vtto ^plOov^ arrjpit^ovTO^ 
dv(o9ev (hOovaai Karehuov el<i /3v06v, Ta^ Se X6/9cri 
aiSrjpal^ ?; aTu/xaaii' eiKacr fxevoL^; yepdvcov dva- 
cTTTcoaai. TTpoypaOev opOwi eirl irpv/xvav i^diTTi^ov, 
i) St' dvTirovwv evhov €7n(np6cf>6fjL€vat Kal Trepiayo- 
fjLevaL Tolf VTTO TO Tet;^o? rrec^vKoai Kpyp.vot'i Kai 
crKOTre\oi<; vpoatjpaaauv, d/xa (pdopw ttoWw tmv 

3 eirt^aroiv avvTpL^ofxevwv. iroXXaKif; Se fxeTecopo^ 
e^apdelaa vav<i diro tt)? BaXdacn]^ Sevpo KUKelae 
TreptSivovfjLevT) Kal Kpefxapbivr] 6ea/j,a (ppiKchhe^; rjv, 
/xe'^pi ov tS)v dvhpoiv uTToppi^evTOdv Kal Stacrcpev- 
hovrjdevTwv Kevrj irpoaTreaoL Totf rei^ecTLv rj irepi- 
oXicrdot, Ti}? \a/3i]<i dveLa>]<i. rjv he o Ma/)«;eWo9 
d-TTQ TOv ^evyparo'i eiri^ye /jLtj-^avqv, aafx^vKt] /xev 
eKaXeiTo St' 6p,oi6TrjTd riva a')(^i]p,aro<; Trpo? to 

4 fiovaiKov opyavov, en he ciTTcoOev aur/}? irpoa- 
(pepo/xipy]^ irpo'i to T6t;^o? e^rjXaTO XlOo^ hcKard- 



474 



MARCELLUS, xv. 1-4 

XV. When, therefore, the Romans assaulted them 
by sea and land, the Syracusans were stricken dumb 
with terror ; they thought that nothing could with- 
stand so furious an onset by such forces. But 
Archimedes began to ply his engines, and shot 
against the land forces of the assailants all sorts of 
missiles and immense masses of stones, which came 
down with incredible din and speed ; nothing what- 
ever could ward off their weight, but they knocked 
down in heaps those who stood in their way, and 
threw their ranks into confusion. At the same time 
liuge beams were suddenly projected over the ships 
from the walls, which sank some of them with great 
weights plunging down from on high ; others were 
seized at the prow by iron claws, or beaks like the 
beaks of cranes, drawn straight up into the air, and 
then plunged stern foremost into the depths, or 
were turned round and round by means of enginery 
within the city, and dashed upon the steep cliffs that 
jutted out beneath the wall of the city, with gi'eat 
destruction of the fighting men on board, who 
perished in the wrecks. Frequently, too, a ship 
would be lifted out of the water into mid-air, whirled 
hither and thither as it hung there, a dreadful spec- 
tacle, until its crew had been thrown out and hurled 
in all directions, when it would fall empty upon the 
walls, or slip away from the clutch that had held 
it. As for the engine which Marcellus was bringing 
up on the bridge of ships, and which was called 
" sambuca " from some resemblance it had to the 
musical instrument of that name,^ while it was still 
some distance off" in its approach to the wall, a stone 
of ten talents' weight- was discharged at it, then a 



' See chapter xiv. 3. 

* A talent's weight was something over fifty pounds. 



475 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

\avro^ oXkijv, elra €repo<; eVt tovtw koX T/otro?, 
iav oi jxev ainfj^ e^ireaovre'i fMejdXcp ktvttm kuI 
kXvScovl Tr}<i /u,i]')(^avr]<; t>'jv re ^uctlv avvrfkoi^aav 
Kal TO 'y6/ji(f)(0fxa Sieaeiaav koX SieaTraaav tov 
^euy/jLaro<i, axrre^ tov M.dpKeWoi/ drropovixevov 
avTov re Tat<i vavcrlv dvoiTXelv Kara rdyo<; Kal 
Tot<? Tre^oi<; ava'^^oopTjaw TrapeyyvrjaaL. 

5 HovXevofievoa Se eSo^ev avrol<i en vvKro'i, av 
Svvcovrai, TTpoapZ^ai roi? rei'xecn' rov<; yap ro- 
vov<;, ol<; ■)(pr]a6ai rov \\.p-^Lp.i)ht]v, pvprjv ey^ovra<i 
vTrep7rerel<i TroijjaeaOat rd<; rcov ^eXwv dc^eaei'i, 
iyyvOei' Be Kal reXeco^ aTTpaKrov; elvai hidarrjpa 
rfj^ rrX-qyr)^ ovK exovcrr)<;. 6 3' yv, to? eoiKev, iirl 
ravra iraXai TrapecxKevacr p.evo'i opydvwv re avppe- 
rpovq Trpo'i rrdv Sidarrjpa Kii'ijaei'i Kal /SeXrj 
/Spa^ea, Kal Sid rb rel'XP'i ^ ov /xeydXcov, ttoXXmv 
8e Kal (Tvve'x^wv rpi]p,dr(OP ovrcou,^ o'l aKoprrioi 
^pa-^vrovoL p,ev, e77u^ej> 8e TrXrj^ai Txapear-qKeaav 
doparoi rot? rroXepiioL^. 

XVI. fi? ovv Trpoaepi^av olopeuoi XavOdveiv, 
avda av ^eXeai 7roXXot<; evrvy)(^dvovre<i Kal irX}]- 
yal^, TTerpoiv p^ev eK Ke(^aXrj<^ eir' avrov<i (f)epo- 
p,eva)v wairep 7rp6<; Kaderov, rov he rel^ovi ro^ev- 30' 
p,ara rravra-XpOev dva7Tep,7rovro<;, dvex^ypovv oiri- 

2 (TO). Kavravda ttoXiv avroiv el<i prjKO^ eKrera- 
yp.evQ)v, ^eXcov eKdeovrwv Kal Kara\ap^av6vrcov 
d'TTiovTa<i eyLvero 7ToXv<i p,€v avrcov (f)66po<;, iroXv^ 
8e roiv veSiv auyKpovap^o^;, ovBev dvrtSpdcrai Toi)? 
TToXeplov; Bvvapevcov. rd yap irXeicrra roiv 6p- 

^ avTT] Bekker, after Coraes : out^j {of (he engine itself). 

^ a-o-re before this word Sintenis* and Bekker assume a 
lacuna in the text, comparing Polybius, viii. l,fn. 

* Th Te7xos, ovTcov added to the text by Sintenis, who 
compares Polybius viii. 7, 6. 



MARCELLUS, xv. 4-xvi. 2 

second and a third ; some of these, falHng upon it 
with great din and surge of wave, crushed the 
foundation of the engine, shattered its frame-work, 
and dislodged it from the phitform, so that Marcellus, 
in perplexity, ordered his ships to sail back as fast 
as they could, and his land forces to retire. 

Then, in a council of war, it was decided to come 
up under the walls while it was still night, if they 
could ; for the ropes which Archimedes used in his 
engines, since they imparted great impetus to the 
missiles cast, would, they thought, send them flying 
over their heads, but would be ineffective at close 
quarters, where there was no space for the cast. 
Archimedes, however, as it seemed, had long before 
prepared for such an emergency engines with a range 
adapted to any interval and missiles of short flight, 
and through many small and contiguous openings in 
the wall short-range engines called scorpions could 
be brought to bear on objects close at hand without 
being seen by the enemy. 

XVI. When, therefore, the Romans came up under 
the walls, thinking themselves unnoticed, once more 
they encountered a great storm of missiles ; huge 
stones came tumbling down upon them almost per- 
pendicularly, and the wall shot out arrows at them 
from every point ; they therefore retired. And here 
again, when they were some distance off, missiles 
darted forth and fell upon them as they were going 
away, and there was a great slaughter among them ; 
many of their ships, too, were dashed together, and 
they could not retaliate in any way upon their foes. 
For Archimedes had built most of his engines close 

477 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

yavoiv vTTo to T€l')(^o<i eaicevoTroLrjTo tq) Ap'^i/j.ijBec, 
>cal Qeo^a^ovaiv ewKeaav ol Pco/xatot, ^vpioov 
avTol^ Katccau e^ d(f)avov<; eTTi-^eoixevoyv. 

XVIL Oil /ji7]U dXX' o MdpK€\\o<; aTTecfivye re 
Kai T0U9 cTvv eavro) aKcoTncov Te^viraf; aal fxi]- 
Xavo-rroLoij^ eXeyev " Ov rravaofjieOa Trpo? tov 
y€0)/ji€T piKou TovTOv Bpiupecof TToXep^ovvTa, 0? 
Tat? p-kv vavcrlv ' r)p,(ov KvaOi^ei eK t?}? 8aXdcrcr7]<;, 
rijv Se oajx^vKrjv pairl^cov ^ p.€7 aLa)(vv7]<; e/t/9e- 
0Xr]K€, Tov's 8e ixvdiKOv<i €KaT6y)^eipa<i virepaipei 

2 Toaaura f^dXXcoi> ap.a ^eXrj Kad' rjixwv ; " toi 
yap ovri vdvT€<; oi Xocirol ^vpaKOvacoi aiop,a Trj<; 
' Ap-)(ilx-q8ov^ TTapacTKevrj^ vjaav, >) 8e Kivovaa 
irdvTa Koi (npecf)Ovcra \ffv)(i] p,ia, tcov p.ev dXXcou 
ottXmv uTpepia /ceip^evcov, p.ovoi<; he toI<; eKeivou 
TOTe t?)? TToXe&JS ^pct)p.€V7]<f Kul 7rp6<\ dp,vvav kuI 

3 7rpo<f dcT^dXeiav. reXo^ Be TOv<i Pcop-alov<; ovtcd 
■Trepi(f)60ov<i yeyov6ra<; opcov 6 MdpKeXXo<i wcrr' , el 
KaXwhiov i) ^vXov vTvep tov rei^ovi pLLKpov 6(pOeiJ] 
irporeivop^vov, tovto eKelvo, ixr]-yavr)V rtva Kivelv 
eV avTOv<i ^ Ap)(^t fM^Srj /Booyvraq dTTOTpeireaOaL koI 
(f)6vy€iv, aTTea^cTO jid'^^rj'^ diTdari<^ Kal 7rpoa^oXrj<;, 
TO XoiTTov eTTL Tw -)(p6v(p TTjv TToXtopKiav Be/jievo<i. 

Tr)XiKovrov p.€vroi (ppovr/fia Kal ^d6o<i -v/ru^?}? 
Kol Toaovrov e/ce«T7/T0 Oecopi^pbaTcov ttXovtov 
^Ap^ip.i'ihrj^; wcne, ecp' oi? ovofjia Kal So^av ovk 
dvOpwnivt'i'i, d\Xd haLfxoviov riv6<i ecr%e (rvvicreax;, 

4 p,r)Oeu iOeXfjcrai avyypap.p.a irepl tovtmv aTTO- 
Xtireiv, dXXd ttjv irepl to, firj^aviKa ■npayp.aTe'tav 
Kal irdaav 6Xct)<; Te')(yi^v T^peta? e(f)a7nop.€V7]v 

• ToZs ,u6r vaii(r\v . . . pairi(wv An early anonymous correction 
of the MSS. Taj fxeu vavs Sifxiuv Ka9l(ui' irphs t^v QaKaaaav 
nal^wv, adopted by Bekker. Cf Polybius, viii. 8, 6. 

478 



MARCELLUS, xvi. 2-xvii. 4 

behind the wall, and the Romans seemed to be 
fighting against the gods, now that countless mis- 
chiefs were poured out upon them from an invisible 
source. 

XVII. However, Marcellus made his escape, and 
jesting with his own artificers and engineers, " Let 
us stop," said he, "fighting against this geometrical 
Briareus, who uses our ships like cups to ladle water 
from the sea, and has whipped and driven off in dis- 
grace our sambuca, and with the many missiles 
which he shoots against us all at once, outdoes the 
hundred-handed monsters of mythology." For in 
reality all the rest of the Syracusans were but a 
body for the designs of Archimedes, and his the one 
soul moving and managing everything ; for all other 
weapons lay idle, and his alone were then employed 
by the city both in offence and defence. At last the 
Romans became so fearful that, whenever they saw 
a bit of rope or a stick of timber projecting a little 
over the wall, " There it is," they cried, " Archimedes 
is training some engine upon us," and turned their 
backs and fled. Seeing this, Marcellus desisted from 
all fighting and assault, and thenceforth depended 
on a long siege. 

And yet Archimedes possessed such a lofty spirit, 
so profound a soul, and such a wealth of scientific 
theory, that although his inventions had won for 
him a name and fame for superhuman sagacity, he 
would not consent to leave behind him any treatise 
on this subject, but regarding the work of an engi- 
neer and every art that ministers to the needs of 
life as ignoble and vulgar, he devoted his earnest 

479 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ayevvri kuI ^dvavaov rj'yqadfievo^, 619 eKelva 
Karadeadat fxova t^j/ avrov (f)LXoTifiiau ol? to 
Kokov Kol TrepiTTOv dfMLye<; rov dvayKalov nrpoa- 
eariv, davyKpira fjuev ovra TOt? aXkoi^, epiv Se 
irapexovra tt/jo? rr]V vXrjv r^ dirohei^ei, T7j<i fiev 
TO jxeyeOo'i koX to «aX\o9, t?}? he rrjv aKpi^eiav 

5 Ka\ rrjv Svvafiiv V7rep<^vrj irapexofJievTj'i' ou yap 
eariv ev yeoyfierpla j^^aXeirwrepa'^ koX ^apvTepa<^ 
vTTodeaei^ ev cnr\ovarepoi<; Xa/Seiv koI KaOapw- 
Tepoi'i aroiX^ioL^ ypacf)op,€va^. Kal rovO' 01 fiev 
€U(f)uta Tov dvSpo<i TrpoaaTTTOvaiv, ol he vTrep^oXfj 
rivt iTovov vofil^ouaiv dirovco^ iren-oirifxevw Kal 
paSiax; eKaarov eoiKO<i yeyovevai. ^rjrojv fxev yap 
ovK dv Ti9 evpoL Si avTov ttjv dirohei^iv, d/ma Be 
rfi jxaOrjcrei irapiaraTai ho^a tov kclv avTov 
evpelv ouTQ) Xetav 686v dyet^ Kal Tayeiav eiri to 

6 BeiKVUfievov. ovkovv ovSe dfTLcnrjcrai TOt? irepi 
auTOv Xeyofievoi<i eaTtv, 0)9 vtt' oiKeia<; Bij Ti,vo<i 
Kol avvoLKOv OeXyofievo^ dei aeLprivo<i eXeXrjaTO 
Kal aiTOv ^ Kal 6epa'neia<; acofiaTO'; e^eXenre, /3ta 
8e TToXXaKL'i eXKo/ievc; eV dXeifi/jia Kal XovTpov, 
ev Tat9 ea-)(^dpai<; eypacpe (T^rjfiaTa tcov yeco/xeTpi- 
KOiv, Kal TOV crco/xaTO<i dXifXifxixevov Bifp/e tw 
BaKTvXw ypa/jLfjLd<;, vtto 7]Bovri'i /j.eydXrj'i KdTOXO'i 

7 o)v Kal fiovcroXTjTTTO^ dXr)d(t)<;. TToXXayv Be Kat 
KaXoov evp6Tr]<; yeyov(jo<i XeyeTai, twv (J)lXo)v Ber)- 
drjvai Kal to)v crvyyevcjv 07r(U9 avTOv fxeTa ttjv 
TeXevTTjv eTrc(TTi](7coai tw Ta^eo tov TrepiXapi^av- 
ovTa TTjv ac^alpav evTo<; KvXivBpov, iTnypa-yfravTeii 
TOV Xoyov Trji; inT€po)(^T]<; tov 7repiexovTO<i aTepeov 

TrpO<i TO 7Tepi€'X,0P'iV0V. 

1 &yei Bekker, after Bryan : ^7611^. 

^ Kal airou Bekker has ttcJtou koJ cti'tou (food and drink), a 
suggestion of Coraes. 

480 



MARCELLUS, xvii. 4-7 

efforts only to those studies the subtlety and charm 
of which are not affected by the claims of necessity. 
These studies, he thought, are not to be compared 
with any others ; in them the subject matter vies 
with the demonstration, the former supplying gran- 
deur and beauty, the latter precision and surpassing 
power. For it is not possible to find in geometry 
more profound and difficult questions treated in 
simpler and purer terms. Some attribute this suc- 
cess to his natural endowments ; others think it due 
to excessive labour that everything he did seemed 
to have been performed without labour and with 
ease. For no one could by his own efforts discover 
the proof, and yet as soon as he learns it from himj 
he thinks he might have discovered it himself; so 
smooth and rapid is the path by which he leads one 
to the desired conclusion. And therefore we may not 
disbelieve the stories told about him, how, under the 
lasting charm of some familiar and domestic Siren, 
he forgot even his food and neglected the care of 
his person ; and how, when he was dragged by main 
force, as he often was, to the place for bathing and 
anointing his body, he would trace geometrical 
figures in the ashes, and draw lines with his finger 
in the oil with which his body was anointed, being 
possessed by a great delight, and in very truth a 
captive of the Muses. And although he made many 
excellent discoveries, he is said to have asked his 
kinsmen and friends to place over the grave where 
he should be buried a cylinder enclosing a sphere, 
with an inscription giving the proportion by which 
the containing solid exceeds the contained.^ 

^ When Cicero was quaestor in Sicily (75 B.C.), he found 
this tomb, which had been neglected and forgotten by the 
Svracusans { Tusc. Disp. v. 64 ff. ). 

481 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XVIII. 'Ap'x^i,iu7]S-)]<; fiev ovv T0L0VT0<i 'y€v6/ii€vo<; 
arjTT'qTov eaurov re Kal rrjv ttoXlv, ocrov ecf) 
eavru), Bie(f)v\a^€. t?}? Be TToXiopKia'i Bia fieaov 
MdpKeWo<i elXe fiev Mejapea'i, ttoXcv iv xai? 
TraXaioTaTai'i rwv %iK€\iO)rl8cov, elXe Be to Itt- 3C 
TTOKpaTov; 7rpo<; 'A/c/otA-Xat? aTparoireBov, Kai 
KaT€KT€ivev vrrep oKTaKicfx^tXiov^ eTnirecnav j^a- 
paKa ^aX\,op.evoi<i, eTreBpajxe Be ttoWtjv t?}? 
2i/ceX.ta9 Kal 7roA.6i<? uTrecrTrjae Kapxv^oviwv Kal 
yu.a;^(X? evLKTjae Tracra? TOi'9 avrLTax^^vai, roXfir]- 

2 crafTa?. ^poi'ft) Be nrrpolovTL Adpinnrov riva 
XTrapTiaTTjv e'/c %vpaKovau)V Xa^cov eKirXeovra 
alxP'd.XoiTOv, d^iovvTcov eirl XvTpoi<; tmv l^vpa- 
Kovaiwv KOfitaaadai rov dvBpa, ttoXXuki^ ujrep 
TovTov BiaX€>y6/ji€V0<i Kal (TVVTL6eixevo<i irvp'yov 
Ttva KareaKeyjraTO cfivXaTTO/uievov p.ev a/zeXw?, 
dvBpa<i Be Bvvdfxevov Be^aadai Kpixpa, rov Teixov; 

3 iTTi/Sarov Trap" avTov ovro^. co? ow to re v-^a 
€K Tov TToXXdKif; Trpodievai Kal BiaXeyecrdai npo'i 
Tov 'TTvpyov eiKdaOi] KaXci)<i Kai KXcp-aKe^ irape- 
(TKevdaOrjcrav, eoprr^v ^Apre/xiBi tou9 ^vpaKOvai- 
of? dyovra<; Kal tt/jo? olvov cop/XTj/jLevovi Kal irai- 
Biav '7Tapa(f)uXd^a<;, eXaOev ov povov tov irvpyoi' 
KaTaaxd>v, ctXXd Kal kvkXw to Teixo<i irapep,- 
TrXrjaa'i ottXoov irplv 7]p,epav yevecrdai, Kai, ra 

4 'E^dirvXa BiaK6^a<^. dpxop'ivcov Be Kivetadai 
Kal TapdTTeadai tcov ^vpaKOvaiwv Trpo'i rrjv 
ataOrjaw, dp,a iravTaxoOev Tah (rdXiriy^L XP*!' 
aOai KeXevaa'i (pvyijv eTTOt^^cre ttoXXtjv Kal (po^ov, 
009 ovBevo^ p.epov'i dvaXcoTOU fievovTos. efxeve Be 

482 



I 



MARCELLUS, xviii. 1-4 

XVIII. Such, then, was Archimedes, and, so far as 
he himself was concerned, he maintained himself 
and his city unconquered. But during the progress 
of the siege Marcellus captured Megara, one of the 
most ancient cities of Sicily ; he also captured the 
camp of Hippocrates at Acrillae and killed more 
than eight thousand men, having attacked them as 
they were throwing up entrenchments ; furthermore, 
he overran a great part of Sicily, brought cities over 
from the Carthaginians, and was everywhere vic- 
torious over those who ventured to oppose him. 
Some time afterwards he made a prisoner of a certain 
Damippus, a Spartan who tried to sail away from 
Syracuse. The Syracusans sought to ransom this 
man back, and during the frequent meetings and 
conferences which he held with them about the 
matter, Marcellus noticed a certain tower that was 
carelessly guarded, into which men could be secretly 
introduced, since the wall near it was easy to sur- 
mount. When, therefore, in his frequent approaches 
to it for holding these conferences, the height of the 
tower had been carefully estimated, and ladders had 
been prepared, he seized his opportunity when the 
Syracusans were celebrating a festival in honour of 
Artemis and w^ere given over to wine and sport, and 
before they knew of his attempt not only got pos- 
session of the tower, but also filled the wall round 
about with armed men, before the break of day, and 
cut his way through the Hexapyla. When the Syra- 
cusans perceived this and began to run about con- 
fusedly, he ordered the trumpets to sound on all 
sides at once and thus put them to flight in great 
terror, believing as they did that no part of the city 
remained uncaptured.^ There remained, however. 

1 Cf. Polybius, viii. 37 ; Livy, xxv. 23 f. 

483 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TO KaprepdoraTOv koI KoXkiarov koX fie'yicTTOv 
('A^/oaStt'^ KoXeirai) Bia ro T6T6t%tcr^at Trpo? 
Tr)v e^o) TToXiv, 779 to fxev Neai^, ro he 'Yv')(iiv 
ovo/jid^ovaL. 

XIX. Kai TOVT(i)V i')(^op.evo)v dfia (j>dei, 8ta tmv 
'K^awuXav 6 Mdp/ceXXo^ KaTrjei, /xaKapi^op.evo<; 
UTTO T(t)v v(f)' kavrov rj'yepovwv, avTo<; pevroi 
Xiyerat KUTihoov dvwdev kuI irepiaKe'^dpevo'i Trj<; 
TToXeo)? TO pejeOa koX to KdXXo<; eVl ttoXv 
SaKpvaai tw peXXovri jtveadai avp.iradrjcra'i, 
ivvo7]aa<; olov i^ o'lov a'^rjpa koX p.op^r]v dpeLyjrei 
p,era pbiKpov viro tov arpaTOTriSov hia^opridelaa. 

2 TOiV yap T)yep6v(ov oySet? p,6v rjv 6 roXpoiv evav- 
TiovaOai roi'i aTpari(i)Tai<; aiTOvpevot^; St dp- 
7ra'yrj<i (ti^eXy]9r}vai, iroXXol he Kal TrupiroXeiv koX 
KUTaaKdiTTeiv eKeXevov. dXXa tovtov p,ev ovhe 
o\&)9 7rpo(Ti]KaTO TOV Xoyov M.dpKeXXo<;, pdXa 
he aKwv ^iaaOe\<i ehcoKev dirb ^pj;//aT&)i^ Kal 
dvhpaTTohwv oocpeXetcrdai, twv he eXevOepoov (to)- 
pdTOiV aTreiTrev dylraadai, Kal hieKeXevcraTo p,rjTe 
dTTOKTelvai rwa /x?;t6 ala^vvai prjTe dvhpairo- 
hiaaadai XvpaKouaicov. 

3 Ov p,r]v a}CK.d KatTrep ovtq) peTpidaat h6^a<; 
oiKTpd 7rda")(^€iv jjyeiTo Tr]v iroXiv, Kal to avp- 
iraOovv Kal to avvaXyovv o/xo)? ev ToaovTM peye- 
dei ')(apd<i 1) '^v')(ri hie(f)aiv€V opoivro^ ev /Spa-^el 
'y^povfp 7ToXXr]<; Kal XapTrpd<; dcpavia^ov evhai- 
povia<;. Xeyerai yap ouk eXdrrova tovtov rj tov 
vcnepov diro K.ap')(^t]hovo<i hiacfioprjOevTa ttXovtov 
yeveadai- Kal yap ttjv dXXrjv ttoXlv ov perd 
484 



MARCELLUS, xviii. 4-xix. 3 

the strongest, most beautiful, and larg;est part (called 
Achradina), because it had been fortified on the side 
towards the outer city, one part of which they call 
Neapolis, and another Tyche. 

XIX. When these parts also were in his possession, 
at break of day Marcellus went down into the city 
through the Hexapyla, congratulated by the officers 
under him. He himself, however, as he looked 
down from the heights and surveyed the great and 
beautiful city, is said to have wept much in com- 
miseration of its impending fate, bearing in mind 
how greatly its form and appearance would change 
in a little while, after his army had sacked it. For 
among his officers there was not a man who had the 
courage to oppose the soldiers' demand for a harvest 
of plunder, nay, many of them actually urged that 
the city should be burned and razed to the ground. 
This proposal, however, Marcellus would not tolerate 
at all, but much against his will, and under com- 
pulsion, he permitted booty to be made of property 
and slaves, although he forbade his men to lay 
hands on the free citizens, and strictl}' ordered 
them neither to kill nor outrage nor enslave any 
Syracusan. 

However, although he seems to have acted with 
such moderation, he thought that the city suffered a 
lamentable fate, and amidst the great rejoicing of 
his followers his spirit nevertheless evinced its 
sympathy and commiseration when he saw a great 
and glorious prosperity vanishing in a brief time. 
For it is said that no less wealth was carried away 
from Syracuse now than at a later time from Car- 
thage ; for not long afterwards ^ the rest of the city 

^ In 212 B.C., the siege having lasted nearly three years. " 
Cf. Livy, XXV. 24-31. 

485 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TToX-vv ')(^povov aXovcrav €K 7TpoSocria<; e^idcravro 
SiapTrdaai, irXrjv tmv ^acriXiKMV ^(^pii^dTOjv' 
ravra Se eh to hrjixoaiov e^-ppeOrj. 

4 MttXtcrra he to ' Ap^i/x}]8ov<; Trddo^ rjvlaae 
MdpKeWov. eTv^e fiev yap avr6<; tl Kad^ eavrov 
dvacT/coTTCov eirl BiajpdfM/u.aTO<i' Kal rf) Oewpla 
SeScy/ccbs' a/jia Trjv re Sidvoiav Kal ttjv irpoao'^iv 
ov TTporjadero rrjv KaraSpo/xrjv tcov 'Pcofxaicov 
ov8e rrjv dXcocriv t^? TroXeco^, acfivco Se einardvTO'; 
avTw (TTpaTicoTOv Kal K€\evovTO<; uKoXovOelv 
Trpof MdpKeXXov ovk i^ovXero irplv tj reXiaai 
TO 7rpo/3/\rjfjLa Kal KaracTTrjcrai tt/qo? ttjv diro- 

5 Sei^iv. 6 Se 6pyt(rdel<; Kal airaadfievof; to ^L(f)o<i 
dveiXev avrov. erepoi fiev ovv Xeyovaiv eVt- 
aTTjvat, /jL€v evdu<; o)? diroKTevovvTa ^i(f)y]pr) top 

Pcofiacov, eKelvov 3' IhovTa Seiadai Kal dvTi- 
^oXelv dvafielvai, jBpay^vv xP^^^v, &>? fjbrj Kara- 
Xiirr] TO ^tjTov/xevov uTeXe? Kal ddedoprjTov, toi> he 

6 ov (ppoiniaai'Ta hLa')(^pi](xaadai. Kal Tplro<i earl 
Xoyo^, ft)? KOfiL^ovTC Trpo? MdpKeXXov avTM twv 
fiaOrjixaTLKoyv opydvcov crKiodrjpa Kal acj^aipa^ Kal 
ya)Via<i, at? evapfioTTei to tov rjXiov fxeyeOo^ tt^o? 
TTjv oyjriv, (XT par i COT a i 7repcTU')(^6vT€<; Kal j^^pvaiov 
ev Tco Tev)(et h6^avTe<i chepeiv direKTeivav. on 
fxevroi MdpKeXXo<i ijXyijae Kal tov avTO'^^eipa 
TOV di'Spo'i aTreaTpdcf)!] KaOdirep evayy), tov<; he 
oiKeiovi dvevpoyv €Tiju,i]a€i>, ofxoXoyetTat. 

XX. Twy he 'Pcofiaicov TOt? e'/CTO? dvOpcoiroi'i 
heivMi' fxev elvai iroXefiov fMeTa^eipicraaOai Kal 
(po^epcov et? -^^ecpa^ eXdelv vofii^op-evcov, evyvco- 
486 



MARCELLUS, xix. 3-xx. i 

was betrayed and taken and subjected to pillage, 
excepting the royal treasure ; this was converted 
into the public treasury. 

But what most of all afflicted Marcellus was the 
death of Archimedes. For it chanced that he was 
by himself, working out some problem with the aid 
of a diagram, and having fixed his thoughts and his 
eyes as well upon the matter of his study, he was 
not aware of the incursion of the Romans or of the 
capture of the city. Suddenly a soldier came upon 
him and ordered him to go with him to Marcellus. 
This Archimedes refused to do until he had worked 
out his problem and established his demonstration, 
whereupon the soldier flew into a passion, drew his 
sword, and dispatched him. Others, however, say 
that the Roman came upon him with drawn sword 
threatening to kill him at once, and that Archimedes, 
when he saw him, earnestly besought him to wait a 
little while, that he might not leave the result that 
he was seeking incomplete and without demon- 
stration ; but the soldier paid no heed to him and 
made an end of him. There is also a third story, 
that as Archimedes was carrying to Marcellus some 
of his mathematical instruments, such as sun-dials 
and spheres and quadrants, by means of which he 
made the magnitude of the sun appreciable to the 
eye, some soldiers fell in with him, and thinking 
that he was carr}'ing gold in the box, slew him. 
However, it is generally agreed that Marcellus was 
afflicted at his death, and turned away from his 
slayer as from a polluted person, and sought out the 
kindred of Archimedes and paid them honour. 

XX. The Romans were considered by foreign 
peoples to be skilful in carrying on war and for- 
midable fighters ; but of gentleness and humanity 

487 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

fio(Tvvr)<s he Kol (ptXavd pu)7ria<; Kai oXo)? 7To\triKi]<; 
ap€rrj<i v7ro8€i<y/jLaTa fxrj SeScoKOTcov, vrpcoTo? SoKel 
t6t€ Ma/3/«:eX,X.09 vTToBel^ai Tol<i "^Wrjcn Bikuio- 

2 repov^ 'P&)/xa/of<?. ovrco yap i-x^prjro Tol<i avfi- 
^dWovcri Kal roaavra koI TToXet? Kal IBicora'i 
evepyer'ijaev cocrre, et ri irepX "Fivvav rj M.€yap€i<; ?') 
XvpaKovaiov^ epjov rjv elpjaafievov ovk eVtet/ce? 
avTOL'i, TOVTo rS)v 7T€7TOv6oTcov avTio, fidWov rj 
rS)V TreTroirjKorayv SokcIv yeyovevai. fivrjaOijao/jiai 
Be €v6<; aTTO iroXkwv. TroXt? earl tt}? Zt^eXta? 
'E77i;tot' ov fieyakf], ap^aua Be irdw Kal Bca Oecov 

3 eTTicfxiveiav evBo^o<;, a? KuXovcri fiarepwi. IBpy/xa 
Xeyerai K.pijTMv yeveadai to lepov Kal \6yxct<i 
Tiva<; eBeiKwcrav Kal Kpdvrj ')(a\Kd, ra fxev ey^ovra 
IsA^ipLovov, TO, Be OvXi^ov, rovTetniv 'OBvaaew^, 
eTnypacfxi^:, dvareOeiKorwv raU deaU. ravrrjv 
TTpodv/MOTaTa KapxnBovil^ovcrav Ni/cta?, dvrjp 
TrpcoTO? rwv ttoXltcov, eireide fxeraOeaOat 7rpo<; 
'P(o/jLaiov<;, dvac^avBov ev rat? eKKXTjaiai^ irap- 
pY]cna^6fxevo<; Kal KaKO)^ ^povovvra<i efeXey^o);' 

4 Tou? v7revavTiov<;. ol Be cf)o^ov/jievoi rrjv Bvvapbiv 
avTOv Kal rrjv Bo^av e^ovXevaavTo avvapTrdcrai 
Kal rrrapaBovvai Tol^ ^oivi^cv. alad6fX€vo<; ovv 6 
Nt/cia? ijBi] Kal 7rapa(pv\aTr6fievov dB7]\(i)<; eavrov, 
€^€(j)€p€V ev (^avepcp \oyov<i irept tmv /xarepcov 
dveTnTrjBeiov^, Kal ttoWo, tt^o? Tr}v vo/u,i^ofj,€vrjv 
eirKpdveiav Kal Bo^av &)9 dTTiarayv Kai KaTa(f>po- 
vwv eirparTev, i)Boixevwv rcov e^/dpcov on rr^v 
fieylcTTTju airiav avTh<i ecp eavrov cov ireiaeTai 

5 irapel^e. yeyovoTwv Be twv 7rpo<i ttjv avWrjyJriv 

488 



MARCELLUS, xx. 1-5 

and, in a word, of civil virtues, they had given no 
proofs, and at this time Marcellus seems to have been 
the first to show the Greeks that the Romans were 
the more observant of justice. For such was his 
treatment of those who had to do with him, and so 
many were the benefits which he conferred both 
upon cities and private persons, that, if the people of 
Enna or Megara or Syracuse met with any indignities, 
the blame for these was thought to belong to the 
sufferers rather than to the perpetrators. And I 
will mention one instance out of many. There is a 
city of Sicily called Engyium, not large, but very 
ancient, and famous for the appearance there of 
goddesses, who are called Mothers. ^ The temple is 
said to have been built by Cretans, and certain spears 
were shown there, and bronze helmets ; some of 
these bore the name of Meriones, and others that of 
Ulysses (that is, Odysseus), who had consecrated 
them to the goddesses. This city, which most 
ardently favoured the Carthaginian cause, Nicias, its 
leading citizen, tried to induce to go over to the 
Romans, speaking openly and boldly in the assemblies 
and arguing the unwisdom of his opponents. But 
they, fearing his influence and authority, planned to 
arrest him and deliver him up to the Carthaginians. 
Nicias, accordingly, becoming aware at once of tlieir 
design and of their secret watch upon him, gave 
utterance in public to unbecoming speeches about 
the Mothers, and did much to show that he re- 
jected and despised the prevalent belief in their 
manifestations, his enemies meanwhile rejoicing 
that he was making himself most to blame for his 
coming fate. But just as they were ready to arrest 

^ Magna Mater, the Cretan Rhaea, often confounded with 
the Phrygian Cybele. Cf. Diodorus, iv. 79, 5-7. 

489 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

€TOi/u.cov rjv fiev eKKXyjaia rcov TroXirtov, 6 Se 
lSiKia<i /xera^v ri Xeycov koI av/x^ovXevcov trpof; 
rov hr)^ov i^ai(f)vr)<; dcpfjKev et? rrjv yijv to awfxa, 
Kol fiiKpov BiaXiTTMV, olov GLKO'^, r](TV)(ia<; avv 
iK7r\i]^€i. y€vo/u,evT]<;, rrjv Ke^oKrjv iirdpa^ koI 
TTepieveyKcov, v7roTp6p.(p (ficovjj koI ^apeia, Kara 

fllKpOV (TVVT€LVQ)V KOI TTapO^VVCOV TOV rj^OV, £09 

eoypa cjypiKr] koX aicoTrr} KaTe^opevov to dearpov, 
aTToppL^a'i TO Ipidriov koI irepipprj^dpevoii rov 
'X^iTwvio'Kov, i)piyvpvo<i dva7ry]Si]aa<; edee 7rpo<i ti]V 
e^oSov rov Oedrpov, ^owv viro roiv pareptov eXav- 

6 veadai. /jit]Sei'o<i Se To\p.coi^TO<i dyjraaOai /iT/Se 
diravTrjaaL hid SeicnSaipoviav, aXA,' eKTpeiro- 
fiivd)!', inl Ta9 7rvXa<i e^ehpapev, ovre cf)0)vr]<; 
Tivo'i ovre kiv}](T€(o<; 7rpe7rovcri]<; SaipovMvrc kuI 
Trapaippovovvri ^ei,adp6vo<;. rj 8e jvvr] avveihvla 
KOL (Twrexi'd^ovaa rw dvhpl, \a/3ovcra rd iratBia 
TrpcJTOV p.€V iKeTi<i 7rpo(T€Ku\iv8etTO T0i9 peydpoii; 
tS)v deS)v, eTrecra irXavoopevov i/cetvov irpocrTroiov- 
pevrj t^i-jTelv KcoXuovro'i ouSevb^ da<paXo)'i aTrijXdev 

7 CK T^9 7roX,ea)9. Kal StecrwOrjaav p,ei' ovrco^ 6t9 
SvpaKOV(Ta<; 7rpo<i M.dpKeXXov eirel 8e iroXXd 
TOW? 'E7'yL'ioi'9 v^pLcravra^ Kal irXri ppeXi'^cravra^ 
iXdciiv M«/o/ceA,A,o9 ehi^ae Trdvra^ 0)9 Tip^oypt^ao- 
p.evo<i, 6 Se lSliKLa<i eSdKpvae 7rapeaTco<;, TeA.09 Be 
y^sLpwv KOL yovdroiv d'jTrop.evo'^ Trapijrelro toi'9 
TToXtTWi, diro ro)i' ex^Opoiv dp^dpbevo<i, eTTLKXaaOel^ 310 
u(f)i]K€ 7ravTa<; Kal rrjv ttoXiv ovBei' rjSiKTjcre, tw Se 
Ni/cta ')(U)pav re 7roX\7]v Kal Bcopedfi 7ro\Xd<; eScoKe. 
ravTa p.ev ovv Yloaei8covco<; ^fXoc70</)o9 iaToprjae. 

XXI. Toy Be ^IdpKeXXov dvuKoXov pevwv tmv 
'FcopaiMV eirl top e'y)(^ctipiov Kal avvoiKOv 7r6X€p,ov, 
eiravepxopevo'i rd irXelara Kal KoXXiara rwv ev 

490 



MARCELLUS, xx. 5-xxi. i 

him, an assembly of the citizens was held, and here 
Nicias, right in the midst of some advice that he was 
giving to the people, suddenly threw himself upon 
the ground, and after a little while, amid the silence 
and consternation which naturally prevailed, lifted 
his head, turned it about, and spoke in a low and 
trembling voice, little by little raising and sharpening 
its tones. And when he saw the whole audience 
struck dumb with horror, he tore off his mantle, rent 
his tunic, and leaping up half naked, ran towards 
the exit from the theatre, crying out that he was 
pursued by the Mothers. No man venturing to lay 
hands upon him or even to come in his way, out of 
superstitious fear, but all avoiding him, he ran out to 
the gate of the city, freely using all the cries and 
gestures that would become a man possessed and 
crazed. His wife also, who was privy to his scheme, 
taking her children with her, first prostrated herself 
in supplication before the temples of the gods, and 
then, pretending to seek her wandering husband, no 
man hindering her, went safely forth out of the city. 
Thus they all escaped to Marcellus at Syracuse. 
But when Marcellus, after many transgressions and 
insults on the part of the men of Engyium, came and 
put them all in chains in order to punish them, then 
Nicias, standing by, burst into tears, and finally, 
clasping the hands and knees of Marcellus, begged 
the lives of his fellow citizens, beginning with his 
enemies. Marcellus relented, set them all free, and 
did their city no harm ; he also bestowed upon Nicias 
ample lands and many gifts. At any rate, this story 
is told by Poseidonius the philosopher. 

XXI. When Marcellus was recalled by the Romans 
to the war in their home territories, he carried back 
with him the greater part and the most beautiful of 

491 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

'^vpaKovaai'? eKivrjcrev avadrjfidroiv, &)? avrw re 
7rpo9 Tov dpia/x/Sov oylra eoTj kol tj} TroXei KoapiO'^. 
ovSev <yap el)(^ep ovS' iyivwcrKe irporepov rcov 
Kop^^oiv KoX TrepiTTMV, ovSe rjv ev avrfj to ')^dpi€v 

2 TovTo Kol 'y\acf)upov dyaTToofxevov, oirXwv 8e /3ap- 
^apLKcov KOL Xacpvpcov ivalpwv dvaTrXeca ovcra 
Kol 7repLeaTe^avu)p.€vr) 9pidp^u>v VTTO/jivrjpaai Kal 
TpoTra'ioi^ ou'^ iXapov ovS" d(f)o^ov ov8e BeiXcoi^ 
rjv Oiapa Kal TpvcpcavTcov OeaTWV, dW coairep 
^R7rapet,voi}v8a<i to BoiMTtov irehiov ' Apeo)<; op^V' 
arpav, "B-evo^wv he ttjv "Ecfyeaov iroXepou epja- 
arijpLOP, ovT(o<i av pboi SoKet Tt? totc rip' 'Poopi]v 
Kara HivSapov " ^aOvTrroXepov repievo^ "Apeax; " 

3 irpoaetTrelv. 8i6 Kal pdWov €v8oKLpbt]a€ irapa p,ev 
r& 8r}p,w Ma/3/ceX\o? rjSovrjv eyovaai<i Kal %a/Of?'' 
'KX\7]i'iKr]p Kal TTidai'OTTjTa 8ia7ToiKi\a<; o-yjreai 
rrjv TToXiv, irapa he TOi? 7rpecr^VTepoL<; ^d^LO^ 
M(x|^/yu-09. ovhev yap eKLvrjae toloutov ovhe per/y 
vejKev eK t>}9 Tapavrivcov 7ro\eo)<i a\ovar](;, aWa 
ra p,ev dWa ')(^p}]paTa Kal tov ttXovtov i^e<^6- 
prjcre, ra he d'^dXpLara pevetv etacrev, eTreiTTcov to 

4 pvi-jpovevopievov "^ATToXeLTriopev,'' jdp ecfirj/'Toii^; 
deou'i TOVTOVi T0t9 TapavTivoi<i Ke'XpXcop.evov;.^ 
MdpKeXXov 5' jiTioiVTO irpwTov puev ew? i'TTi(^dovov 
TTOiovvTa TTjv TToXiv, ov p,6vov dvOpcoTToiv, aXXa 
Kal 6eo)V olov al)(^paX(OT(i}i' dyopicvcov ev avTrj Kai 
TTOpiTrevopievcov, eireiTa oti tov hrjpiov etdicrpbevov 

5 7roXep,elv rj jeMpyetv, Tpv(f)f]<; he Kal pa9up,ia<; 
aTreipov ovra Kal KaTa tov KvpiTriheiov HpuKXea, 

(i>avXov, ciKOpL^lrov, tcl p^e'^taT d<^adbv} 

^ fxeyicTT' a.ya96v with Coraea, as in the Cimon, iv. 4 : 
fieytard. re a.ya96v. 

492 



MARCELLUS, xxi. 1-5 

the dedicatory offerings in Syracuse, that they might 
grace his triumph and adorn his city. For before 
this time Rome neither had nor knew about such 
elegant and exquisite productions, nor was there any 
love there for such graceful and subtle art ; but filled 
full of barbaric arms and bloody spoils, and crowned 
round about with memorials and trophies of triumphs, 
she was not a gladdening or a i-eassuring sight, nor 
one for unwarlike and luxurious spectators. Indeed, 
as Epaminondas called the Boeotian plain a "dancing 
floor of Ares," and as Xenophon^ speaks of Ephesus 
as a "work-shop of war," so, it seems to me, one 
might at that time have called Rome, in the lan- 
guage of Pindar, "a precinct of much-warring 
Ares." 2 Therefore with the common people Mar- 
cellus won more favour because he adorned the city 
with objects that had Hellenic grace and charm and 
fidelity ; but with the elder citizens Fabius Maximus 
was more populai-. For he neither disturbed nor 
brought away anything of this sort from Tarentum, 
when that city was taken, but while he carried off 
the money and the other valuables, he suffered tiie 
statues to remain in their places, adding the well- 
known saying : " Let us leave these gods in their 
anger for the Tarentines." ^ And they blamed Mar- 
ellus, first, because he made the city odious, in 
that not only men, but even gods were led about in 
her triumphal processions like captives ; and again, 
because, when the people was accustomed only to 
war or agriculture, and was inexperienced in luxury 
and ease, but, like the Heracles of Euripides, was 

" Plain, unadorned, in a great crisis brave and true," * 

1 Hell. iii. 4, 17. '' Pyth. n. 1 f. 
■* Cf. the Fabius Maximus, xxii. 5. 

■* A fragment of the lost Licytnnius of Euripides (Nauek, 
Tray. Griec. Fray."^ ^. 507). 

493 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ayoXrj'i iveTrX-rjae Koi \a\ia<; vrept rex^VMV kuI 
TeyvLTMV, aaTel^ofxevov koX Siarpt^ovTa rrpo<; 
Tovrro TToXi) /xepo'i t% ri/j.epa'i. ov fxijv aWa 
TovTOt<i ecre/jLVVveTO koX ■wpo'i rov<i"EX\'rjva';, w? to. 
Koka Kol Oau/xaara t^? 'EXXd8o<; ovk einara- 
jxevovi ri/xdv Kal davfid^eiv 'Pco/ia/of? 8iSd^a<i. 

XXII. 'FjViara/jL€vo)v 8e tmv exdpo3v tw Ma/j- 
KeXXo) 7rpo<s rov dpiapi^ov, evrei koi Trpa^ei? rLvh 
v7ro\t7r€i<; 7]aav ert irepl '^iKekiav koI <p06vov 
elx^J^ o T/3tT0? 0piap.^o<;, avvexf^pv^^^^ avT6<; ^ 
TOP fiev ivTeXT) Kal fieyav et? to ^AX^avop 6po<i 
i^eXdaai, rov Se iXdrTO) KarayayeiP e/? ttjv 
TToXiv, ov evav "KhXr]ve<i, 6/3av Be 'Viopaloi 

2 KoXovcn. TrifiTTei Se avTOv ovk iirl rov Tedpi-n- 
TTOv ^e/3i]K0)^ ov8e Bdcpprj^; e%ft)v are^avov ovSe 
'7Tepiaa\7ri!^6/u.€vo<i, dWd Tre^o? ev /SXavrat'i, utt' 
avXrjrcop fidXa ttoXXmu, Kal fivppii'y^; cnec^avov 
eTTCKei/xevo^, o)? uTToXe/jiOf; Kal y'jSv^ ocpOrivai fidX- 
Xov r) KaTaiTXr]KriKO<i. o Kal pukyiaTOV ifiol TeKfii]- 
piov eari rov rpoirw Trpd^eoxt, dXXd fir] fieyedei, 

3 Sicoplcxdai rov<; dpLdp-^ovi to iraXaiov. o'l fiev 
yap fierd P'd')(r]^ Kal (f>6vov tcov TroXefiicov eVi- 
KpaTr]cyavTe<; rov ^Apijiov eKelvov, u><i eoiKe, Kal 
(bo/3epov elarjyov, MO-rrep ev rot^ Ka9ap/iol<i tmv 
GTparoTrehwv elwdeaav, 8d(f)vr} iroXXfj Karacni- 
ylravre'? ra oirXa Kal T01/9 avSpa<i, rot? Be iroXefiov 
fxev fJLT) Ber]6etaL aTpaTr)yoi<;, o/xiXia Be Kai ireidol 
Kal Bia Xoyov Trdvra defievoi^ KaXw<i, olov eVt- 

1 oi-T($s Coraes and Bekker, following Stephanus, liave 
ouTois [agreed with them). 

494 



MARCELLUS, xxi. 5-xxn. 3 

he made them idle and full of glib talk about arts 
and artists, so that they spent a great part of the 
day in such clever disputation. Notwithstanding such 
censure, Marcellus spoke of this with pride even to 
the Greeks, declaring that he had taught the igno- 
rant Romans to admire and honour the wonderful 
and beautiful productions of Greece. 

XXII. But when the enemies of Marcellus opposed 
his triumph, because something still remained to be 
done in Sicily and a third triumph would awaken 
jealousy, he consented of his own accord to conduct 
the complete and major triumph to the Alban mount, 
but to enter the city in the minor triumph ; this 
is called "eua" by the Greeks, and "ova" by the 
Romans. 1 In conducting it the general does not 
mount upon a four-horse chariot, nor wear a wreath 
of laurel, nor have trumpets sounding about him ; 
but he goes afoot with shoes on, accompanied by the 
sound of exceeding many flutes, and wearing a 
wreath of myrtle, so that his appearance is unwarlike 
and friendly rather than terrifying. And this is the 
strongest proof to my mind that in ancient times the 
two triumphs were distinguished, not by the magni- 
tude, but by the manner, of the achievements which 
they celebrated. For those who won the mastery by 
fighting and slaying their enemies celebrated, as it 
would seem, that martial and terrible triumph, after 
wreathing their arms and their men with abundant 
laurel, just as they were wont to do when they 
purified their armies with lustral rites ; while to 
those generals who had had no need of war, but had 
brought everything to a good issue by means of con- 
ference, persuasion, and argument, the law awarded 

* Cf. the Crassus, xi. 8. The later Latin name was 
"ovatio." 

495 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Traiavlaai r-qv cnroXe/xov TavTi]v Kal iravij'yvpiKrjv 

4 dTreBiBov TTOfiTTTjv 6 v6[xo<i. Kal <yap o auXoii 
€lpy')V7]<; /jLipo<i Kal ro fxvprov 'A^/3oS/t)/9 (pvruv, i) 
fxciXLara Oewv aire'xOerai ^ia Kal 7ro\e/iot9. o/3a^ 
S' ov Trapa top evacr/xov, &>? ol ttoWoI vofjuL^ovaiv, 
6 dpla/i^o'i ouTO'i ovo/xd^erat (kuI yap eKeivov 
€(f)€ud^ovre<i Kal a^ovTe^ TrapaTre/xTTOvaiv), dW 31 
v(f)^ 'K\.\')]vo)v et? TO (Tvvrjde^ aurot? iraprjKraL 
Tovvofxa, TreTTeia/iievoov dfia Kal Aiovvaw tl Trj<; 
Ti/xi]<; TrpocrrjKeLv, ov ^viov Kal &pia/x^ov 6vo/xd- 
^Ofxev. ov)( ouTOi be €')(^ei to aAi]tfe<;, aXX eirt fiev 
Ta> /xeydXa) dptdp,^(p ^ovdvretv irdrpioi' r)v toi<; 
aTpaTtjyoi'i, iirl Se rovrw irpo^arov edvov. o^a 
he rd irpo^aTa 'Pco/xaloc KaXovcriv €k tovtov Kal 

5 Tov Oplafx^ov 6/3av oovofiacrav. d^tov 8e Kal tov 
AaKwviKOv dirodewpticraL vo/iiodeTt]v vTrevavriu)^ 
TO) 'Pco/naiKM rd^avra rd^ 9vaia<i. Ovei yap iv 
"S.Trdprr) rSiv dTtocn pari]yo)v 6 p.ev hi dirdrrj'i rj 
7T€iBov<; ^ovXerai, SiaTrpa^dpevo^ j3ovv, o Se Sid 
p,d')(^T]^ dXeKTpvova. Kaiirep ydp 6vT€<i iroXefiLKco- 
Taroi peii^ova Kal pdXXov dv0pco7ra> irpeirovaav 
rjyovvTO rrjv hid Xoyov Kal cruveaeax; irpd^Lv -q 
Tr)v jxeTd ^Ca<i Kal dvhpeia'i. raina p.kv ovv oirw; 
e'XEL (TKOTTeiv Trdpeari. 

XXIII. Toi) he ^lapKeXXov to TeTapTov vrra- 
T6vovTO<i ol i)(Opol Toix; "ZivpaKovcTLOVi dv67r€iaav 
€L<i 'Pciop,riv dcf)tKop,evov<; KaTJjyopeiv Kal KaTa/3odv 
7rpo<i Tr)v avyKXrjTov &)9 heivd Kal Trapdairovha 

496 



MAROELLUS, xxii. 3-xxin. i 

the privilege of conducting, like a paean of thanks- 
giving, this unwarlike and festal procession. For 
the flute is an instrument of peace, and the myrtle is 
a plant of Aphrodite, who more than all the other 
gods abhors violence and wars. And this minor 
triumph is called "ova," not from the Greek "euas- 
mos," as most think (since they conduct the major 
triumph also with songs and cries of " eua ! "), but 
the name has been wrested by the Greeks into con- 
formity with their speech, since they are persuaded 
that something of the honour has to do with Diony- 
sus also, whom they call Euius and Thriambus. 
This, however, is not the true explanation ; but it 
was the custom for commanders, in celebrating the 
major triumph, to sacrifice an ox, whereas in the minor 
triumph they sacrificed a sheep. Now, the Roman 
name for sheep is "ova," and from this circumstance 
the lesser triumph is called ova.^ And it is worth 
our while to notice that the Spartan lawgiver 
appointed his sacrifices in a manner opposite to that 
of the Romans. For in Sparta a returning general 
who had accomplished his plans by cunning decep- 
tion or persuasion, sacrificed an ox ; he who had won 
by fighting, a cock. For although they were most 
warlike, they thought an exploit accomplished by 
means of argument and sagacity greater and more 
becoming to a man than one achieved by violence 
and valour. How the case really stands, I leave an 
open question. 

XXIII. While Marcellus was serving as consul for 
the fourtli time,* his enemies induced the Syracusans 
to come to Rome and accuse and denounce him 
before the senate for terrible wrongs which they 

1 It is hardly necessary to say that Plutarch's etymology, 
' as often, is worthless. * In 210 b.c. 

497 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TTeTTo/'^oTa?. €TV)f^€ jxev ovv iv KaTTiTcoXiu) Ovaiav 
Tiva avneKoiv 6 ^\dpKeWo<^' en Se cruyKaOe^o- 
[xevr] TTj lyepovaia rwv ^vpaKOvaiwv Trpoaireauv- 
Twv Kcu heop^evoiv Xoyov rv^elv koI hiKrj^, 6 /xev 

2 (Tvvdpxf^v e^etpyev avrov'i, dyavaKTMV virep tov 
MapKeXXov pbrj irapovTO^, o he MapKeWo^ evdv<; 
rfKev ciKovaa^. Kal irpwrov fiev eirl tov Sicjypov 
Ka6i(Ta<i w<i virarof; e'x^p-qpicnLi^ev, eirena, rwv dX- 
Xcov T€\o<; e)(^6vT0)v, KaTa/3a<; utto tov Btcppov Kai 
KaTaa-Td<i coairep l8L(OT7]<i el<; tov tottov iv w 
Xiyeiv eluidaaiv ol KpivofxevoL, T049 XvpaKovcrLOL<; 

3 ekeyx^LV avTov Tiapeix^J'- 01 Se Seiv(b<i p.ev avve- 
Tapd')(6i'i(7av Trpo? to d^lcofia koI to 7re7roi6o<; tov 
dvSp6<;, Kol TO iv T0t9 OTrXot? dvviroaTaTOV eVt 
/jluXXov iv TTJ 7repi7Top<pvp(p (f)o/3epov tjyovvTo kul 
SvaavTL^XeTTTOv. ov fi7]v dWd koI irapaOappv- 
vovToov avTov<; tmv Bia(f)epo/xevQ)v 7rpo<i tov Map- 
KeXXov -tjp^avTo r?)? KaTTjyopla^ koX ^Le^rjXOov 

4 6\o(j)vp/nrj) TLVL fi€/jiiyjjbevT]V 8iKaio\oy[av, rj<; r^v 
TO K€(f)dXaiov OTi av/jLfia')(^OL kol (fyiXoi V(o/j.aLoi<i 
oWe? TreTTovdaaiv a ttoWoI'; tmv 7ro\ep.iwv eTcpoi 
aTpaTTjyol /jlt] TradeZv i')(^apiaavTo. 7rpo<i TavTa 6 
^\dpKeWo<; ekeyev &)? d,VT\ ttoWmv wv hehpaKaai 
'Pcofiaiovi KaKO)^ ovSev ireirovOacn, 7r\r]v d rroXe- 
fjiw Kal KUTa KpdTO<s d\ovTa<i dvOpcoirov^ KcoXvaai 
iradelv ov SvvaTov iaTiv, ovtco Se dXwvai hC 
avTOVi, TToWa TrpOKakovfjcevw 7reiaOi]vat firj iOe- 

5 \rjaavTa<i. ov yap viro twv Tvpdvvcov TroXe/jiijaai 
^iaa9evTa<;, dWa KdKCLvovi eirl tw TToXep-elv 
eXeaOat Tvpdvvov<i. 

498 



MARCELLUS, xxiii. 1-5 

had suffered contrary to the terms of surrender. Jt 
chanced, then, that Marcellus was performing a 
sacrifice on the Capitol, but, the senate being still in 
session, the Syracusans hurried before it and begged 
that they might have a hearing and justice. The 
colleague of Marcellus tried to have them expelled, 
angrily explaining that Marcellus was not present ; 
but Marcellus, when he heard of it, came at once. 
And first, sitting as consul in his curule chair, he 
transacted the routine business ; then, when this was 
all ended, coming down from his curule chair and 
taking his stand as a private citizen in the place 
where men under accusation usually plead their 
cause, he gave the Syracusans opportunity to press 
their charge. But they were terribly confounded by 
his dignity and confidence, and thought him yet 
more formidable and hard to confront in his robe of 
purple than he had been irresistible in arms. How- 
ever, being encouraged by the rivals of Marcellus, 
they began their denunciation and rehearsed their 
demands for justice, which were mingled with much 
lamentation. The gist of their plea was that, 
although they were allies and friends of the Romans, 
they had suffered at the hands of Marcellus what 
other generals allowed many of their enemies to 
escape. To this Marcellus made answer that in 
return for many injuries which they had done to the 
Romans, they had suff"ered nothing except what men 
whose city has been taken by storm in war cannot 
possibly be prevented from suffering ; and that their 
city had been so taken was their own fault, because 
they had refused to listen to his many exhortations 
and persuasions. For it was not by their tyrants that 
they had been forced into war, nay, they had elected 
those very tyrants for the purpose of going to war. 

499 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Aex^lvTcov Be twv Xoywv kol fieOiaTa/j^evoi^, 
co(T7rep etcodev, eK t?}? ^ov\i]'i roi<; XvpaKovaioi^ 
(TVve^rjXOe May3/ceA,\o9, eTrt tw avvdp'^ovTi Trott]- 
rd/xevo^ TrjV (TuyKXtjTOv, koX irpo rwv Ovpcov rov 
SovXevrrjptov SLerpi/Sev, ovre (f)6^(p Blo. Tt]v Blkiiv 
jvre Ovfiu) TT/oo? roi;? ^vpaKovaLov:; rov aui'r]Oov<; 
fieTU^aXcov KaTaaTi]paro<i, dXXd 7rpdco<; irdvv 

6 KoX Koafii(o<; to rr}? S//C779 reXo? eKBe^^opievo'i. eiTel 
Be Birjvex^rjaav at yvo) /xai Kol VLKOiv dTreBei\dr], 
irpocnriTTTOVcnv avrS) ol "^vpa/couacoi, pceTa Sa- 
Kpvoiv BeopevoL rrjv opy-qv et? avTov<; d^elvai toi)? 
7rap6vTa<i, OiKTelpau Be rrjV aXXi^v ttoXlv p.ep.vrj- 
pevr]v wv ervx^ev del Kal %apii^ exovaav. eiriKXa- 
(rOel'i ovv Ma/?A-eXXo? TovroL<i re BnjXXdyr}, kol 
TOL<i dXXoL^; ZtUpaKOVcTLOK; del re Trpdrrcov dyndov 

7 BiereXei. /cal rrjv eXevOeplav fjv direBaiKev avroi^, 
Kal Tou'i v6p,ov<; Kal tmv KTyjpdrcov rd vepiovra 
^ej3aia irapeayev 7} crvyKXiqTo^. dvO' mv dXXa<; 
re T/.yu-a? VTrepfpvel'i eo"T^6 Trap avToi<;, Kal v6p,ov 
eOevTo ToiovTOV, oirorav eTTL^fj ^iKeXta^; Map/ceX,- 312 
\o? 77 TMv eKyovcov rt? avrov, crT€(pavi](f)opeiv 
%vpaKovaLov<; Kal dueiv roi? 6€oi<;. 

XXIV. Touvrevdev r]B7] rpeTreTai Trpo? ^ Avvi- 
/3av. Kal rojv dXXcov inrdroiv Kal r^yepovcov 
(T-^eBov dirdi'Tcov p-erd rd ev }^dvvaL<i evl arpaTrj- 
yrjpaTL tm (f)uyopa)(^elv ')(^poipLev(jdv eirl rov dvBpa, 
-rrapaTaTTeaOai Be Kal avp,7rXeKea6at p,i]Sevo<; 
roXpMvro'i, avTo<i eirl ttiv evavriav a)p/.tyjaev oBov, 
2 olopevo<; tw Bokovvti KaraXvetv 'Avvb/Sav '^povM 
TTporepov eKTpijBelaav vir eKelvov ^ Xijaeadat rrjv 
IraXiav, Kal rov ^d^LOv del tt}? d(j^aXeia<i f^o- 
jxevov ov KaXM<; e^eiv ^ IdaOai rb voa-rjpia r7]<i 

* utt' ixflvov, ex^"' bracketed by Bekker. 
500 



MARCELLUS, xxiii. 5-x.\iv. 2 

When the speeches were ended, and the Syra- 
cusans, as the custom was, withdrew from the senate, 
Marcellus went forth with them, after giving to his 
colleague the presidency of the senate, and lingered 
before the doors of the senate-house, allowing no 
change in his accustomed demeanour either because 
he feared the sentence, or was angry with the Syra- 
cusans, but with complete gentleness and decorum 
awaiting the issue of the case. And when the votes 
had been cast, and he was proclaimed not guilty, the 
Syracusans fell at his feet, begging him with tears to 
remit his wrath against the embassy there present, 
and to take pity on the rest of the city, which always 
was mindful of favours conferred upon it and grateful 
for them. Marcellus, accordingly, relented, and was 
reconciled with the embassy, and to the rest of the 
Syracusans was ever afterwards constant in doing 
good. The freedom, also, which he had restored to 
them, as well as their laws and what was left of their 
possessions, the senate confirmed to them. Where- 
fore Marcellus received many surpassing honours 
from them, and particularly they made a law that 
whenever he or any one of his descendants should set 
foot in Sicily, the Syracusans should wear garlands 
and sacrifice to the gods. 

XXIV. After this he moved at once against Han- 
nibal. And although almost all the other consuls 
and commanders, after the disaster at Cannae, made 
the avoidance of all fighting their sole plan of cam- 
paign against this antagonist, and no one had the 
courage to engage in a pitched battle with him, 
Marcellus himself took the opposite course, thinking 
that before the time thought necessary for destroying 
Hannibal had elapsed, Italy would insensibly be 
worn out by him. He thought, too, that Fabius, by 
making safety his constant aim, was not taking the 

501 

VOL. V R 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

•jrarplSo^, Trepi/nivovTa rfj 'P(o/J,r) /napatvo/xevr} 
avva7rocr^7]vaL rov iroXe/xov, Mairep larpcov tou? 
uToXpov^ Kol 8ei\ov^ Trpo? t<x /3oi]d7Jpara, t?}? 
vocTou TrapaKprjv ttjv rrj<i hvvdpew<i ^ i^avdXcoaiv 

3 r)'yovp€vou<i. TrpwTOv pev ovv rat ^avviTiKo.^ 
TToXei? p-eydXa^ d(fi€aT(i)cra<i eXcov, alrov re voXvv 
d-TTOKeipevov iv avTal<i koX -^^^pijpara koL rov<i 
(puXdaaovTa^ ^Avvi^ou aTnaTi(ora<i rpia-^iXiovi 
ovTw; e\a/3ev' eTreoTu rov 'Avvl^ou <i>ou\0iov 
Vvalov dvOvTrarov iv ^AirovXia /cara/CTetVa^TO? 
pev avrov avv evSeKa ^tXta/o^^^ot?, KaruKoy^avTO^ 
he T% aTpaTid<; to nrkelaTOv, eirepyp-ev et? 'Fcoprjv 
ypuppara rov^ TroXira? TrapaKaXwv Oappeiv 
aino<i jdp JjSrj ^ahi^eiv di<i d^ekoLTO ttjv x^P^^' 

4 'AvvL^ov. Kal ravra pev 6 At/9f09 (prjaiv dva- 
yvcoadevra rd jpdppuaTa prj tt}? Xuttt;? dcpeXeiv, 
aWa ra> (f)o^(p Trpoadelvai, rwv 'Pcopatcov pel^ov 
r)>yovpevo)v rov yeyovoro^ to KivSvvevSpevov oaco 
^oiiX^iov KpeiTTCdv ^v MdpKeWof 6 8e, wairep 
eypa^jrev, eu^u? ^ Avvij3av Sicokmv el<; ttjv Aev- 
Kaviuv €ve/3a\€, Kal Trepl ttuXiv NopiaTpcova 
Kadijpevov v-rrep X6cf)Q)v o^vpoyv KaTaXa/Soiv avTo<i 

5 iv Tft) TTeScM KaTeaTpaTOTreSeucre. ttj S' vaTepaia 
TTpoTepo'i eU pdxnv 7rapaTd^a<; to (TTpdTevpa 
KaTa^dvTd 'Avvi/3ov, (Tvvi^dXe pdx'jv xptaiv ov 
Xa^ovaav, iax^pav he real peydXriv yevopevrjv 
ttTTO yap a)pa<; TpLTT)<i avp-rreaovTe'? rjhr] (tkotov; 
poXi^ hteXvOrjaav. dpa 8' 'tjpepa irpoayayoiv 
avOi^ TO aTpdTevpa nrapeTa^e 8id tmv veKpwv 

^ T7IV Trjs Svudfifws Bekker, after Coraes : rrn Swdneus. 
502 



MARCELLUS, xxiv. 2-5 

right course to heal the malady of the country, since 
the extinction of the war for which he waited would 
be coincident with the exhaustion of Rome, just as 
physicians who are timid and afraid to apply reme- 
dies, consider the consumption of the patient's 
]iowers to be the abatement of the disease. First, 
then, he took the large cities of the Samnites which 
had revolted, and got possession of great quantities ot 
grain which had been stored in them, besides money, 
and the three thousand soldiers of Hannibal who 
were guarding them. Next, after Haimibal had 
slain the proconsul Gnaeus Fulvius himself in Apulia, 
together with eleven military tribunes, and had cut 
to pieces the greater part of his army, Marcellus sent 
letters to Rome bidding the citizens be of good 
courage, for that he himself was already on the 
march to rob Hannibal of his joy. Livy says ^ that 
when these lettei-s were read, they did not take 
away the grief of the Romans, but added to their 
fear ; for they thought their present danger as much 
greater than the past as Marcellus was superior to 
Fulvius. But Marcellus, as he had written, at once 
pursued Hannibal into Lucania, and came up with 
him, and as he found him occupying a secure position 
on heig-hts about the city of Numisti'o, he himself 
encamped in the plain. On the following day he 
was first to array his forces when Hannibal came 
down into the plain, and fought a battle with him 
which, though indecisive, was desperate and long ; 
for their engagement began at the third hour, and 
was with difficulty ended when it was already dark. 
But at daybreak Marcellus led his army forth again, 
put them in array among the dead bodies of the 

^ xxvii. 2. 

VOL. V R 2 



J-^ 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Kal irpovKakeiro SiayMviaaaOat irepl t/}? VLKTji; 

6 rbv Avvi^av. ai'a^€u^avTO<i Se eKcivov crKvXev- 
aa<i Tov^ 7roXe/j.LOv<i v€Kpov^ Kal ddy^a<^ rov^ 
<pi\ov<; iBioyKev av6i'i- Kal 7roWa<i /j.ev ucf)evTO<; 
€veBpa<i ouSefjLia Trepnreawv, iv 8e iraai rot? ciKpo- 
/3o\La /jbOi<; TrXeiov e)(^u)V idav/xd^ero. 8io Kal t(Iv 
ap')(^aipeaLO)v iirei'yovTWv eSo^e rrj ^ovXf) [xaWov 
€K Si/ceXta? Tov drepov cnrd'yeLV virarov >) Ma/3- 
KeWop Wvvi/Sa crvvrjpTrj/jbevoi' Kiveiv, ekdovra S' 
eKeXevev eiTreiv hiKraropa Is^oivrov ^ovX^iov. 

7 'O yap hifCTc'ncdp ovk eariv vtto tov 7rX/]dov(; 
ovSe tt}? /3ovXij<; aipero'^, ciXXa tmv vTrdrcov rt? i) 
Tuyv crrpaTTjyMV irpoeXdwv eZ? rov 8P]/xov ov avTco 
8oK€t Xeyei. SiKrdropa. Kal 8id tovto SiKTdrwp 6 
pt]Oel'^ KaXelrai' ro yap Xeyeiv BiKepe Pcofxaioi 
KaXovaiv evioi Se tov BcKTdTopa tm fii-j irpoTi- 
Oevai -ylrrji^ov rj ')(^eLpoTOviav, dXX d(f)' avTou to, 
So^avTa rrpocTTdTTeLV Kal Xeyeiv ovtco^ oivofid- 
adar Kal ydp ra SiaypdfjL/xaTa tmv dp)(^6vT0)v 
"EWr^i^e? fxev SiaTdy/jLaTa, 'Vcofialoc Ee eSiKTa 
TrpocrayopevovaLv. 

XXV. 'Evrei he eXOcov diro t?}? ]Si«eA.ia? 6 tov 
Map/ceWof (Twdp-^cov eTepov e/SovXeTo XafBelv^ 
ScKTdTopa, Kal ^LaaOrjvaL irapa yvco/xijv /x?] ^ovXo- 
fxevo^ e^enXevae vvkto<; e/? "S.iKeXiav, oi/tco? 6 /xev 
S?}yLto? odvofxacre StKTdTopa K.oivtov ^\>ovX^lov, t) 
^ovXr) 5' eypa-yp-e ^^lapKeXXw KeXevouaa tovtov 
elneiv. 6 Se 7reiadel<; dvelire Kal avveireKvpciXTe 
TOV hi'ifjiov T7]v yvd)fn]v, auTO? 8e TrdXiv dvOvirUTO'; 

^ KaQe'iv Bekker has Aiyeiv, after Coraes. 



MARCELLUS, xxiv. 5-xxv. i 

slain, and challenged Hannibal to fight it out with 
him for the victory. And when Hannibal withdrew 
his forces, Marcellus stripped the dead bodies of 
the enemy, buried those of his own men, and 
pursued him again. And though his adversary 
laid many ambushes for him, he escaped them all, 
and by getting the advantage of him in all the 
skirmishes, won admiration for himself For this 
reason, too, when the consular elections drew near, 
the senate decided that it was better to recall the 
other consul from Sicily than to disturb Marcellus in 
his grappling with Hannibal, and when he was come, 
it bade him declare Quintus Fulvius dictator. 

For a dictator cannot be chosen either by the 
people or by the senate, but one of the consuls or 
praetors comes before the assembled people and 
names as dictator the one whom he himself decides 
upon. And for this reason the one so named is 
called "dictator," from the Latin " dicere," to name 
or declare. Some, however, say that the dictator is 
so named because he puts no question to vote or 
show of hands, but ordains and declares of his own 
authority that which seems good to him ; for the 
orders of magistrates, which the Greeks call " dia- 
tagmata," the Romans call "edicta." 

XXV. But the colleague of Marcellus, who had 
come back from Sicily, Avished to appoint another 
man as dictator, and being unwilling to have his 
opinion overborne by force, sailed off by night to 
Sicily. Under these circumstances the people named 
Quintus Fulvius as dictator, and the senate wrote to 
Marcellus bidding him confirm the nomination. He 
consented, proclaimed Quintus Fulvius dictator, and 
so confirmed the will of the people ; he himself was 



505 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

2 et9 TovTTiov a'nehei')(d7]. avvdifievo'i Se 7rpo<i 
^d^LOv Md^i/xov OTTOJ? eKelvo'i jxev einX'^Lpfi Ta- 313 
pavTivois, avT6<; 8e av/juTrXeKofieiw; Kal TrepiekKcov 
^Kvvij3av e/xTToSwv 77 tov ^oijOeiv tt/oo? eKelvov, 
eTTe^aXe irepl Js^avvcriov, Kal iroXka^ aXXdacrovrt 
(TTparo7re8ela<; koX (fivjofia^ovvn iravTa-x^oOev 
erre^aivero, reXo'i S' ihpvvdevra TrpoaKel./xevo'i 

3 e^avLcTTT) toZ? dKpo^o\i<T/Liol<;. 6p/ji7](TavTO<; 8e 
/xd')(^e(jdai 8€^d/u,€V0<i inro vvkto^ SieXvdr)' koI fied 
rjixepav avOi^ iv rol^ OTfkoL<i ewpdro tov (rrpardv 
e'X^cov ira paTeray/jievoi', wcrre tov Avvi^av irepi- 
aXyP] yevofxevov TOv<i K.ap)(^^]8oviOV<; dOpolcrai koI 
8e7]0i]vac TTjv fjid')(7iv eKeivrjv iiirep iraacov dycovi- 
craadaL twv efxirpoaOev. " 'OpciTe ydp^ enrev, 
" ft)9 ovBe dvaTTvevaac ficTa vlku^ ToaavTU^ ovSe 
cr')(oXr]v dyeiv KpaToixriv rjjjuv eaTiv, el fjbrj tovtov 
ODcaifieOa tov dvOpwirov. 

4 'E/c tovtov avfx/3aX6vT€<; €/j,d)(0VT0. Kal SoKei 
rrapd to epyov aKalpw crTpaTriyr]/j,aTL %/3ftJyLi6i^09 
6 Ma/)/ceXXo9 acjiaXrjvaL. tov yap Se^iov tto- 
vovvTo<i eKeXevaev ev tmv rayfiaTcov ei9 tov/j.- 
TTpoaOev TrpoeXdelv rj Se /jL€TaKLvrj(Ti<; avTif Tapd- 
^aaa tov<; fiaxofievov; irapeScoKe to VLK^jfia to69 
7roX€/jiioc<;, kivTaKocriwv eirl Sia-)(iXLOt<; 'F(o/j.ai,Mv 

5 TreaovTCdv. dva\(opi]aa'i he MdpKeXXo^ els tov 
XdpaKa Kal avvayayaiv tov aTpaTov, opdv €(f)7] 
'Pa)/xai(ov oirXa TroXXd koI crco/iara, 'Vwfxalov 8e 
jxrjBeva opdv. alrov pbevcov he avyyv cofjuriv ovk ecprj 
Bihovat veviKrjfievoi^;, eav he viKtjaoxn, Scoaeiv 



506 



MARCELLUS, xxv. 2-5 

appointed proconsul again for tlie ensuing year.^ He 
then made an agreement with Fabiiis Maximus that, 
while Fabius should make an attempt ujion Taren- 
tum, he himself, by diverting Hannibal and engaging 
with him, should prevent him from coming to the 
relief of that place. He came up with Hannibal at 
Canusiura, and as his adversary often shifted his 
camp and declined battle, he threatened him con- 
tinually, and at last, by harassing him with his 
skirmishers, drew him out of his entrenchments. 
But though battle was offered and accepted, night 
parted the combatants, and next day Marcellus ap- 
peared again with his army drawn up in battle array ; 
so that Hannibal, in distress, called his Carthaginians 
together and besought them to make their fighting 
that day surpass all their previous struggles. " For 
you see," he said, "that we cannot even take breath 
after all our victories, nor have respite though we 
are in the mastery, unless we drive this man 
away." 

After this they joined battle and fought. And it 
would seem that Marcellus made an unseasonable 
movement during the action, and so met with 
disaster. For when his right wing was hard pressed, 
he ordered one of his legions to move up to the 
front. This change of position threw his army into 
confusion and gave the victory to the enemy, who 
slew twenty-seven hundred of the Romans. Mar- 
cellus then withdrew to his camp, called his army 
together, and told them that he saw before him 
many Roman arms and Roman bodies, but not a 
single Roman. And when they asked for his pardon, 
he refused to give it while they were vanquished, 
but promised to do so if they should win a victory, 

1 209 B.C. 

507 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

aupiov he fia^elaOai irdXiv, ottiw? ol iroXlrai rr]v 
6 vIk7]v irporepov i) rrjv (puyijv uKovacoai. BiaXe^- 
Oel'i Be ravra, Tvpoaera^e ral^ rjTTi]/u,evai<i airei- 
pai<i avil TTvpMV Kpi6a<i /j^erpPjaai. Bi a ttoWcov 
aiTO T^? /xd^7]<; eTTLKLvhvvwi^ /cat 7Tov>jpQ}<i e^ovTCOV 
ovSeva (f)aalv ov ol ^lapiceWov Xoyot twv rpav- 
fidrcov ov'xl fidXXov i]X'yvvav. 

XXVI. "Afia Se rj/xepa irpovKeiTo /nev 6 (f)OivL- 
Kov<; ')^iT(t)v, ct)9 el'o)6e, yLta^//? eVo/xeV?;? au/x^oXov, 
at he i]Ttfiaa/jievai (nrelpat ttjv -Trpoirriv avral 
herjOelaai rd^iv iXdpi^avov, ttjv he clXXrji' e^d- 
70J/T69 01 ')^tXiapxoi ar par Lav rrapeve^aXXov. 
uKovaa^i he o AvvL/3a<i, "'fl 'HpaVXei?," eiTre, 
" Tt '^prjo'erai, tc; dvOpcoirw fji)]Te rrjv ^(^eLpova 
TV)(r]v P'lJTe TTjV ^eXrlova (^epeiv elhon ; fi6vo<i 
<ydp ovro<i ovre vikmv hihcoaiv avdiravaLv ovre 
XajxjBdvei viKd>iievo<;, dXX del /jLa'^tjao/jieOa tt/OO? 

2 70VT0V, CO? eoLKev, u> rov ToXfjbdv del kol to 
dappelv evTV^ovvTi koI (Tcf)aXXo/j,ii>(p to alhelaOai 
7rp6(j)acri<; eanv.'' €K tovtov aupr/ecrav a'l hvvd- 
pei<i' Kol TOiv dvhpMv laa (pepo/nevcov eKeXevcrev 
^Avvl^a<i ra Oi-jpia KaTaari](TavTa^ el'i TrpwTtjv 
rd^iv eTrdyetv to?? orrXoi'i tcov 'Fw/jiatcor. d>Oia- 
fiov he fieydXov kuI Tapax^]<; evdv^ ev rot? irpoo- 
roL<i yevoixevri<i, et? TWf ■x^iXidp)i^o)v ovopa <t>\d^Lo<; 
dvapTrdcra'i (T7]/xaLav vTrrjVTia^e fcal ro) arvpaKL 

3 rov irpcbrov eXecparra rvrrroiv dnearpecpev. o he 
e/j,/3aX(i)v ei<; rov oTTiaco avverdpa^e koI tovtov 
Kal rov'i eTTK^epopbevovi. Karihoov he touto Wdp- 
«e\Xo9 eKeXevae rov^ 'nnrel^ eXavveiv dvd Kpdro^ 

508 



I 



MARCELLUS, xxv. 5-xxvi. 3 

assuring them that on the morrow they should fight 
again, in order that their countrymen might hear of 
their victory sooner than of their flight. At the 
close of his speech, moreover, he gave orders that 
rations of barley instead of wheat should be given to 
the coiiorts that had been worsted. Therefore, 
though many were in a wretched and dangerous 
plight after the battle, there was not a man of 
them, they say, to whom the words of Marcellus did 
not give more jiain than his wounds.^ 

XXVI. At daybreak the scarlet tunic, the usual 
signal of impending battle, was displayed, the co- 
horts under disgrace begged and obtained for them- 
selves the foremost 2:)osition in the line, and the 
tribunes led forth the rest of the army and put them 
in array. On hearing of this Hannibal said: "O 
Hercules ! what can be done with a man who knows 
not how to bear either his worse or his better 
fortune .'' For he is the only man who neither gives 
a respite when he is victorious, nor takes it when he 
is vanquished, but we shall alwaj's be fighting with 
him, as it seems, since both his courage in success 
and his shame in defeat are made reasons for bold 
undertaking". Then the forces engaged ; and since 
the men fought with equal success, Hannibal ordered 
his elephants to be stationed in the van, and to be 
driven against the ranks of the Romans. A great 
press and much confusion at once arose among their 
foremost lines, but one of the tribunes, Flavius by 
name, snatched up a standard, confronted the 
elephants, smote the leader with the iron spike of 
the standard, and made him wheel about. The 
beast dashed into the one behind him and threw 
the whole onset into confusion. Observing this, 
Marcellus ordered his cavalry to charge at full speed 

1 Cf. Livy, xxvii. 12 and 13 

509 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

7r/)09 TO dopvl3ou/J.€VOV KOl ITOielv €Tl /xdWoi' 

avTOL'i 7repi7r€T€i^ tov<; 7ro\e/j.iov<i. ovtol re hrj 
\a/u.7rpu)<i € /j,^a\6vT€<; aveKOTrrov o-xpt toO arpa- 
Totrehov tov'; 'KapX'l^oviov<i, koI tmv OtjpLMv ra 
KTeivop-eva kuI TrLTTTOvra rov irXelarov avToov 
4 (poi'ov ciTreipya^eTO. Xeyovrai yap virep OKra- 
Kia-^i\tov<i aTroOavelv Vco/xaicov Se vefcpol /j.€i> 
iyevovTO Tpicr'^LK.LOi, Tpavfjiariat- Be oXijov 8eiv 
OTraj'Te?. Kal rovro Trapea-^i^ev 'Avvi/3a KaO^ 
r](7V)(iav avaardvTi vuKTO'i dpau TroppcoTdrw rov 
ISlapKeWou. Sico/ceiv yap ovk rjv hvvaTO<^ vtto 
7rX7}6ov<; TOiv reTpco/xevoiv, dWd Kara (T-)(^o\rjV eU 
K.afi7ravLav dve^ev^e, Kal ro 6epo<; ev ^ivoeaai] 
hiYjyev dv aXajJbjBdvwv roix; arparLOira'i. 

XXVII. 'O he Wvvi/3a^ &)<? drrepptj^ev eavrov 
TOV IsJiapKeXkov, ')(^pco/xepo<; axxTrep XeXv/xevM ru) 314 
arparedfiari, rrdaav aSew? ev KVKXrp rrepuoov 
ecpXeye rrjv ^IraXcav Kal KaKco^; ■iJKOvaei' ev 'Voij-tr] 
MdpKeXXo^;. ol Be e^dpol Uov/BXiKioi' Bl^Xov, 
eva roiiv Brjixdp^oyv, dvearrjaav errl rrjv Kartj- 
yoplav avrov, Seivov elirelv civSpa Kal ^iaiov 

2 0? TToXXdKi<i (Tvvayayoiv rov SrjfMov eTreidev dXXrp 
rrapaSovvai aTpari]y(p rrjv SvvapLiv, " eirei Ma/3- 
KeXXo<;r €(f)7], " uiKpd rw iroXepicp it poayeyv pi- 
va<T/j.evo<i cocnrep e'/c 7raXaiarpa<i eirl 6epp.a Xovrpa 
Oepairevawv eavrov rerpaTrrai." ravra rrvvda- 
v6pLevo<i 6 ^IdpK€XXo<i errl fxev rov arparoTreoov 
TOL"? irpecr/Sevrdi; drreXnrev, avro'i 8e 7rpo<; ra<i 
Bca^oXd^i drroXoyriaoixevo'^ eh 'Pcofirjv eiravrjXOev. 

3 eK he ro)V 8ia/3oXo)v eKelvwv BiKrjv evpe irapeaKev- 
aap,evi]v e<^' avrov. 7//xe'/3a9 ovv opiaOeiarjq Kai 
Tov 8r]p,ov (TvveX66vTO<i el<i rov '^PXafxiviov imro- 



510 



MARCELLUS, xxvi. 3-xxvii. 3 

upon the disordered mass and throw the enemy still 
more into confusion. The horsemen made a brilliant 
charge and cut the Carthaginians down as far as to 
their camp^ and the greatest slaughter among them 
was caused by their killed and wounded ele])hants.^ 
For more than eight thousand are said to have been 
slain ; and on the Roman side three thousand were 
killed, and almost all were wounded. This gave 
Hannibal opportunity to break camp quietly in the 
niffht and move to a great distance from Marcellus. 
For Marcellus was unable to pursue him, owing to 
the multitude of his wounded, but withdrew by easy 
marches into Campania, and spent the summer at 
Sinuessa recuperating his soldiers. 

XXVII. But Hannibal, now that he had torn him- 
self away from Marcellus, made free use of his army, 
and going fearlessly round about, wasted all Italy 
with (ire. Meantime, at Rome, Marcellus was in ill 
repute, and his enemies incited Publicius Bibulus, 
one of the tribunes of the ])eople, a powerful speaker 
and a man of violence, to bring a denunciation 
against him. This man held frequent assemblies of 
the people and tried to persuade them to put the 
forces of Marcellus in charge of another general, 
"since Marcellus," as he said, "after giving himself 
a little exercise in the war, has withdrawn from it as 
from a palaestra, and betaken himself to warm baths 
for refreshment." On learning of this, Marcellus left 
his legates in charge of his army, while he himself 
went up to Rome to make answer to the accusations 
against him. There he found an impeachment 
prepared against him which was drawn from these 
accusations. Accordingly, on a day set for the trial, 
when the people had come together in the Flaminian 

^ Five were killod, according to Livy, xxvii. 14. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

hpofxov, /xev Bi/^Xo? dva^a^ Karrjyoprjcrev, 6 8e 
MdpK€Wo<i direXoyeLTO, ^pa^x^ea fxev kol dirXd 8i 
eavTOv, iroWrjV 8e koX Xapirpdv ol SoKi/ncoraTOi 
KoX TTpMTOi TMV TToiXiTMV 7rapp'>]aLav yyov, irapa- 
KoXovvre^ prj x^tpova<; rou TroXe/xtov Kpcrd^ 
<pavi]vaL SeiXtav MapKeWou Kara'^ri(^iaaixevov<i, 
ov fjLoi'ov (fyeuyei tmv j)yepovu)v iKeh>o<i kol SiareXel 
Tovro) /xrj ixd')(60-dai aTpaTTjjMV, co? tol<; aXXoL^; 
4 /jid')(^eadai. py-jOevToav Be rojv Xoyoiv tovtcov toct- 
ovTov 1) rrj'i 8ikt]<; cXtti? e-yjrevaaTo top kutt]- 
ryopov oxne p,y /xovov dcpedrjvai twv aiTicov tov 
yidp/ceXXov, dXXd koL to irip^Trrov viraTov diro- 
hei')(Orivai. 

XXVIII. TlapaXalBoiv he tijv dp')(r]v irpoiTOv 
fxev iv Tupprji'Lo, p.eya Klvi]pa Trpo? diroaTacnv 
erravae kuI KareTrpavvev eTreXOcov rd^ TroXeif 
etreiTa vaov eV tmv "EiKeXtKcov Xacfyvpcov (pKoSopr]- 
fievov urr^ avrou Ao^?/? Kal ^AperT]^ /caOiepMaai 
fiovX6pei>o<;, Kal KcoXvOel^; inro rCov lepecov ovk 
d^Lovi'Tcov evl va(p Bvo Oeovi TTepte^^ecrdai, irdXiv 
yp^uTO irpoaoLKoSop.elv erepov, ov paSLco<i cf>epo}p 
TTjv yeyev^jpiev^ji^ dvTLKpovcnv, aXX Mcrirep oco)- 

2 vi^o/xei'd. Kal yap dXXa iroXXa (T7]/jLeta Sierd- 
pajrev ainov, lepcov tlvojv K€pauvooaeL<; Kac /uLve<i 
TOV iv Aio? 'xpvaov SiacfyayovTe^' eXe')(6ri he Kal 
^ovv dvdpcoTTOu (^wvrjv d^elvai Kal ttulBlov e^ot" 
Ke(paXi]v iXecpavTo^ yeveaOar Kal irepl Td<; ck- 
Ovaea Kal dTTOTpoird^ SvaiepovvTe^ ol pdvTeL<; 
KaTCCxov avTOV iv 'Paoprj a-napyoyvTa Kac (jiXeyo- 
p.evov. ouSet? yap epwTa ToaovTov r/pdaOt] irpay- 
paTO^ ov8€vo<i ocrov ovto<; dvrjp tov pd)(^r] 

3 KpidPjvai 7rpb<; Avvi/3av. tovto Kai vvKTcop 



512 



MARCELLUS, xxvii. 3-xxvin. 3 

circus, Bibulus rose up and denounced him. Then 
Marcellus spoke bricHy and simply in his own de- 
fence, and the leading and most reputable citizens, 
with great boldness of sj)eech and in glowing terms, 
exhorted the people not to show themselves worse 
judges than the enemy by convicting Marcellus of 
cowardice, whom alone of their leaders Hannibal 
avoided, and continually contrived not to fight with 
him, that he might fight with the rest. When these 
speeches were ended, the accuser was so far dis- 
appointed in his hope of obtaining the verdict that 
Marcellus was not only acquitted of the charges 
against him, but actually appointed consul for the 
fifth time.^ 

XXVIII. After assuming his office, he first quelled 
a great agitation for revolt in Etruria, and visited 
and pacified the cities there ; next, he desired to 
dedicate to Honour and Virtue a temple that he had 
built out of his Sicilian spoils, but was prevented by 
the priests, who would not consent that two deities 
should occupy one temple ; he therefore began to 
build another tem{)le adjoining the first, although 
he resented the priests' opposition and regarded it 
as ominous. And indeed many other portents dis- 
turbed him : sundry temples were struck by light- 
ning, and in that of Jupiter, mice had gnawed the 
gold ; it was reported also that an ox had uttered 
human speech, and that a boy had been born with 
an elephant's head ; moreover, in their expiatory 
rites and sacrifices, the seers received bad omens, 
and therefore detained him at Rome, though he was 
all on fire and impatient to be gone."^ For no man 
ever had such a passion for any thing as he had for 
fiffhtinff a decisive battle with Hannibal. This was 

1 For 208 B.C. Cf. Livy, xxvii. 20. 

2 Cf. Livy, xxvii. 11 ; 25. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

oveipov rjv avrw koX fxera cbiXwv Koi crvvap-yovTcou 
6V ^ovXevfxa Kal /ula Trpo? deov<; (f)0)v>], TrapaTUT- 
TOfievov 'Avvi/Sav Xa/3elv. yjSicrTa S' up /uloi SoKec 
Te/^ou? ei/o? i] Tivo<i 'xapaKO^ d/jLcf)OTepoi<i toU 
arpaTev/xaai irepireOevTOi; Siaywvicraa-Oai, koI el 
fit) TToXXf;? fiev 7]8r] yu,eo-T09 VTrPjpxe So^?;?, iroWi^v 
Be trelpav rrapeay^i'jKeL rov Trap' ovtcvovv tmv 
(TTpaTTjycov ip./3ptd)]<i yeyovevai Kal cppovip^o^, 
elTTov av OTL ixeipaKL6)he<i avrw TrpoaTreiTTcoKet 
Kal (f)i\oTifi6r€pov 7rdOo<i t) Kara '7rp€(T/3vTi]V 
Toaovrov. virep yap e^yJKovTa yeyovoo<i btt] to 
ire/xTTTov vTrdrevev. 

XXIX. Ov p,r}V ciWa dvaiwv Kal Ka9app,oyv 
oiv viryjyopevov ol f^dvrec^ yevoixevwv i^r/XOe fierd 
Tov o-updp^ovro'i eVl rov rroXep^ov, Kal iroXXd 
fiera^v Baz/rta? 7ro\ea)<f Kal Bevuaia'i Ka6/)p.evov 
i)pe6ii^e TOV 'AvvL/3av. 6 8e et? p-dxriv /lev ov 
Kare/3aivev, alado/j.evo'i Se TrefMTro/j.evqv vtt' avrcov 
(TTpaTidv iirl AoKpov<; rov^ 'E7rt^€(f)vpiou<;, Kara 
rov irepl TLerjjXiav X6(pov vcfieU ev68pa<i irevra- 
2 KO(TLOV<i Kal BiaxtXiov; aTreKTeive. tovto Mdp- 31 
KeXXov e^e(j)epe tm 6v/j.u> 7r/5o<? ttjv iJid)(r]v, Kal 
Trpoafjyev dpa<; eyyvjepw rrjv 8vvap.iv. 

Hv Se p.€Ta^v rcov a-TparoTriSwv X6(f)0^ iiriei,- 
K(o<; fiev evepK)]^, vX7]<; oe iravToBaTri]^ avdrrXew^' 
elxe Se Kal (rK07rd<; TrepiKXtvel'i eV dfic^orepa, 
Kai vaixarwv viretpaivovTO irriyal KarappeovTCDv. 
iOavp-a^ov ovv ol 'Pcofialoi 'Avvu^av oti tt/qwto? 
eXoiv evcfevd tottov ovrax; ov KaTeaxev, dXX' dire- 



MARCELLUS, xxviii. 3-.\xi.\. 2 

his dream at night, his one subject for deliberation 
with friends and colleagues, his one appeal to the 
gods, namely, that he might find Hannibal drawn up 
to meet him. And I think he would have been 
most pleased to have the struggle decided with both 
armies enclosed by a single wall or rampart ; and if 
he had not been full already of abundant honour, 
and if he had not given abundant proof that he 
could be compared with any general whomsoever in 
solidity of judgement, I should have said that he 
had fallen a victim to a youthful ambition that ill 
became such a great age as his. For he had passed 
his sixtieth year when he entered upon his fifth 
consulship.^ 

XXIX. However, after the ceremonies of sacrifice 
and purification which the seers prescribed had been 
performed, he set out with his colleague for the war, 
and gave much annoyance to Hannibal in his en- 
campment between Bantia and Venusia. Hannibal 
would not give battle, but having been made aware 
that the Romans had sent some troops against Locri 
Epizephyrii, he set an ambush for them at the hill 
of Petelia, and slew twenty-five hundred of them. 
This filled Marcellus with mad desire for the battle, 
and breaking camp, he brought his forces nearer to 
the enemy. 

Between the camps was a hill which could be 
made tolerably secure, and was full of all sorts of 
woody growth ; it had also lookout-places that sloped 
in either direction, and streams of water showed 
themselves running down its sides. The Romans 
therefore wondered that Hannibal, who had come 
first to a place of natural advantages, had not oc- 
cupied it, but left it in this way for his enemies. 

1 In 208 B.C. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

3 Xiwe Tot? 7roXe/itof9. toG Be apa koKov /nev iv- 
(TTparoTreSevaai to ')(a>piov icf)aiveTO, ttoXv Be 
Kpelrrov eveBpevcrai' kuI Trpo? tovto fidWou 
avru) ')(^p7](T0ai /3ovX6/ji€VO<i eve-nXriae ti-jv vXtjv 
Koi Ta<; KocXdBai; aKovTicTTcbv re ttoXXcov koX 
Xoyyo(f)6pa)V, Treireiapevo'^ eird^eaOaL ot ev(f)uiav 

4 avTa ra %ft)/3ia rov'i 'Fcopalov;. ouBe dTre^evcrOri 
T^}9 iXnTiBo^' evOv^ 'yap rjP 7toXv<; iv tu> arparo' 
TreBo) Toit' 'VwfiaLwv X6yo<i &)? ^y/'j; to 'y^copiov 
KaraXa/x^dveLV, kol Biecrrpartjyouv 6a a irXeove- 
KTiqaovai rov'i TToXe/xtof?, p^dXiara p,ev eKel 
aTpaT07reBevaavTe<;, el Be pi], TeL-)(^i(TavTe<i tov 
Xocpoi'. eBo^ev ovv ru) XlapKeXXro per oXiywv 
Ittttotwv iireXdaavTi KaraaKe'^aaOai. koI Xa^oiv 
TOV p,dvTiv edvero' kqX tov irpoorov TT6(TovTO<i 
lepelov BeiKwaiv avrw to rjirap ovk e^ov KecfyaXrjv 

5 6 pdvTL'i. eTnOvcrapevov Be to BevTepov i] re 
Ke(f)aXr) peyeOo'i V7rep(pve<; dvkaye koi rdXXa 
(f)aiBpd davpacrTM<; Biecfidvr), /cal Xvcriv ex^iv o 
Tcoi^ Trpcorcov (f)60o<; eBo^ev. ol Be pdvrei^; ravra 
p,dXXov e(pacrai^ BeBievai Koi rapdrreaOar Xap- 
irpoTaTOiv yap eV ala'^iaroi'i kuI aKvOpcoirora- 
rofi iepoL<i yevop.ev(ov vTroirrov ecvai rrj<{ pbera- 
IBoXr}<; rrjv droTnav. aXXa yap 

To Treirpcopevov ov Trvp, ov aiBapovv crx^aei 

T6i%09, 

Kara UlvBapov, e^rjei rov re (rvvdpxovra KpiaTri- 
vov rrapaXa^cbv /cal rov vlov x^Xiapxovvra Km 

6 Tov<; avpTravra^ (VTret? eiKocn /cal BiaKoaiov;. wv 
'Vwpalo'i ovBel^ r]v, dXX! ol pev dXXoi Tvpptjvot,, 
recraapdKOvra Be ^peyeXXavol, rrelpav dperi]^ fcal 

5ii6 



MARCELLUS, xxix. 3-6 

Now, to Hannibal the place did seem good for an 
encampment, but far better for an ambuscade, and 
to this use he preferred to put it. He therefore 
filled its Avoods and hollows with a large force of 
javelineers and spearmen, convinced that the place 
of itself would attract the Romans by reason of its 
natural advantages. Nor was he deceived in his 
expectations ; for straightway tliere was much talk 
in the Roman camp about the necessity of occupying 
the place, and tliey enumerated all the strategic ad- 
vantages which they would gain over their enemies, 
particularly by encamping there, but if not that, by 
fortifying the hill. Marcellus accordingly decided 
to ride up to it with a few horsemen and inspect it. 
So he summoned his diviner and ottered sacrifice, 
and when the first victim had been slain, the diviner 
showed him that the liver had no head. But on his 
sacrificing for the second time, the head of the liver 
was of extraordinary size and the other tokens ap- 
peared to be wonderfully propitious, and the fear 
which the first had inspired seemed to be dissipated. 
But the diviners declared that they were all the 
more afraid of these and troubled by them ; for 
when very propitious omens succeeded those which 
were most inauspicious and threatening, the strange- 
ness of the change was ground for suspicion. But 
since, as Pindar says,^ 

"Allotted fate not fire, not wall of iron, will 
check," 

Marcellus set out, taking with him his colleague 
Crispinus, his son, who was a military tribune, and 
two hundred and twenty horsemen all told. Of 
these, not one was a Roman, but they were all 
Etruscans, except forty men of Fregellae, who had 
1 Fragment 232 (Bergk). 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

7rto"Tea)9 ael tcS ^iapKeWm 8€Bo)K6T€<i. v\a)8ov<; 
8e rod \6(j)ov koI crvvrjpecjiou^ 6vto<; avrjp Ka6)]- 
/xeyo? avo) (tkotttjv ^i-X^ toi? iToXeixioLs, avro<^ 
ov (Tuvop(jo/j,evo<i, KaOopoJp 8e tmv 'VwpLaiwv to 

7 GTparoTTehov. koI Ta <yLvofieva toutov (j>pdaavTO<i 
Toi<; A.oT^cO(T(, TTpoaeXavvovra rov \lapKeX\.ov 
ed(7avre<i iyyij^; irpoaeXOeiv i^ai(f)vr](; dviarijaav, 
Kol irepi'xyOevTe'i dp.a iravTaxoOev rjKovrc^oi', 
€7raiov, ehiooKov tou? (f)€vyovTa<; , avverr'XeKovTO 
TOi? v(f)taTa/j.evoi<i. ovTot, S" rjaav ol recrcrapd- 

8 Kovra ^peyeWavoL /cal tmv TvppyjvMv €v0v<; ev 
apxfl SiarpeadvTcov avrol avaTpa<pevT€<i t]/j,vvovto 
irpo TMv VTrdrcov, dxpi ov KpiaTTU'C^; jxev uKOVTi- 
apMai 8val ^e/SXrjp.evo'i iirecnpe-^ev el^ (puyrjv 
Tov iTTTTov, yidpKeXXov Se tc<; Xoyxj) TrXareia Sia 
t6)v irXevpcov hiifKacrev, fjv XayKiav KaXovatv. 
ouTco Se Kal rayv ^peyeXXavcov ol 'irepi6vTe<; oXiyoi 
TTavrdiraaLV avrbv /xev nreaovra XeLTTOvai, tov S' 
vibv dp7rdaavTe<i rerpwi-ievov (jievyovacv irrl to 

9 (JTpaToirehov. eyevovTO he veKpol fiev ov ttoXXw 
TMV TcaaapdKovTU irXeiov^, alxP'dXcoToi Be tmv 
fxev pa^Sov^oyv irevTe, tmv 8e 'nrirecav e'lKoai Sveiv 
Beovra. ereXevTi^ae Be koI Kpia7rtvo<; e/c tmv 
TpavfidTcov ov TToXXa^; ^p,6pa<; eVf/Sicocra?. kuI 
irdOo^ Tovro 'Pu>paLOL<i avvetreoe irporepov ov 
yeyov6<;, dp,<poT€pov<i i^ evb<i dySivo^ toi)? inrdTOVi 
dirodaveZv. 

XXX. ^KvvL^a Be tmv p-ev dXXcov eXd')(^iaT0<i 
Tjv Xoyo<;, ^idpKeXXov Be TreTTTcoKevat 7rvd6fievo<i 
auTo? e^eBpa/xev eirl tov tottov, Kal tw veKpw 
TTapaaTO.'^ Kal ttoXvv ^/jo^oi' ti^v re p(op,7]v tov 
(Td}p,aro<i KaTafxaddiv Kal to elBo<i, ovre (poivrjv 

518 



MARCELLUS, xxix. 6-xxx. i 

given Marcellus constant proof of their valour and 
fidelity. Now, the crest of the hill was covered with 
woods, and on its summit a man had been stationed 
by the enemy to keep a lookout ; he could not be 
seen himself, but kept the Roman camp in full view. 
This man, then, told those who lay in ambush what 
was going on, and they, after permitting Marcellus 
to ride close up to them, rose up on a sudden, and 
encompassing him on all sides, hurled their javelins, 
smote with their spears, pursued the fugitives, and 
grappled with those who made resistance. These 
were the forty men of Fregellae, who, though the 
Etruscans at the very outset took to flight, banded 
themselves together and fought in defence of the 
consuls, until Crispinus, smitten with two javelins, 
turned his horse and fled, and Marcellus was run 
through the side with a broad spear (the Latin name 
for which is " lancea "). Then the surviving men 
of Fregellae, few all told, left him where he lay 
dead, snatched up his son who was wounded, and 
fled to their camp. Hardly more than forty were 
slain, but five lictors were taken prisoners, and 
eighteen horsemen.^ Crispinus also died of his 
wounds not many days after. Such a disaster as 
this had never happened to the Romans before : 
both their consuls were killed in a single action. 

XXX. Hannibal made very little account of the 
rest, but when he learned that Mai'cellus had fallen, 
he ran out to the place himself, and after standing 
by the dead body and surveying for a long time its 
strength and mien, he uttered no boastful speech, 
1 Cf. Livy, xxvii. 26 and 27. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

a(f>y]K€V v'ireprj<^avov, ovre air oyfreox; to ')(^aipov, 
CO? av Ti<i ipycoSi] iroXepnov koX ^apvv aireKrovax;, 

2 i^e(f}'r)V€v, dX}C eTT l6 av pda a<i to 'napdXo'yov Ti)<i 
reXevrrj'i rov fiev BuktuXiov d(j)ei\eTO, to Be aco/MX 316 
Koap,7]cra<; irpeirovTi Koapicc koL TrepicrreiXa'i ivri- 
fiii)<; €Kavae' koI to. \ei\p-ava avvOel'^ et? kuXttlv 
dp<yvpdv, Koi y^pvaovv ep^^aXcov are(f)avov, cnre- 
areike 7rpb<; rov vlov. tmv Be NofidBcov rive^ irepi- 
TV)(6vTe<; TOt? KO/xL^ovaiv copfitjcrav d(f)aipeta6ai 
TO Te{5^09, dvTiXa/x^avop^evwv S' eKelvcov iKfSia^o- 

3 fievoi Kol fxa'X^op.evoL Bt.€ppi'\jrav to. ocrTa. irvOo- 
fMevo<; Be ^ A.vvi^a<i, koX TTpo<i tov<; 7rap6vTa<; elircov, 
" OvBev apa Bvvarov jeveadai cikovto^ deov," 
T0L<; p,ev ll^ofidaiv eiredTjKe Blktjv, ouKeri Be KoptBrj<; 
rj (TvXko<yri<i tmv Xeiyjrdvcov ecppovriaev, &)? Bt] Kara 
6e6v Tiva Kol T% reXevrrj^ koI t?}? dTa<^ia<; irapa- 

4 X67<W9 ovTco tS> y[apKeW<p jevopevij^. ravra pev 
ovv ol irepl K.opv}']\i.ov NevrwTa Kal OvaXepiov 
M.d^ip.ov [(TToprJKaat' At/3f09 Be Kal Kalaap 6 
'^e^aaro'i Kop.iadfjvat rrjv vBpiav rrpo'i rov vlov 
elp7]Kaai Kal Tacpijvat \ap7rp(b<;. 

'Hz' Be dvddr]p,a MapKeXkov Bi)(^a rcov iv 'Vcoprj 
>yvpLvd(TLOv pev iv J^aravr) Trj<; St/ceXta?, dvBpidvre^ 
Be Kal irlvaKe^i rwv e'/c SvpaKovcrcov ev re 'Sa/bio- 
OpaKT) irapd toi<; 6eol<i, ov<; K.a^eLpov<; Mvopa^ov, 
6 Kat irepl AlvBov ev tw lepw Trj<; Wdr}vd<i. eKel Be 
avTOv TU) dvBpidvTi tovt rjv e7n<yeypap,p,evov, co? 
UoaeiBcovi6<; (f)7]cn, to i7rLypap,pa- 

OvTo^ TOi 'Vcopb^-jt; o p,eya<i, ^eve, TraTplBo^ dcnrip, 
Ma/3«eXXo9 KXetvcov K.XavBio<; e'/c iraTepwv, 

^ Of which he afterwards made fraudulent use (Livy, 
xxvii. 28). 

520 



MARCELLUS, XXX. 1-5 

nor did he manifest his joy at the sight, as one 
might have done who had slain a bitter and ti-ouble- 
some foe ; but after wondering at the unexpected- 
ness of his end, he took off liis signet-ring, indeed/ 
but ordered the body to be honourably robed, suit- 
ably adorned, and burned. Then he collected the 
remains in a silver urn, placed a golden wreath upon 
it, and sent it back to his son. But some of the 
Numidians fell in with those who were carrying the 
urn and attempted to take it away from them, and 
when they resisted, fought with them, and in the 
fierce struggle scattered the bones far and wide. 
When Hannibal learned of this, he said to the by- 
standers : "You see that nothing can be done against 
the will of God." Then he punished the Numidians, 
but took no further care to collect and send back 
the remains, feeling that it was at some divine 
behest that Marcellus had died and been deprived 
of burial in thi^ strange manner. Such, then, is 
the account given by Cornelius Nepos and Valerius 
Maximus ; but Livy ^ and Augustus Caesar state 
that the urn was brought to his son and buried with 
splendid rites. 

Besides the dedications which Marcellus made in 
Rome, there was a gymnasium at Catana in Sicily, 
and statues and paintings from the treasures of Syra- 
cuse both at Samothrace, in the temple of the gods 
called Cabeiri, and at Lindus in the temple of Athena. 
There, too, there was a statue of him, according to 
Poseidonius, bearing this inscription : 

"This, O stranger, was the great star of his country, 
Rome, — Claudius Marcellus of illustrious line, 

2 According to Livy, xxvii. 28, Hannibal buried Marcellus 
on the hill where he was killed. Lis y found many discordant 
accounts of the death of Marcellus (xxvii. 27 /in.). 

521 
VOL. V S 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

kindKL Tav vTTciTav ap')(^av iv "Aprjl (f)vXd^a<;, 
TOP TToXvv dvnirdXoi'i 09 KaT€)(€V€ cf)6vov. 

TTjV yap dvOuTTUTOv dpxv^, V^ ^^"^ VP^^f "T"**^? 'rrevre 
TT pocr Karrjpid fXT]crev vTraTeiat,^ 6 to eTTiypa/u./xa 
TTOiijcra^. yevo^i 3' avroii Xafxirpov d^pi MapKeX- 
Xov Tov K^aiaapof; dSeXcpiSov Siereivev, 09 \)KTa- 
^'ia<; 7]v ri]<; KaLcrapo'i d8€\(f)t]<; vio<i eic Taiov 
MapKeWov yeyovux;, dyopavo/xcov Se 'Pcofxaicov 
€TeX€VT7](T€ vufi(f)i,o<;, K.aiaapo'i dvyuTpl ')^p6vov ov 
TToXvv <JvvoiK/](ja<i. et? 8e ri/nijv avrov Kol p,vt]/xr]v 
'O/cra/Sia fiev r) pii'jrrip rrjv ^L^XioOrjKrjv dvedrjKe, 
Kalaap Se dearpov i7riypd-y}ra<i Map/ceXXov. 



HEAOniAOY KAI MAPKEAAOY 2YrKPI2l2 

L ' Oaa fiev ovv eSo^ev rj/xtv dvaypacprji^ d^ia 
Tcov laToprj/uievcov irepl MapKeXXov kol YieXoTTlhov, 
ravrd iari. tmv Be Kara rd<; cj)ua€i<i /cat rd i]0r] 
KoivoTijTcov wcnrep ecpa/nlXXcov ovacov (/cai yap 
dvhpeloL KOI (piXoTTOvoi Kal OvpLoeihels kuI fxeya- 
X6(f)pove^ d/i(f)6TepoL yeyovacriv), eKetvo So^etev 
dv Siatpopdv e^eiv p.6vov, on MdpKeXXo'i pev ev 
TToXXal'i TToXeaiv vTroy^eLpioi^ yevopLevat'i ac^ayd^ 
eTToujaev, ^ETrap-eivcovSwi 8e Kal IleXoiriSa^ ov- 
oeva TTWTTOTe KpaT7]aavTe<; dTreKreivav ovhe tto- 
X€i<i rjvSpaTToSiaavro. Xeyovrat Se Srj^aloi p-rjSe 
OpXopieviov<i dv ovroo p^erax^ipicracrOai Trapovrwv 
eKeivcov. 

El/ Se Ttti? Trpd^ecri 6avp.acrTd /lev Kal p,eydXa 
TOV MapKeXXov rd tt/so? KeA.TOU9, ducra/xevov 
522 



PELOPIDAS AND MARCELLUS, xxx. 5-6 

who seven times held the consular power in 
time of war, and poured much slaughter on 
his foes." 

For the author of the inscription has added his two 
proconsulates to his five consulates. And his line 
maintained its splendour down to Marcellus the 
nephew of Augustus Caesar, who was a son of 
Caesar's sister Octavia by Caius Marcellus, and who 
died during his aedileship at Rome, having recently 
married a daughter of Caesar. In his honour and to 
his memory Octavia his mother dedicated the library, 
and Caesar the theatre, which bear his name. 



COMPARISON OF PELOPIDAS AND 
MARCELLUS 

I. This is what I have thought worthy of record 
in what historians say about Marcellus and Pelopidas. 
In their natures and dispositions they were almost 
exactly alike, since both were valiant, laborious, pas- 
sionate, and magnanimous ; and there would seem 
to have been this difference only between them, that 
Marcellus committed slaughter in many cities which 
he reduced, while Epaminondas and Pelopidas never 
put any one to death after their victories, nor did 
they sell cities into slavery. And we are told that, 
had they been present, the Thebans would not have 
treated the Orchomenians as they did. 

As for their achievements, those of Marcellus 
against the Gauls were great and astonishing, since 

523 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Toaovrov 7rX?}^09 iTnreayv ofxov Kol ire^cov oXljoi^ 
Totf Trepl avTOV ivTrevatP, o paBL(o<; v<f erepou 
(rrparrj'yov ye<yovo<; ou^ laroprjTai, kul tov ap- 
yovTa TMV 7ro\e/j,ici)v aveXovTO^' iv w rpoiro) 
tleXorriha^ eTnaicrev 6p/Jiria-a<i eirl ravrd, irpoavaL- 
pedelf 8e vtto tov rvpdvvov koI iraOoov irporepov 

3 7) 8pd(Ta<i. ov fMTjv dWd tovtol^ fiev ecrrt irapa- 
^aXelv TO, AevKTpa Kol Teyvpa^, eTrKpaveaTdrovf 
KoX fie'yiCTTOv'i djcovcov, Kpv<paiav Be avv Xox<p 
Karoypdcofievrjv irpd^iv oufc e^ofiev tov MapKeWov 
trapa^aXeiv oU IleXoTrtSa? Trepl Trjv e'/c (f)vyr]^ 
KddoSov Kol dvaipeatv tmv iv Sr]^ai<i Tvpdvvo)v 
'iirpa^ev, dXX! eKelvo iroXv irdvTOiv eoiKe irpo)- 
Tevetv TMV VTTO (TKOTW KoX hi dirdTrj^ yeyevrjfxevwv 

4 TO epyov. ^AvvL^af <pol3€pb<i fiev Koi Seivo<i ivi- 
KeiTo 'P&)/xatof<?,^ wairep dfxeXet AuKeSaifiovioi 
Tore ©T/ySatoi?, evhovvai he tovtov<; fiev HekoTTiSa ; 
Kul ire pi Tejvpai; koI Trepl AevKTpa ^e^aiov eaTiv, 31 
^AvvLJ3av Be MdpKeWo^;, co? fiev ol Trepl UoXv/Scov 
Xeyovaiv, ouSe UTra^ evLKi-jcrev, dX)C di]TTr]TO<i 

6 dvrjp SoKet hiayeveadav /Ae%pt XKr)7rici)vo<i' i)fMeL^ 
Be ki^iw, Kaiaapt, koX NeTrojTt koX twv 'EWtjvl- 
KMV Tw ^aatkel 'Io/3a TnaTevofiev, r^rra? Ttvd<; 
Kol TpoTTO,^ VTTO MapKeWov T03V avv ^AvvijBa <yeve- 
crOai' /xeydXrjv Be avTai poTTrjv ovBe/xiav eTroiTjcrav, 
dXX! eoine ylrevBoTTTCOfid ti yevecrOai Trept tov 

6 Al^vv ev Ttti? crv/xTT\oKai<; eKeivai'i. Br] KUTa 
\6jov Koi TTpoarjKOVTW'i edavp^daOrj, /iexa Toaav- 
Ta<? T/0O7ra9 aTpaTOTreBcov Koi (f)6vov<; (TTpaT7]yo)v 
KoX avy)(y(nv 6Xrj<i o/jlov t^<? 'Fcofxaicov riy€/jiGVia<; 

^ (vtHtLTo 'Pw/xalois Coraes and Bekker, after an early 
anonymous critic : iviKeiTo, 

524 



PELOPIDAS AND MARCELLUS, i. 2-6 

he routed such a multitude of liorse and foot 
with the few horsemen in his following (an action 
not easily found recorded of any other general), 
and slew the enemies' chieftain; whereas in this 
regard Pelopidas failed, for he set out to do the 
same thing, but suffered what he meant to inflict, 
and was slain first by the tyrant. However, with 
these exploits of Marcellus one may compare the 
battles of Leuctra and Tegyra, greatest and most 
illustrious of actions ; and we have no exploit of 
Marcellus accomplished by stealth and ambuscade 
which we can compare with what Pelopidas did in 
coming back from exile and slaying the tyrants in 
Thebes, nay, that seems to rank 'far higher than 
any other achievement of secrecy and cunning. 
Hannibal was, it is true, a most formidable enemy 
for the Romans, but so, assuredly, were the Lacedae- 
monians in the time of Pelopidas for the Thebans, 
and that they were defeated by Pelopidas at Tegyra 
and Leuctra is an established fact ; whereas Han- 
nibal, according to Polybius,^ was not even once de- 
feated by Marcellus, but continued to be invincible 
until Scipio came. However, I believe, with Livy, 
Caesar, and Nepos, and, among Greek writers, with 
King Juba, that sundry defeats and routs were in- 
flicted by Marcellus upon the troops of Hannibal, 
although these had no great influence upon the war ; 
indeed, the Carthaginian would seem to have prac- 
tised some ruse in these engagements. But that 
which reasonably and fittingly called for admiration 
was the fact that the Romans, after the rout of so 
many armies, the slaughter of so many generals, and 
the utter confusion of the whole empire, still had 

^ Cf. XV. 11, 7, where Hannibal makes this claim, in a 
speech to his men just before the battle of Zama (202 b.c.)- 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ei<? avTLTraXa tS dappelv KadiaTaixevoyv o yap e« 
TToWou Tov rrdXai irepiBeov'i kol KaTa7re7rX-)]'y6TO<; 
av6i<; e/uL^aXoDV tw (TTparev/nari i^rfkov kuI (f>i\o- 
7 veiKLav tt/qo? tou? iroXefXiov;, kuX tovto Brj to /x?; 
pahiw^ T?}? viKi]<i v(f)iefj.€voi^, aXXa Kal a/xcpta^)]- 
Tovv Te Koi (f)t\oTi/xov/ji€vov eirdpa'i Kal dappvpwi, 
el? dvrjp rjv, Map/reXXo?* eld la fxevov^; yap vtto 
rwv crvfx,(f)opa)v, ec (peuyovTe^; eK^vyoiev 'Avvi/3av, 
dyaTrdv, ihiha^ev ata^vveadai aco^ofievov; /xeO' 
7]TTT]<;, alhelaOai he irapa fiiKpov evhovra'^, aXyelv 
he fit] KpaTi']aavTa<;. 

II. 'Evrei rolvvv UeXoTTtSa'i fiev ovSefxtav r}TTi]6i] 
fidy^ijv crTpaTT)yo)v, MdpKeWo<; 8e TrXet'crra? rtov 
KaO' avTov 'Vcofiaiiov ivL/crjae, So^eiev dv Lcro)<i r& 

SvaVLKJJTO) 7rp0<i TO d)]TT7]T0V VTTO TrXljOoVi TMV 

KaTu>pOco/x€V(ov eiraviaovaOaL. kol fi-t^v ovTO<i fiev 
elXe XvpaKovaa<i, eKelvo<; he rfjf; AaKe8at/jbovo<i 
direrv^ev. dX\ oi/nai jxel^ov elvat tov KUTaXa^elv 
"ZiKeXiav to ttj "^TrdpTr} rrpoaeXdelv Kal Sca^fjvai 
2 TrpcoTov dvd poiircov iroXepiU) tov EvpooTUV, el p,?] vij 
Ata TOVTO fier (f)7]aei Ti<i to epyov ^Kira/xeivoovBa 
fidXXov rj YleXoTTiBa irpoaijKeiv, Mavep kuI to, 
AevKTpa, Twv he ^lapKeXXw hiaireirpayp.evwv 
dKoii'd)vr]TOv elvai ttjv Bo^av. Kal yap '^vpaKov- 
aa<; p.6vo<i elXe, Kal KeXroi)? dvev tov crvvdp-^ovTO<; 
eTpey\raro, Kal 7rpo<; 'Avvi^av p,rjBei'o^ crvXXafi- 
^dvovTO<;, dXXd Kal TrdvTcov djroT pcTTovTcov, dvTi- 
Ta^dp,evo<; Kal p,eTa^aXc6v to (T'^^rjixa tov iroXefiov 
TrpwTO? rjyep,wv tov ToX/xdv KaTecrTr). 

III. Trjii Toivvv TcXevTTjv enaivoi) fiev ovBeTepov 

526 



PELOPIDAS AND MARCELLUS, i. 6-111. i 

the courage to face their foes. For there was one 
man who filled his army again with ardour and am- 
bition to contend with the enemy, instead of the 
great fear and consternation which had long op- 
pressed them, inspiring and encouraging them not 
only to yield the victory reluctantly, but also to 
dispute it with all eagerness, and this man was 
Marcellus. For when their calamities had accus- 
tomed them to be satisfied whenever they escaped 
Hannibal by Hight, he taught them to be ashamed 
to survive defeat, to be chagrined if they came 
within a little of yielding, and to be distressed if 
they did not win the day. 

II. Since, then, Pelopidas was never defeated in 
a battle where he was in command, and Marcellus 
won more victories than any Roman of his day, it 
would seem, perhaps, that the multitude of his suc- 
cesses made the difficulty of conquering the one 
equal to the invincibility of the other. Marcellus, 
it is true, took Syracuse, while Pelopidas failed to 
take Sparta. But I think that to have reached Sparta, 
and to have been the first of men to cross the Eu- 
rotas in war, was a greater achievement than the 
conquest of Sicily ; unless, indeed, it should be said 
that this exploit belongs rather to Epaminondas than 
to Pelopidas, as well as the victory at Leuctra, while 
Marcellus shared with no one the glory of his achieve- 
ments. For he took Syracuse all alone, and routed 
the Gauls without his colleague, and when no one 
would undertake the struggle against Hannibal, but 
all declined it, he took the field against him, changed 
the aspect of the war, and was the first leader to 
show daring. 

III. I cannot, indeed, applaud the death of either 



527 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Toir avhpwv, aXV avtcofiai koX ayavaKTW rco 
irapaKoytp tou cry/XTTTOO/u-aTO?* Kal Oavfjid^w fxev 
€v fiaxdi''; TOcravTaif; 6(Tat.<; diroKa/ioi ti<; dv kut- 
apiOfioov, ixr]8e rpwdevTa top ^Avvl^av, dyapai Be 
Kul TOP ev TTJ TlaiSeta 'KpvadvTav, o<? Sirjpfievo^ 
KOTTiha Kol -naieLv pieWwv iroXepnov, m virea/]- 
fi7]V€v Tj (ToXTny^ dvaKXrjTiKov, dcpeU rov dvhpa, 

2 fxdXa 7rpaco<; Kal KO(TfXi(o<; dve-xoiprjaev. ou firjv 
dWa TOP YleXoTTiSav Troiel avyyvaxTTov dfia rat 
T?}9 /MaxVi Kaipw -napdOepixov ovra Kal 7rpo<; rrjv 
dpivvav ovK dyevvo)^ eK(f)epcov 6 dvfj,6<i' dptarov 
fxev yap viKMvra aco^eadai rov a-rparriyov, " el he 
davelv, eh dperrjp KaraXvaavTa ^iov,^ to? V-^vpt- 
7rl8r]<; (jirjcriv^ ovtm yap ou TrdOo^, dWa 7rpd^i<; 

3 yirerac rov reXei/Twi'To? 6 ddvaro^. irpo^ Be tw 
6v/xq) Tov UeXoTTiBov Kal to reXo? avro to t?}? 
vt«?79 ev Tft) irecreZv rov rvpavvov opcofxevov ov irav- 
raTracTLV dXoyw^ e-jrecnrda-aTo ttjv 6pp,r}V' %aXe7roj/ 
yap ere/oa? ovrw Ka\r]V Kal Xafx-rrpdv exovcrrj^ 
vTToOeaiv dpiarelai; iTriXa^eadai. MdpKeWos Be, 
fitjre %/06ta9 /xeydXr]^ e7riKeifi€V7]<;, firJTe rov irapa 
ra Beiva 7roXXdKt<; i^iaTavrof rov Xoytcr/xov iv- 
Oovaiaapiov 7rapeaTcoro<;, u)adp.evo<; aTTepLcrKeTrTCO^ 
eh KLvBvvov ov cTTpaTrjyov inayp.a, irpoBpofiov Be 

4 Tivo<i r) KaracFKOTTov ireTTTWKev, vtrareia'^ irevre 

KoX rpel<i dpid/ji^ovf; Kal aKvXa Kal rpo7raioct>opia<; 318 
diro ^acTiXewv roh TrpoairoOvrjaKOvai Kapxv- 
Bovicov "]/37)pat Kal ISlopbdcnv viro^aXdiV. o)cne 
vefiearjaai avTov<; eKeivovi eavroh rov Karopdca- 

1 El 5e eavi'iv Bifxis, oiSe Bavuv KaKov, 

61S apfrriv KaTa\v(ra/xfvovs fiiov 
(Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag.* p. 679). Cf. Plutarch, Morals, 
p. 24 d. 

528 



PELOPIDAS AND MARCELLUS, in. 1-4 

of them, nay, I am distressed and indignant at their 
unreasonableness in the final disaster. And I admire 
Hannibal because, in battles so numerous that one 
would weary of counting them, he was not even 
wounded. I am delighted, too, with Chrysantes, in 
the " Cyropaedeia," ^ wlio, though his blade was lifted 
on high and he was about to smite an enemy, when 
the trumpet sounded a retreat, let his man go, and 
retired with all gentleness and decorum. Pelopidas, 
however, was somewhat excusable, because, excited 
as he always was by an opportunity for battle, he 
was now carried away by a generous anger to seek 
revenge. For the best thhig is that a general should 
be victorious and keep his life, "but if he must die," 
he should "conclude his life with valour," as Euri- 
pides says ; for then he does not suffer death, but 
rather achieves it. And besides his anger, Pelopidas 
saw that the consummation of his victory would be 
the death of the tyrant, and this not altogether 
unreasonably invited his effort; for it would have 
been hard to find another deed of prowess with so 
fair and glorious a promise. But Marcellus, when 
no great need was pressing, and when he felt none 
of that ardour which in times of peril unseats the 
judgment, plunged heedlessly into danger, and died 
the death, not of a general, but of a mere skii-misher 
or scout, having cast his five consulates, his three 
triumphs, and the spoils and trophies which he had 
taken from kings, under the feet of Iberians and 
Numidians who had sold their lives to the Cartha- 
ginians. And so it came to pass that these very 
men were loath to accept their own success, when 



^ Xenophon, Cyrop. iv. 1, 3. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

fiaTO'i, avBpa 'Pcofiaioov aptaTOV dperfj kuI Svvdfxei. 
fiiyicTTOv Kol ho^rj XafiirpoTaTOv ev ro2<i ^peyeX- 
\avo)v 'irpohiepevv>)Tal<i irapavaXcaaOai. 

Xpi] Be TUVTU fxy] Karr-j'yopiav elvat rcov dvhpoiv 
vopi^eiv, dXX! w? dyai'tiKTrjaiv riva kuI TrapprjaLav 
inrep avrSiv eKeivwv Trpo? avTov<; kol rrjv dvhpelav 
avTMV, 6i<; fjv ra? dWa<; KaravdXcoaav apera? 
d(})€i87]cravT€s rov ^iov Kal t/"}? 'v/^f^'}?* oicnrep 
eavTul<i, ov rai<i irarpiaL pdXkov Kal </)tA.ot? Kal 
(jvppd)(OL<i, diroWv pevcov. 

Mero. 8e tov Odvarov TieXoTTiBa^ pev tou? avp- 
pd')(ov<i Ta<^et9 e'cr%6z/, virep S)v diredave, ^dpKek- 
\o? he Tov<i TToXepLov;, v(f)^ ojv drredave. ^yiXcorov 
fiev ovv eKetvo Kal p,aKdpiov, Kpelrrov he kol 
puel^ov evvoia<; %«/3ii' dp.et/3opevtj<; ex^P^^ Xdttov- 
aav dpeiTjv davp,d^ovaa. to <yap KaXov ivravda 
Ttjv riprjv e^^t povov, eK€i he to XvaneXe^; Kal 
Tj xpela p,dXXov dyaTraTai, rr)? ap€T?}9. 



530 



PELOPIDAS AND MARCELLUS, iii. 4-6 

a Roman who excelled all others in valour, and 
had the greatest influence and the most splendid 
fame, was uselessly sacrificed among the scouts of 
Fregellae. 

This, however, must not be thought a denunciation 
of the men, but rather an indignant and outspoken 
protest in their own behalf against themselves and 
their valour, to which they uselessly sacrificed their 
other virtues, in that they were unsparing of theii 
lives ; as if their death affected themselves alone, 
and not rather their countries, friends, and allies. 

After his death, Pelopidas received burial from his 
allies, in whose behalf he fell ; Marcellus from his 
enemies, by whose hands he fell. An enviable and 
happy lot was the former, it is true ; but better and 
greater than the goodwill which makes grateful re- 
turn for favours done, is the hatred which admires 
a valour that was harassing. For in this case it is 
worth alone which receives honour ; whereas in the 
other, personal interests and needs are more regarded 
than excellence. 



531 



A PARTIAL DICTIONARY OF 
PROPER NAMES 



AcliiUas, 317-325, one of the guar- 
dians of Ptolemy XII. (Dionysus), 
and commander of his troops 
when Caesar came to Egypt. 
According to Bell. Alex, iv., he 
was put to death by his sister 
Arsinoe. 

Achradina, 485, the first extension 
on the mainland of the island city 
of Syracuse, stretching from the 
Great Harbour northwards to 
the sea. 

Actium, 175, a promontory of Acar- 
nania in northern Greece, at the 
entrance to the Ambraciot gulf. 

Aesop, 429, a Greek writer of fables, 
who flourished in the first half of 
the sixth century B.C. Fables 
bearing liis name were popular at 
Athens in the time of Aristo- 
phanes. 

Afranius, 205, 211, 217, 229, 287, 
291, Lucius A., a warm partisan 
of Pompey, and one of his legates 
In Spain during the war with 
Sertorius, as well as in Asia 
during the Mithridatic war. He 
was consul in 60 B.C. In 55 B.C. 
he was sent by Pompey with 
Petreius to hold Spain for him. 
He was killed after the battle 
of Thapsus (46 B.C.). 

Amanus, 217, a range of mountains 
brandling off from the Taurus in 
Cilicia, and extending eastwards 
to Syria and the Euplirates. 

Amisus, 213, 223, a city of Pontus, 
in Asia Minor, on the southern 
shore of the Euxine Sea. 

Amphi polls, 309, an important town 

PLUT. V. 



in S.E. Macedonia, on tlie river 
Strymon, about three miles from 
the sea. 

Androcydes of Cyzicus, 401, a cele- 
brated painter, who flourished 
from 400 to 377 B.C. See 
Plutarch, Morals, p. 668 c. 

Andros, 345, the most northerly 
island of the Cyclades group, 
S. E. of Euboea. 

Antalcidas, 63, 73, 87, 417, an able 
Spartan politician, and com- 
mander of the Spartan fleet in 
388 B.C. The famous peace 
between Persia and the Greeks, 
concluded in 387 B.C., was called 
after him. 

Antigonus, 341, 343, the general of 
Alexander who was afterwards 
king of Asia, surnamed the One- 
eyed. 

Antioch, 219, the capital of the 
Greek kings of Syria, on the river 
Orontes, founded by Seleucus in 
300 B.C. 

Antipater, 41, regent of Macedonia 
and Greece during Alexander's 
absence in the East, and also 
after Alexander's death, until 
319 B C 

ApoUophanes of Cyzicus, 33, known 
only in this connection. 

Appius, 467, 471, Appius Claudius 
Pulcher, niiUtary tribune at 
Cannae (216 B.C.), praetor in 
Sicily 215 B.C., and legate of Mar- 
cellus there in 214. He was 
consul in 212, and died in the 
following year. 

Arbela, 211, a town in Babylonia, 
near which Alexander inflicted 
final defeat upon Dareius. 

533 



DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



Archimedes, 471-477, the most 
famous of ancient mathemati- 
cians, Hved 287-212 B.C. 

Archytas, 471, a Greeli of Taren- 
tum, philosopher, mathemati- 
cian, general and statesman, 
flourished about 400 B.C. 

Ariminum, 273, 443, a city of Um- 
bria, on the Adriatic, command- 
ing the eastern coast of Italy and 
an entrance into Cisalpine Gaul. 

Arsaces, 315, Arsaces XIV. (or 
Orontes I.), king of Parthia 
55-38 B.C. 

Arsis, 131, an error for Aesis, a 
river flowing between Umbria 
and Picenum, in N.E. Italy. 

Asculum, 123 f., a city in tlie in- 
terior of Picenum, taken by 
Strabo during the Marsic war 
(89 B.C.) and burnt. 

Athamania, 287, a district in 
northern Greece, between Thes- 
saly and Epirus. 

Aulis, 15, a town on the Boeotian 
side of the straits of Euripus, 
reputed to liave been the rendez- 
vous for tlie Greek chieftains 
under Agamemnon. 

Auximum, 129, a city of Picenum, 
in N.E. Italy, just south of 
Ancona. 



B 



Bantia, 515, a small town in Apulia, 
about tliirteen miles south-east of 
Venusia. 

Beroea, 281, a town in Macedonia, 
west of the Thermaic gulf (Bay 
of Saloniki). 

Bibulus (1), 237-241, 259, Lucius 
Calpurnius B., aedile in 65, 
praetor in 62, and consul in 59 B.C. , 
in each case a colleague of Julius 
Caesar. He was an aristocrat of 
moderate abilities. He died in 
48 B.C. 

Bibulus (2), 511, 513, Publicius B., 
not otherwise known. 

Bosporus. 215, the territory on botli 
sides of the strait between tlie 
Euxine Sea and the Maeotic Lake 
(Sea of Azov), and including the 
modern Crimea. The strait (p. 
207) bears the same name. 



Briareus, 479, a monster of myth- 
ology, having a hundred arms 
and fifty heads, called by men 
Aegaeon (Iliad, i. 403 f.). 

Brundisium, 183 f., 279, 285, an 
important city on the eastern 
coast of Italy (Calabria), with a 
fine harbour. It was the natural 
point of departure from Italy to 
the East, and was the chief naval 
station of the Romans in the 
Adriatic. 

Brutus, 129, 153, 155, Marcus 
Junius B., father of the conspira- 
tor, tribune of the people in 83, 
and, in 77 B.C., general under 
Lepidus. 



Caenum, 213, the fortress men- 
tioned without name in the pre- 
ceding chapter. It wasinPontus. 
on the river Lycus, S.E. of 
Amisus. 

Caepio, 239, Servilius C, a sup- 
porter of Caesar against his col- 
league Bibulus in 59 B.C. (Sueto- 
nius, Div. Jul. 21). Cf. the 
Caesar, xiv. 4. 

Calauria, 175, a small island off the 
S.E. coast of Argolis in Pelopon- 
nesus. Its temple was the final 
refuge of Demosthenes. 

Callicratidas, 343, the Spartan ad- 
miral who succeeded Lysander 
in 400 B.C., and lost his Ufe in the 
battle of Arginusae. Cf. the 
Li/sander, chapters v.-vLi. 

Callipides, 59, cf. the Alcibiades, 
x\s.n. 2. 

CaUisthenes, 97, 381, of Olynthus, a 
philosopher and historian, who 
accompanied Alexander the Great 
on Ills expedition in the East 
until put to death by him in 
328 B.C. Besides an account of 
Alexander's expedition, he wrote 
a history of CJreeee from 387 to 
357 B.C. 

Cal\ inus, 295, see Domitius (3). 

Canusium, 457, 507, an ancient city 
of Apulia, about fifteen miles 
from the sea. 

Capitoliniis, 439, Cains Scantilius 
C., colleague of Marcellus in the 
aedilesliip about 226 B.C. 



534 



DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



Carbo, 127-131, 137 f., Gnaeus 
Papirius C, a leader of the Marian 
])arty, consular colleague of 
Cinna in 85 and 84 B.C., put to 
death by Pompey in 82 B.C. 

Carinas (or Carrinas), 129, Caius C, 
was defeated by Sulla in the 
following year (82 B.C.), captured 
and put to death. 

Catana, 521, an ancient city on the 
eastern coast of Sicily, about mid- 
way between Syracuse and Tau- 
romenium, directly at the foot of 
Mt. Aetna. 

Catulus, 153, 157, 179, 181, 193, 197, 
Quintus Lutatius C, a leading 
aristocrat of the nobler sort, 
consul in 78 B.C., censor in 65, a 
supporter of Cicero against Cati- 
line in 63, died in 60 B.C. 

Caucasus Mountains, 209, the great 
mountain system lying between 
the Euxine and Caspian Seas. 

Cenchreae. 399, the eastern harbour- 
town of Corinth. 

Chabrias, 105, a successful Athenian 
general, prominent from 392 till 
his gallant death at the siege of 
Chios in 357 B.C. 

Chaeroneia, 47, a small town at the 
entrance from Phocis into Boeo- 
tia, commanding an extensive 
plain on which many battles were 
fought in ancient times (of. the 
Marcellus, xxi. 2). Here Philip 
of Macedon defeated the allied 
Greeks in 338 B.C. It was Plu- 
tarch's native city. 

Chares, 345, a famous Athenian 
general, prominent from 367 to 
334 B.C. He was able, but un- 
trustworthy and rapacious. 

Cinna, 123-127, Lucius Cornelius 
C., leader of the popular party 
and consul during the years of 
Sulla's absence in the East (87- 
84 B.C.). 

Claros, 175, a place in Ionian Asia 
Minor, near Coloplion, where 
there was a temple of Apollo, and 
an oracle of great antiquity. 

Cleon, of Halicarnassus, 55, a rheto- 
rician who flourislied at the close 
of the fifth and the beginning of 
the fourth century B.C. 

Cloelius, 129, an error for Coelius, 
CaiUB Coelius Caldus, tribune of 



the people in 107 B.C., consul in 
94, a staunch supporter of the 
Marian party. 

Cnidus, 47, a city at the S.W. ex- 
tremity of Caria, in Asia Minor. 

Colchis, 203, 207, a district of 
Western Asia, lying north of 
Armenia and east of the Euxine 
Sea. 

Commagene, 231, a district of 
Syria, lying between Cilicia and 
the Euphrates. 

Conon, 47, 63, a distinguished 
Athenian general. He escaped 
from Aegospotami in 405 B.C. 
(see the Lysander, xi. 5), and 
with aid from tlie Great King and 
Pharnabazus defeated the Spar- 
tan fleet off Cnidus in 394 B.C., 
and restored the Long Walls of 
Athens in 393 B.C. 

Cornelius, 447, 453, Gnaeus Corne- 
lius Scipio Calvus, consul with 
Marcellus in 222 B.C., afterwards 
(218 B.C.) legate of his brother 
Publius in Spain, where the two 
carried on war against the Car- 
thaginians for eight years, and 
where both finally fell. 

Coroneia, 41, 47, a town in N.W. 
Boeotia, the scene of many 
battles. Here reference is made 
to the victory of Agesilaiis over 
the Thebans and their allies in 
394 B.C. (Agesilaiis, xviii.). 

Cratippus, 311 f., of Mitylene, a 
Peripatetic philosopher highly 
regarded by Cicero, and by 
Cicero's son, whose teacher he 
was. Brutus attended his lec- 
tures at Athens (Brutus, xxiv. 1). 

Crispinus, 517, 519, Titus Quinctius 
Pennus Capitolinus C, a trusted 
commander under Marcellus in 
Sicily, 214-212 B.C., and now 
(208) his colleague in the consul- 
ship. After the skirmish here 
described he was carried to Rome, 
where he died at the close of the 
year. 

Culleo, 243, Quintus Terentius C, 
tribune of the people in 58 B.C., 
a friend of Cicero, whose banish- 
ment he tried to prevent, and 
whose recall he laboured to 
obtain. 

Curio, 269 f., Caius Scribonius C, 

535 



DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



an able orator, but reckless and 
profligate. He was tribune of 
the people in 50 B.C., and sold his 
support to Caesar, who made him 
praetor in Sicily in 49. Thence 
he crossed into Africa to attack 
the Pompeians there, but was 
defeated and slain (Caesar, Bell. 
Civ., ii. 23-44). 

Cynoscephalae, 423, a range of hills 
in eastern Thessaly, so named 
from their supposed resemblance 
to the heads of dogs. 

Cythera, 87, a large island directly 
south of Laconia in Pelopon- 
nesus. 

Cyzicus, 401, a Greek city on the 
Propontis, in Mysia. 



Damippus, 483, a Spartan at the 
court of Hieronynuis, king of 
Syracuse. He tried to per- 
suade the king not to abandon 
alliance with Rome. Marcellus 
gave him his liberty. 

Deiotarus, 309, tetrarch of Galatia 
in Asia Minor, and an old man in 
54 B.C. (cf. the Crassus, xvii. 1 f.). 
He was a faithful friend of the 
Romans in their Asiatic wars, and 
was rewarded by the senate, in 
63 B.C., with the title of King. 
Caesar could never be brought to 
pardon him for siding with 
Pompey. 

Demaratus the Corinthian, 39, a 
guest-friend of PhiUp of Macedon 
(cf. the Alexander, ix. 6 ; Ivi.). 

Didyma, 175, in the territory of 
Miletus, the site of a famous 
temple of Apollo. 

Dionysius, 429, the Elder, tyrant of 
Syracuse from 405 to 367 B.C. 

Dioscorides, 99, a pupil of Isocrates, 
author of a treatise on the Spar- 
tan polity, writing in the latter 
part of the fourth century B.C. 
(cf. the Lyeurgus, xi. 4). 

Domitius (1), 137, 141, Gnaeus 
Domitius Ahenobarbus, son-in- 
law of Cinna, and a parti.san of 
Marius. When Sulla obtained 
the supreme power in 82 B.C., 



Domitius fled to Africa, where he 
died in 81 B.C. 

Domitius (2), 251, 291, 295, 335, 
Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, 
consul in 54 B.C. He was a son- 
in-law of Cato, and one of the 
ablest supporters of the aristo- 
cratic party. He opposed both 
Pompey and Caesar until they 
quarrelled, then sided with Pom- 
pey. Caesar spared his life at Cor- 
tinium, in 49 6.0. (cf. the Caesar, 
xxxiv. 3 f.). He met his death 
at Pharsalus. 

Domitius (3), 257, 295, Gnaeus 
Domitius Calvinus (wrongly 
called Lucius Calvinus, p. 295). 
consul in 53 B.C. He was a sup- 
porter of Bibulus against Caesar 
in 59 B.C., but after 49 B.C. an 
active supporter of Caesar. After 
Pharsalus he was Caesar's lieu- 
tenant in Asia. 

Duris, 7, of Samos, a pupU of Theo- 
phrastus, historian and, for a 
time, tyrant of Samos, lived 
circa 350-280 B.C. 

Dym6, 187, the most westerly of the 
twelve cities of Achaia in Pelo- 
ponnesus. It had been destroyed 
by the Romans in 146 B.C. 

Dyrrachium, 279, 309, a city on 
the coast of lUyricum, known in 
Greek history as Epidamnus. It 
was a free state, and sided with 
the Romans consistently. 



E 



Ecbatana, 39, 417, an ancient city 
of Media, the residence of the 
Great King during the summer 
months. 

Eleusis, 69, 375, the sacred city of 
the Athenian mysteries, some 
twelve miles west of Athens. 

Engyium, 489 f., a city in the in- 
terior of Sicily, the exact site of 
which is unknown. 

Enna, 489, an ancient fortress-city 
nearly in the centre of Sicily. 

Ephesus, 17, 23, 493, one of the 
twelve Ionian cities in Lydia of 
Asia Minor, near the mouth of the 
river Cavstrus. 

Ephorus, 381, of Cym6, pupil of 



536 



DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



Isocrates, author of a highly 
rhetorical history of Greece from 
the " Dorian Invasion " down to 
340 B.C., in which year he died. 

Epidaurus, 175, a city on the east 
coast of Argolis in Peloponnesus, 
famous for its shrine and cult of 
Aesculapius. 

Erasistratus, 41, otherwise un- 
known. 

Eudoxus, 471, of Cnidus, a pupil of 
Archytas, most famous as a 
mathematician and astronomer, 
flourished about 360 B.C. He 
tauglit philosophy at Athens. 

Eurypontidae, 329, one of the two 
royal families at Sparta ; the 
other was that of the Agidae. 



G 



Gabinius, 177, 183, 241, Aulus G., 
tribune of the people in 66, 
praetor in 61, consul with Piso in 
58 B.C., the year during which 
Cicero was exiled. He was 
recalled from his province of 
Syria in 55, prosecuted for taking 
bribes, and exiled. He died in 
48 B.C. 

Geraestus, 15, a town and promon- 
tory at the south-western extrem- 
ity of Euboea. 

Gordyene, 209, a rather indefinite 
district of Asia, lying south of 
Armenia and west of the river 
Tigris. 



Favonius, 275, 291, 309, 335, 
Marcus F., called the "Ape oi 
Cato," aedile in 52 and praetor 
in 49 B.C. He joined Pompey in 
the East in spite of personal 
enmity to him, and accom- 
panied him in his flight from 
Pharsalus. 

Flaminius, 443, 447, Caius F., 
consul in 223 B.C., a violent 
opponent of senate and aristo- 
crats. The Circus Flaminius and 
the Via Flaminia were con- 
structed during his aedileship 
(220 B.C.). Cf. the Marcellus, 
xxvii. 3. 

Fregellae, 517 f., 531, a city in S.E. 
Latium, on the river Liris. It 
was severely punished by Han- 
nibal in 211 B.C. for its fidelity to 
Rome. 

Fulvius (1), 503, Gnaeus Fulvius 
Flaccus, was praetor in 212 B.C., 
and received Apulia as his pro- 
vince, where, in 210 B.C., he was 
badly defeated (but not slain, as 
Plutarch says) by Hannibal. He 
had played the coward, and went 
into voluntary exile. 

Fulvius (2), 505, Quintus Fulvius 
Flaccus, brother of Gnaeus, con- 
sul in 237, 224, 212, and 209 B.C. 
In 212 he captured Capua, which 
had gone over to Hannibal, and 
wreaked a dreadful vengeance 
upon the city. 



Hecatombaeon, 79, the first month 
of the Attic year, comprising 
parts of our June and July. 

Herennius, 159, Caius H., tribune of 
the people in 80 B.C. After the 
death of Sulla he joined Sertorius 
in Spain (76-72 B.C.). 

Hermagoras, 225, of Tenedos, a 
distinguished rhetorician in the 
times of Pompey and Cicero. 
He was a mere formalist. 

Hermione, 175, an ancient town at 
the south-eastern extremity of 
Argolis in Peloponnesus. 

Hexapyla, 483, 485, probably a 
section of the wall fortifying 
Epipolae, the triangular plateau 
to the west of Syracuse. 

Eiempsal, 145, king of Numidia 
after the Jugurthine war (111- 
106 B.C.), expelled from his 
tlirone by Gnaeus Domitius and 
restored to it by Pompey. 

Hiero, 457, 471 f.,Hiero II., king of 
Syracuse 270-216 B.C., for nearly 
half a century a faithful friend 
and ally of Rome. 

Hieronymus (1), 37, of Rhodes, a 
disciple of Aristotle, flourishing 
about 300 B.C., frequently men- 
tioned by Cicero. 

Hieronymus (2), king of Syracuse 
216-215 B.C., successor to Hiero 
II., whose policy of frieiuL-iliip 
witli Rome he forsook for alliance 
with Carthage. 

537 



DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



Himera, 139, a Greek city on the 
northern coast of Sicily. 

Hippocrates, 469, 483, a Syracusan 
by birth, but educated at Car- 
thage. He served under Hanni- 
bal in Spain and Italy. He per- 
suaded Hieronymus, the young 
king of Syracuse, to abandon the 
Roman cause (216 B.C.). 

Hydrieus the Carian, 37, otherwise 
unknown. 

Hypsaeus, 263, Publius Plautius H., 
"tribune of the people in 54 B.C., 
and candidate for the consul- 
ship. He was accused of corrupt 
practices, tried, and convicted. 
Pompey, whom he had devotedly 
served, forsook him in the hour 
of need. 

Hyrcania, 207 f., a district of Asia 
lying south of the Caspian 
(Hyrcanian) Sea. 



larbas (or Hiarbas), 143, a king of 
Numidia, set on the tlirone by 
Gnaeus Doniitius, instead of 
Hiempsal. 

Iphicrates, 61, 343, a famous 
Athenian general, who increased 
the effectiveness of light-armed 
troops and defeated a Spartan 
division of heavy-armed men at 
Corinth in 392 B.C. He was 
prominent until about 348 B.C. 

Isthmus, 175, the Isthmus of 
Corinth. 

Ithome, 399, see Messene. 



Jason, 411, tyrant of Pherae in 
Thessaly, and active in Greek 
affairs from 377 to 370, the year 
of his death. He was succeeded 
by Alexander of Pherae. 

Juba, 315, 525, Juba II., king of 
Mauritania. He lived from 50 
B.C. to about 20 A.D., was edu- 
cated at Rome, and became a 
learned and voluminous ^Titer. 
Among his works was a History 
of Rome. 



Labienus, 293, Titus L., tribune of 
the people in 63 B.C., and devoted 
to Caesar's interests. He was an 
able and trusted legate of Caesar 
through most of the Gallic wars, 
but became jealous of his leader 
and deserted him for Pompey in 
49 B.C. After Pharsalus he fled 
to Africa, and after the battle of 
Thapsus (46 B.C.) to Spain, where 
he was the immediate cause of 
the defeat of the Pompeians at 
Munda and was slain (45 B.C.). 

Lacinium, 1 75, a promontory on the 
east coast of Bruttium, in Italy, 
some six miles south of Cro- 
tona. 

Larissa, 43 f., 307, 405, an impor- 
tant town in N.E. Thessaly, on 
the river Peneius. 

Lauron, 159, a small town in the 
S.E. part of Spain, south of 
Valentia. near the sea. 

Lentulus (1), 273, 325, Lucius 
Cornelius L. Crus, consul in 
49 B.C. with Claudius Marcellus, 
and a bitter opponent of Caesar 
(cf. the Caesar, xxx. 3). He 
joined Pompey in the East, fled 
^vith him from Pharsalus, and 
was put to death in Egypt. 

Lentulus (2), 307, see Spinther. 

1-eontini, 469, a city of Sicily 
between Syracuse and Catana. 

Lepidus, 151 If., 197, 327, Marcus 
Aemihus L , father of the trium- 
vir, praetor in Sicily in 81, consul 
in 78 B.C. 

Leucas, 175, an island in the Ionian 
Sea, lying close to the coast of 
Acarnania. 

Leuctra, 79, 391, and often, a village 
in Boeotia. south-west of Thebes, 
between Tliespiae and Plataea, 
for ever memorable as the scene 
of the utter defeat of the Spartans 
by the Thebans in 371 B.C. 

Lindus, 521, an ancient and impor- 
tant town on the east coast of the 
island of Rhodes. 

Locri Epizephyrii, 515, a celebrated 

. Greek city on the eastern coast of 
Bruttium, in llaiy, said to have 
been founded in 760 B.C. 



538 



DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



Luca (or Lucca), 249, a city of 
Liguria, N.E. of Pisa, a frontier- 
town of Caesar's province in good 
communication with Rome. 



M 



Macaria, 301, daughter of Heracles 
and Delaneira. She slew herself 
in order to give the Athenians 
victory over Eurystheus, 

Maeotic Sea, 207, tne modern Sea of 
Azov. 

.Magnesia, 421, 431, a district on the 
eastern coast of Thessaly. 

Mantinea, 85, 93 f., 99, 349, a 
powerful city in the eastern part 
of central Arcadia, in Pelopon- 
nesus. 

Marcellinus, 249 f., Gnaeus Corne- 
lius LentulusM., consul in 56 B.C., 
a friend and advocate of Cicero, 
and persistently opposed to 
Pompey, who was driven by his 
hostility into alliance with Caesar. 

Marcellus, 269 f., Caius Claudius M.. 
consul in 50 B.C., a friend of 
Cicero and Pompey, and an un- 
compromising foe of Caesar. But 
after the outbreak of the civil war 
he remained quietly and timidly 
in Italy, and was finally par- 
doned by Caesar. He is not to 
be confounded with an uncle, 
Marcus Claudius Marcellus, con- 
sul in 51, or with a cousin, Caius 
Claudius Marcellus, consul in 
49 B.C. 

Marcius, 445, Caius M. Figulus, 
consul in 162 B.C., and again in 
156 B.C. 

Maximus, 521, Valerius M., com- 
piler of a large collection of his- 
torical anecdotes, in the time of 
Augustus. 

Megara, 483, 489, a Greek city on 
the eastern coast of Sicily, 
between Syracuse and Catana, 
It was colonized from Megara in 
Greece Proper. 

MeUboea, 413, an ancient town on 
the sea-coast of Thessaly. 

.\Iemmius, 141, Caius M., after this, 
Pompey 's quaestor in Spain, 
where he was killed in a battle 
with Sertorius {Sertorius, xxi.). 



Mendes, 107 f., a prominent city in 
tlie north of Egypt. 

Menecrates, 59, a Syracusan physi- 
cian at the court of Philip of 
Macedon 359-336 B.C. Accord- 
ing to Aelian (Var. Hist. xii. 51). 
it was from Philip that he got 
this answer. 

Menoeceus, 391, son of Creon the 
mythical king of Thebes. He 
sacrificed himself in order to give 
his city victory over the seven 
Argive chieftains. 

Meriones, 489, a Cretan hero of the 
Trojan war, the companion and 
friend of Idomeneus. 

Messala, 257, Marcus Valerius M., 
secured his election to the consul- 
ship in 53 B.C. by bribery, but 
still had Cicero's support. In 
the civil war he sided actively 
with Caesar. 

Messenia, Messene, 95, 99, 101, 331, 
417 f., the south-western district 
in Peloponnesus, in earliest times 
conquered by the Spartans. Its 
stronghold, Ithome, was included 
in the capital city built by Epa- 
minondas in 369 B.C. and named 
Messene. The names Messenia 
and Messene are sometimes 
interchanged. 

Metellus (1), 121, (?) 187 f., Quintus 
Caecilius M. Creticus, consul in 
69 B.C., and from 68 to 66 B.C. 
engaged in subduing Crete. On 
his return to Rome the partisans 
of Pompey prevented him from 
celebrating a triumph, for which 
he waited patiently outside of the 
city until 62 B.C. 

Metellus (2), 277 f., 333, Lucius 
Caecilius M. Creticus, a nephew 
of the preceding Metellus, is little 
known apart from the incident 
here narrated. 

Metellus (3), 133, 157 ff. 197, Quin- 
tus Metellus Pius, consul with 
Sulla in 80 B.C., and one of his 
most successful generals. After 
Sulla's death in 78 B.C., Metellus 
was sent as proconsul into Spain, 
to prosecute the war against 
Sertorius. He died about 63 B.C. 
Minucius, 447, Marcus M. Rufus, 
consul in 221 B.C., and in 217 
Master of Horse to the dictator 

539 



DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



Fabius Maxlmus {Fab. Max. 

iv.-xiii.)- It is not known in 

what year Minucius was dictator. 
Mithras, 175, a Persian sun-deity, 

whose worship subsequently 

spread over the whole Roman 

Empire. 
Mitylene, 225, 309 f., the chief city 

of the island of Lesbos. 
Mucia, 225 f., Pompey's third wife 

(cf. the Pompey, ix.), and the 

mother by him of Gnaeus and 

Sextus Pompey. 
Mutina, 155, an important city of 

Cisalpine Gaul, south of the Po, 

the modern Modena. 



N 



Nabataeans, 293, a people occupy- 
ing the northern part of the 
Arabian peninsula, between the 
Euphrates and the Arabian Gulf. 

Neapolis (1), an ancient city of 
Campania, the modern Naples. 

Neapolis (2), a portion of what 
Plutarch calls the " outer city " 
of Syracuse, lying between Epi- 
polae and Acliradina. 

Nepos, 521, 525, Cornelius N., a 
Eoman biographer and historian, 
contemporary and friend of 

Oi ppro 

Nola, 459, 463 f., an important city 
of Campania, about twenty miles 
S.E. of Capua. 



Oppius, 139, Caius O. , an intimate 
friend of Caesar (cf. the Caesar, 
xvii.), author (probably) of Lives 
of Marius, Pompey, and Caesar. 

Orchomenus, 47 f., 377, 381 f., 523, 
a city in northern Boeotia, near 
the Copai'c Lake. 

Oricum, 285, a town on the coast of 
Epirus, north of Apollonia. 



Paeonia, 221, a district in Thrace, 

north of Macedonia. 
Paulus, 269, Lucius Aemilius P., 



consul in 50 B.C. with Claudius 
Marcellus. He had been a violent 
opponent of Caesar. 

Pelusium, 317, a strong frontier- 
town on the eastern branch of the 
Nile. 

Perpenna, 137, 159, 163 f., Marcus 
P. Vento, a leading partisan of 
Marius. On the death of Sulla 
(78 B.C.) he joined Lepidus in his 
attempt to win the supreme 
power, and, failing here, retired 
to Spain, where he served under 
Sertorius. 

Petelia, 515, an ancient city of 
Bruttium, north of Crotona. 

Petra, 221, the capital city of the 
Nabataeans, about halt way 
between the Dead Sea and the 
Arabian Gulf. 

Pharnabazus, 21, 29, 33 f., 47, 63, 
satrap of the Persian provinces 
about the Hellespont from 412 to 
393 B.C. 

Pharsalus, Pharsalia, 45, 293, 301, 
335, 409, 423, a city and plain in 
southern Thessaly. 

Pherae, 403, 407 f., 419, 433, a city 
in south-eastern Thessaly. 

Pherecydes, 391, possibly Phere- 
cydes of Syros is meant, a semi- 
mythical philosopher of the sixth 
century B.C., about whose death 
many fantastic tales were told. 

Philippus, 119, 157, Lucius Marclus 
P., consul in 91 B.C., and a distin- 
guished orator, a supporter of 
the popular party. He died 
before Pompey's return from 
Spain (71 B.C.). 

Philistus, 429, the Syracusan, an 
eye-witness of the events of the 
Athenian siege of Syracuse (415- 
413 B.C.), wliich he described 
thirty years later in a history of 
Sicily. 

Phlius, Phliasians, 67, a city in N.E. 
Peloponnesus, south of Sicyon. 

Phthiotis, 419, 431, a district in S.E. 
Thessaly. 

Picenura, 443, a district in N.E. 
Italy. 

Piso (1), Caius Calpurnius P., consul 
in 67 B.C., a violent aristocrat, 
afterwards proconsul for the 
province of Gallia Narbonensis, 
which he plundered. He must 



540 



DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



have died before the outbreak of 
civil war. 

I'iso (2), Lucius Calpurnius P. 
Caesorinus, consul in 58 B.C., 
tlirough Caesar's influence, re- 
called from his province of 
Macedonia in 55 because of 
extortions, consul again in 50 n.o. 
at Caesar's request, and after 
Caesar's death a supporter of 
Antony. 

I'lancus, 263, Titus Minutius P. 
Bursa, accused of fomenting the 
disorders following the death of 
Clodius (52 B.C.), found guilty 
and exiled. Pompey, whose 
ardent supporter he was, deserted 
him in the hour of need. Caesar 
restored liim to civic rights soon 
after 49 B.C. 

Plataea, 377, 401, an ancient and 
celebrated city in S.W. Boeotia, 
near the confines of Attica, where 
tiie Persians under Mardonius 
were defeated by the allied 
Greeks in 489 B.C. 

Pollio, 305, Caius Asinius P., a 
famous orator, poet, and histori- 
rian, 76 B.C.-4 a.d. He was an 
intimate friend of Caesar (cf. the 
Caesar, xxxii. 5). fought under 
him in Spain and Africa, and after 
Caesar's death supported Octa- 
vian. After 29 B.C. he devoted 
himself entirely to literature, and 
was a patron of Vergil and Horace. 
None of his works have come 
down to us. 

Polybius, 381, of Megalopolis, in 
Arcadia, the Greek historian of 
the Punic Wars, born about 
204 B.C., long resident in Rome, 
and an intimate friend of the 
younger Scipio, with whom he 
was present at the destruction of 
Carthage in 146 B.C. 

I'oseidonius, 225, 437, 459, 491, 521, 
of Apameia, in Syria, a Stoic 
philosopher, a pupil of Panaetius 
at Athens, contemporary with 
Cicero, who often speaks of him 
and occasionally corresponded 
with him. 

Potheinus, 317, one of the guardians 
of the young Ptolemy. He 
plotted against Caesar when he 
came to Alexandreia, and was put 



to death by him (cf. the Caesar, 
xlviii. f.). 

Ptolemy, 405 f., assassinated King 
Alexander II. of Macedon in 
367 B.C., held the supreme power 
for three years, and was then 
himself assassinated by the young 
king, Perdiccas III. 

Publius, 261, 311, Publius Licinius 
Crassus Dives, son of Marcus 
Crassus the triumvir. He was 
Caesar's legate in Gaul 58-55 B.C., 
followed his father to the East in 
54, and was killed by the Par- 
thians near Carrhae (cf. the 
Crassus, xxv.). 



Roscius, 181, Lucius R. Otho. As 
one of the tribunes of the people 
in 67 B.C., he introduced the un- 
popular law which gave the 
knights special seats in the 
theatre. 

Rullus, 149, Quintus Fabius Maxi- 
mus R., five times consul, the 
last time in 295 B.C., when he was 
victorious over Gauls, Etruscans, 
Samnites and Umbrians in the 
great battle of Sentinum. 

RutiUus, 213, Publius R. Rufus, 
consul in 105 B.C., unjustly exiled 
in 92 B.C., retired to Smyrna, 
where he wrote a history of his 
own times. 



S 



Samothrace, 175, 521, a large island 
in the northern Aegean Sea, some 
twenty miles off the coast of 
Thrace, celebrated for its mys- 
teries (cf. the Alexander, ii. 1). 

Sardis, 25, the capital city of the 
ancient kingdom of Lydia, and, 
later, the residence of the Persian 
satraps of Asia Minor. 

Saturnalia, 205, a festival of Saturn, 
held at this time on the nine- 
teenth of December. See the 
Sulla, xviii. 5. 

Scipio (1), 149, 315, Publius Corne- 
lius S. Africanus Major, the con- 
queror of Hannibal. His con- 



541 



DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



quest of Spain occupied the years 
210-202 B.C. 

Scipio (2), Lucius Cornelius S. 
Asiaticus, belonged to the Marian 
party in the civil wars, and was 
consul in 83 B.C., the year when 
Sulla returned from the East. 
Cf. the Sulla, xxviii. 1-3. He 
was proscribed in 82, and fled to 
Massilia, where he died. 

Scipio (3), 261, 279, 289, 295, 327, 
Publius Cornelius S. Nasica, 
adopted by Metellus Pius and 
therefore called Quintus Caecilius 
Metellus Pius S., or Metellus 
Scipio, was made Pompey's col- 
league in the consulship late in 
the year 52 B.C., and became a 
determined foe of Caesar. He 
was proconsul in Syria, joined 
Pompey in 48 B.C., commanded 
his centre at Pharsalus, fled to 
Africa, and killed himself after 
the battle of Thapsus (46 B.C.). 
Though a Scipio by birth, a 
Metellus by adoption, and a son- 
in-law of Pompey, he was rapa- 
cious and profligate. 

Scipio (4), 445, Publius Cornelius 
Scipio Nasica Corculum, cele- 
brated as jurist and orator, 
consul in 162 B.C. (when he 
abdicated on account of faulty 
auspices), and again in 155 B.C. 

Scirophorion, 79, a month of the 
Attic year comprising portions of 
our May and June. 

Scotussa, 293, 413. a town in central 
Thessaly, N.E. of Pharsalus. 

Scythia, 221, a general term for the 
vast regions north of the Euxine 
Sea. 

Seleucia, 317, probably the Seleucia 
in Syria on the river Orontes. 

Sertorius, 155-167, 197, Quintus S., 
was born in a small Sabine village, 
began his military career in 
105 B.C., was a consistent oppo- 
nent of the aristocracy, retired to 
Spain in 82, where for ten years 
and until his death he was tlie 
last hope of the Marian party. 
See Plutarch's Sertorius. 

Servilius, 151, Publius ServUius 
Vatia Isauricus, probably the 
consul of 79 B.C., who obtained a 
triumph over Cilicia in 74, and 

542 



died in 44 B.C. His son, of the 
same name, was consul with 
Caesar in 48 B.C., though a 
member of the aristocratic party. 

Simonides, 3, of Ceos, the greatest 
lyric poet of Greece, 556-467 B.C. 

Sinope, 223, an important Greek 
city on the southern coast of the 
Euxine Sea, west of Amisus. 

Sinora (or Sinoria), a fortress-city 
on the frontier between Greater 
and Lesser Armenia. 

SoU, 187, an important town on the 
coast of Cilicia, not to be con- 
founded with the Soli on the 
island of Cyprus. See Xeuophon 
Anab., i. 2, 24. 

Sophene, 203, a district of western 
Armenia. 

Spartacus, 197, a Thracian gladia- 
tor, leader of the servile insurrec- 
tion (73-71 B.C.). Cf . the Crassus, 
viii-xi. 

Spinther, 245, 291, 307, PubUus 
Cornelius Lentulus S., consul in 
57 B.C., took part against Caesar 
in 49, was captured by him at 
Corflnium, but released. He 
then joined Pompey, and after 
Pharsalus fled with him to Egypt. 

Strabo, 117, 123, Gnaeus Pompeius 
Sextus S., consul in 89 B.C., in 
which year he celebrated a 
triumph for his capture of 
Asculum. He tried to be neutral 
In the civU wars of Sulla and 
Marius. In 87 B.C. he was killed 
by lightning. 

Sucro, 159, a river in S.E. Spain, 
between Valentia and Lauron. 

Susa, 39, 417, an ancient city of 
Persia, residence of the Great 
King during the spring months. 

Sybaris, 341, a famous Greek city of 
Italy, on the west shore of the 
gulf of Tarentum, founded in 
720 B.C., noted for its wealth and 
luxury. 



Tachos, 101-107, king of Egypt for 
a short time during the latter part 
of the reign of Artaxerxes II. of 
Persia (405-362 B.C.). Deserted 
by his subjects and mercenaries, 



DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



he took refuge at the court of 

Artaxerxes III., where lie died. 
Taenaruni, 175, a promontory at 

the southern extremity of La- 

conia, hi Peloponnesus. 
Tanagra, 377, a town in eastern 

Boeotia, between Thebes and 

Attica. 
Tarentum, 493, 507, a Greek city in 

S.E. Italy. It surrendered to 

the Romans in 272 B.C., was 

betrayed into the hands of 

Hannibal in 212, and recovered 

by Fabius Maximus in 209. 
Taurus, 185, a range of mountains 

in Asia Minor, running eastward 

from Lycia to Cilicia. 
Taygetus, 417, a lofty mountain 

range between Laconia and Mes- 

senia, in Peloponnesus. 
Tegea, 95, an ancient and powerful 

city in S.E. Arcadia, in Pelopon- 

IlGSllS. 

Tegyra,'77, 377 ff., 387, 525, a vil- 
lage in northern Boeotia, near 
Orchomenus. 

Tempe, Vale of, 307, the gorge 
between Mounts Olympus and 
Ossa in N.E. Thessaly, through 
which the river Peneius makes its 
way to the sea. 

Theodotus of Chios (or Samos), 317, 
325, brought to Caesar the head 
and signet-ring of Pompey. 

Theophanes, 213, 225, 247, 315, 
319, of Mitylene in Lesbos, a 
learned Greek who made Pom- 
pey's acquaintance during the 
Mithridatic war, and became his 
intimate friend and adviser. He 
wrote a eulogistic history of 
Pompey's campaigns. After 
Ponipey's death he was pardoned 
by Caesar, and upon Ms own 
death (after 44 B.C.) received 
divine honours from the Lesbians. 

Theopiirastus, 5, 103, the most 
famous pupil oi Aristotle, and his 
successor as head of the Peripa- 
tetic school of philosophy at 
Athens. He was born at Eresos 
in Lesbos, and died at Athens in 
287 B.C., at the age of eighty- 
five. 

Theopompus, 27, 87, 91, of Chios, a 
fellow-pupil of Isocrates with 
Ephorus, wrote aiiti-Atheiiian 



histories of Greece from 411 to 
394 B.C. and of Philip of Macedon 
from 360 to 336 B.C. 

Thermodon, 209, a river of Pontus 
in Northern Asia Minor, empty- 
ing into the Euxine Sea. 

Thesniophoria, 353, a festival in 
honour of Demeter as goddess of 
marriage, celebrated at Athens 
for three days in the middle of the 
month Pyanepsion (Oct.-Nov.). 

Thespiae, 67 f., 97, 373 ff., an 
ancient city in 3.W. Boeotia, 
nortli of Plataea. 

Thetis, 423, a sea-nymph, wife of 
Peleus and mother of Achilles. 

Thriasian plain, 69, 357, a part of 
the plain about Eleusis, in S.W. 
Attica. 

Timagenes, 245, a Greek historian, 
of the time of Augustus, origin- 
ally a captive slave. The bitter- 
ness of his judgments brought 
him into disfavour. 

Timagoras, 419, an ambassador 
from Athens to the Persian court 
in 387 B.C. He spent four years 
there, and took part with Pelopi- 
das rather than with his own col- 
league, Leon. He revealed state 
secrets for pay, and it was this 
which cost him his life. 

Timotheus (1), 345, son of Conon 
the great Athenian admiral. He 
was made general in 378 B.C., and 
about 360 was at the height of his 
popularity and glory. 

Timotheus (2), 39, of Miletus, a 
famous musician and poet, 446- 
357 B.C. His exuberant and 
florid style conquered its way to 
great popularity. 

Tisaphernes, 21 f., 27, Persian 
satrap of lower Asia Minor from 
414 B.C., and also, after the death 
of Cyrus the Younger in 401, of 
maritime Asia Jtinor, tLU Ma 
death in 359 B.C. 

Tithraustes, 27. After succeeding 
Tisaphernes in his satrapy, 
Tithraustes tried in vain to induce 
Agesilaiis to return to Greece, and 
then stirred up a war in Greece 
against Sparta, in consequence of 
which Agesilaiis was recalled. 

Trallians, 43, no tribe of this name 
is now known to have Uved in 

543 



DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



Thrace, nor are they mentioned 
in Herodotus (vii. 1 10). 

Trebonius, 251, Caius T., tribune of 
the people in 55 B.C., and an 
instrument of the triumvirs. He 
was afterwards legate of Caesar 
in Gaul, and loaded with favours 
by him, but was one of the con- 
spirators against his life. 

Tullus, 275, Lucius Volcatius T., 
consul in 66 B.C., a moderate, who 
took no part in the civil war. 

Tyche, 485, a portion of what Plu- 
tarch calls the " outer city " of 
Syracuse, lying between Epipo- 
lae and Achradlna. 



Valentia, 159, an important town 
in S.E. Spain, south of Saguntum. 



Valerius, 147, Marcus V. Maximus, 
dictator in 494 B.C., defeated and 
triumphed over the Sabines. 

Vatinius, 251, Publius V., had been 
tribune of the people in 59 B.C., 
and was a paid creature of 
Caesar. He was one of Caesar's 
legates in the civil war, and, after 
Pharsalus, was entrusted by him 
with high command in the East. 

Venusia, 515, a prosperous city of 
Apulia, a stopping place for 
travellers on the Appian Way 
from Rome to Brundisium. It 
was the birthplace of the poet 
Horace. 

Vibullius, 285, Lucius V. Rufus, a 
senator, captured by Caesar at 
Cortinium, at the outbreak of the 
war, and again in Spain, but 
pardoned both times. 



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CoMOEDO, Contra Rullum. J. H. Freese. {3rd Imp.) 
Cicero : Tusculan Disputations. J. E. I^ing. {ith Imp.) 
Cicero : Verrine Orations. L. H. G. Greenwood. 2 Vols. 

(Vol. I. 3rd Imp., Vol. II. 2nd Imp.) 
Claudian. M. Platnauer. 2 Vols. 
Columella : De Re Rustica, De Abboribus. H. B. Ash, 

E. S. Forster and E. Heffner. 3 Vols. (Vol. I. 2nd Imp.) 
Cubtius, Q. : HiSTOBY of Alexandee. J. C. Rolfe. 2 Vols. 
Flobus. E. S. Forster and Cornelius Nepos. J. C. Rolfe. 

(2nd Imp.) 
Frontinus : Stratagems and Aqueducts. C. E. Bennett and 

M. B. McElwain. (Vol. I. 3rd Imp., Vol. II. 2nd Imp.) 
Fronto : Correspondence. C. R. Haines. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 

3rd Imp., Vol. II. 2nd Imp.) 
Gellius. J. C. Rolfe. 3 Vols. (Vol. 1. 3rd Imp., Vols. II. and 

III. 2nd Imp.) 
Horace: Odes and Epodes. C. E. Bennett. {\Uh Imp. 

revised. ) 
HoBACE : Satibes, Epistles, Abs Poetica. H. R. Fairclough. 

(9th Imp. revised.) 
Jeeome : Selected Lettees. F. A. Wright. (2nd Imp.) 
Juvenal and Pebsius. G. G. Ramsay. (1th Imp.) 
LiVY. B. O. Foster, F. G. Moore, Evan T. Sage, and A. C. 

Schlesinger. 14 Vols. Vols. I.-XIII. (Vol. I. Uh Imp., 

Vols. II., III., v., and IX. 3rd Imp. ; Vols. IV., VI.-VIIL, 

X.-XII. 2nd Imp. revised.) 
LuCAN. J. D. Duff. (3rd Im.p.) 
Lucbetius. W. H. D. Rouse. (Ith Imp. revised.) 
Mabtial. W. C. a. Ker. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 5th Imp., Vol. II. 

4:th Imp. revised.) 
MiNOB Latin Poets : from Publilius Sybus to Rutilius 

Namatianus, including Grattius, Calpurnius Siculus, 

Nemesianus, Avianus, and others with " Aetna " and the 

" Phoenix." J. Wight Dufi and Arnold M. Duff. (3rd Imp.) 
Ovid : The Art of Love and Other Poems. J. H. Mozley. 

(3rd Imp.) 
Ovid : Fasti. Sir James G. Frazer. (2nd Imp.) 
Ovid: Heboides and Amoees. Grant Showerman. {5th Imp.) 
Ovid : Metamobphoses. F. J. Miller. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. lOth 

Imp., Vol. II. 8th Imp.) 
Ovid : Teistia and Ex Ponto. A. L. Wheeler. (3rd Imp.) 



Persius. Cf. Juvenal. 

Petronius. M. Heseltine; Seneca Apocolocyntosis. 

W. H. D. Rouse, (,8th Imp. revised.) 
Plautus. Paul Nixon. 5 Vols. (Vols. I. and II. 5<A /wp.. Vol. 

III. 3rd Imp., Vols. IV. and V. 2>id Imp.) 
Pliny : Letters. Melmoth's Translation revised by W. M. L. 

Hutchinson. 2 Vols. (&th Imp.) 
Pliny : Natural History. H. Rackham and W. H. S. Jones. 

10 Vols. Vols. I.-V. and IX. H. Rackham. Vol. VI. 

W. H. S. Jones. (Vols. I. and II. 3rd Imp., Vols. III. and IV. 

2nd Im.p.) 
Propertids. H. E. Butler. {6th Imp.) 
Prudentius. H. J. Thomson. 2 Vols. 
QuiNTiLiAN. H. E. Butler. 4 Vols. (3rd Imp.) 
Remains of Old Latin. E. H. Warmington. 4 Vols. Vol. I. 

(Ennius and Caecilius.) Vol. II. (Livius, Naevius, 

Pacuvius, Accius.) Vol. III. (LuciLius and Laws of XII 

Tables.) Vol. IV. (2?id Imp.) (Archaic Inscriptions.) 
Sallust. J. C. Rolfe. {itk Imp. revised.) 
Scriptores Historiae Augustae. D. Magie. 3 Vols. (Vol. 1. 

3rd Imp. revised. Vols. II. and III. 2nd Imp.) 
Seneca : Apocolocyntosis. Cf. Petronius. 
Seneca : Epistulae Morales. R. M. Gummere. 3 Vola. 

(Vol. I. ^th Imp., Vols. II. and III. 2nd Imp.) 
Seneca : Moral Essays. J. W. Basore. 3 Vols. (Vol. II. 

3rd Imp., Vols. 1. and III. 2nd Imp. revised.) 
Seneca : Tragedies. F. J. Miller. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. Uh Imp., 

Vol. II. 3rd Imp. revised.) 
SiDONius : Poems and Letters. W. B. Anderson. 2 Vols. 

(Vol. I. 2nd Imp.) 
Silius Italicus. J. D. Duff. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 2nd Imp., 

Vol. II. 3rd hnp.) 
Statius. J. H. Mozley. 2 Vols. (2nd Imp.) 
Suetonius. J. C. Rolfe. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 1th Imp., Vol. II. 

%th Imp. revised.) 
Tacitus : Dialoqus. Sir Wm. Peterson. AqricoIiA and 

Germania. Maurice Hutton. (6<A Imp.) 
Tacitus : Histories and Annals. C. H. Moore and J. Jack 

son. 4 Vols. (Vols. I. and II. 3rd Imp., Vols. III. and IV 

2nd Imp.) 
Terence. John Sargeaunt. 2 Vols. (Ith Imp.) 
Tebtullian : Apologia and De Spectaculis. T. R. Glover. 

MiNUCius Felix. G. H. Rendall. (2nd Imp.) 
Valerius Flaccus. J. H. Mozley. (2nd Imp. revised.) 
Varro : De Lingua Latina. R. G Kent. 2 Vols. (2nd Imp. 

revised. ) 
Velleius Paterculus and Res Gestae Divi Augusti. F. W. 

Shipley. (2nd Imp.) 
ViBGH.. H. R. Fairclough. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. V%th Imp., Vol. II. 

14iA Imp. revised.) 
ViTRuvius : De Architectuba. F. Granger. 2 Vols. (Vol. 1. 

3rd Imp., Vol. II. 2nd Imp.) 



Greek Authors 

Achilles Tatitts. S. Gaselee. {2nd Imp.) 

Aeneas Tacticus, Asclepiodotus and Onasander. The 

Illinois Greek Club. {2nd Imp.) 
Aeschestes. C. D. Adams. {2nd Imp.) 
Aeschylus. H. Weir Smyth. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 6th Imp., 

Vol. II. 5th Imp.) 
Alciphbon, Aelian, Philostratus Letters. A. R. Banner 

and r. H. Fobes. 
Andocides, Antiphon. Cf. Minor Attic Orators. 
Apollodorus. Sir James G. Frazer. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 3rd 

Imp., Vol. II. 2nd Imp.) 
Apollonius Rhodius. R. C. Seaton. {5th Imp.) 
The Apostolic Fathers. Kirsopp Lake. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 

Sth Imp., Vol. II. 6th Imp.) 
Appian : Roman History. Horace White. 4 Vols. (Vol. I. 

4th Imp., Vols. II. and IV. 3rd Imp., Vol. III. 2nd Imp.) 
Aratus. Cf. Callimachus. 
Aristophanes. Benjamin Bickley Rogers. 3 Vols. Verse 

trans. {5th Imp. ) 
Aristotle : Art of Rhetoric. J. H. Freese. (3rd Imp.) 
Aristotle : Athenian Constitution, Eudemian Ethics, 

Vices and Virtues. H. Rackham. (3rd Imp.) 
Aristotle : Generation of Ajsiimals. A. L. Peck. {2nd Imp.) 
Aristotle: Metaphysics. H. Tredennick. 2 Vols. {3rd7mp. ) 
Aristotle : Meteorologica. H. D. P. Lee. 
Aristotle : Minor Works. W. S. Hett. On Colours, On 

Things Heard, On Physiognomies, On Plants, On Blarvellous 

Things Heard, Mechanical Problems, On Indivisible Lines, 

On Situations and Names of Winds, On Melissus, Xenophanes, 

and Gorgias. (2nd hnp.) 
Aristotle : Nicomachean Ethics. H. Rackham. (bth Imp. 

revised. ) 
Aristotle : Oeconomica and Magna Moralia. G. C. Arm 

strong; (with Metaphysics, Vol. II.). (3rd Imp.) 
Aristotle : On the Heavens. W. K. C. Guthrie. (3rd Imp 

revised. ) 
Aristotle : On the Soul, Parva Naturalia, On Breath. 

W. S. Hett. (2nd Imp. revised.) 
Aristotle : Obganon. H. P. Cooke and H. Tredennick. 3 

Vols. (Vol. I. 3rd Imp.) 
Aristotle : Parts of Animals. A. L. Peck ; Motion and 

Progression of Animals. E. S. Forster. (3rd Imp. re- 
vised.) 
Aristotle : Physics. Rev. P. Wicksteed and F. M. Cornford. 

2 Vols. (Vol. I. 2nd Imp., Vol. II. 3rd Imp.) 
Aristotle: Poetics and Lonoinus. W. Hamilton Fyfe; 

Demetrius ON Style. W. Rhys Roberts. (5th Imp. revised.) 
Aristotle: Politics. H. Rackham. (\th Imp. revised.) 
Aristotle : Problems. W. S. Hett. 2 Vols. (2nd Imp. 

revised. ) 

4 



Aristotle : Rhetorica Ad Alexandrum (with Problems. 

Vol. II. ). H. Rackham. 
Arrian : History of Alexander and Indica. Kev. E. Iliffe 

Robson. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 3rd Imp., Vol. 11. 2nd Imp.) 
Athenaeus : Deipnosophistae. C. B. Gulick. 7 Vola. 

(Vols. I., v., and VI. 2nd Imp.) 
St. Basil: Letters. R. J. Deferrari. 4 Vols. {2nd Imp.) 
Callimachus, Hymns and Epigrams, and Lycophron. A. W. 

Mair; Aratus. G. R. Mair. {2nd Imp.) 
Clement of Alexandria. Rev. G. VV. Butterworth. {'Srd 

Imp.) 

COLLTJTHUS. Cf. OpPIAN. 

Daphnis and Chloe. Thornley's Translation revised by 

J . M. Edmonds : and Parthenius. S. Gaselee. (ith Imp. ) 
Demosthenes I : Olynthiacs, Philippics and Minor Ora 

tions. I.-XVH. and XX. J. H. Vince. {2nd Imp.) 
Demosthenes II : De Corona and De Falsa Legationb. 

C. A. Vince and J. H. Vince. (Srd Imp. revised.) 
Demosthenes III : Meidias, Androtion, Aristocrates, 

TiMOCRATES and Aristoqbiton, I. and IJ.. J. H. Vince. 

{2nd Imp.) 
Demosthenes IV- VI : Private Orations and In Neaeram. 

A. T. Murray. (Vol. IV. 2nd Imp. ) 
Demosthenes VII : Funeral Speech, Erotic Essay, Exordia 

and Letters. N. W. and N. J. DeWitt. 
Dio Cassius : Roman History. E. Cary. 9 Vols. (Vols. I. 

and II. Srd Imp.. Vols. III.-IX. 2nd Imp.) 
Dio Chrysostom. J. W. Cohoon and H. Lamar Crosby. 5 Vols. 

(Vols. I.-III. 2nd Imp.) 
DiODORUs SicuLus. 12 Vols. Vols. I.-VI. C. H. Oldfather. 

Vol. VII. C. L. Sherman. Vols. IX. and X. R. M. Geer. 

(Vols. I.-III. 2nd Imp.) 
Diogenes Laertitjs. R. D. Hicks. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. ith Imp.. 

Vol. II. Srd Imp.) 
Dionysius of Halicarnassus : Roman Antiquities. Spel- 

man's translation revised by E. Cary. 7 Vols. (Vols. I. -IV. 

2nd Imp.) 
Epictetus. W. a. Oldfather. 2 Vols. (2nd Imp.) 
Euripides. A. S. Way. 4 Vols. (Vols. I. and II. 1th Imp., 

III. and IV. &th Imp.) Verse trans. 
Eusebius : Ecclesiastical History. Kirsopp Lake and 

J. E. L. Oulton. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. Srd Imp., Vol. II. Uh Imp.) 
Galen : On the Natural Faculties. A. J. Brock, (^th Imp.) 
The Greek Anthology. W. R. Paton. 5 Vols. (Vols. I. and 

II. 6th Imp., Vol. III. ■Mh Imp., Vols. IV. and V. Srd Imp.) 
Greek Elegy and Iambus with the Anacreontea. J. M. 

Edmonds. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. Srd Imp., Vol. II. 2nd Imp.) 
The Greek Bucolic Poets (Theocritus, Bion, Moschus). 

J. M. Edmonds. (1th Imp. revised.) 
Greek Mathematical Works. Ivor Thomas. 2 Vols. (2nd 

Imp. ) 
Herodes. Ct. Theophrastus : Characters 



Herodotus. A. D. Godley. 4 Vols. (Vols. I. -III. 4th Imp.. 

Vol. IV. 3rd Imp.) 
Hesiod and The Homeric Hymns. H. G. Evelyn White. 

{1th Iinp. revi-ted and enlarged.) 
HiPPOCKATES and the Fragments of Heracleitus. W. H. S. 

Jones and E. T. Withington. 4 Vols. (3rd Imp.) 
Homer : Iliad. A. T. Murray. 2 Vols. (Vol. 1. 1th Imp., 

Vol. II. 6*;* Imp.) 
Homer: Odyssey. A. T. Murray. 2 Vols. [%lh Imp.) 
ISABUS. E. W. Forster. (2nd Imp.) 

IsocRATES. George Norlin and LaRue Van Hook. 3 Vols. 
St. John Damascene : Barlaam and Ioasaph. Rev. G. R. 

Woodward and Harold Mattingly (3rd Imp. revised.) 
JosEPHUS. H. St. J. Thackeray and Ralph Marcus. 9 Vols. 

Vols. I.-VII. (Vol. V. 'ird Imp., Vol. VI. 2nd Imp.) 
Julian. Wilmer Cave Wright. 3 Vols. (Vols. I. and II. 3rd 

Imp., Vol. III. 2nd Imp.) 
LuciAN. A. M. Harmon. 8 Vols. Vols. l.-V. (Vols. I. and 

II. Uh Imp., Vol. III. 3rd Imp., Vols. IV. and V. 2nd Imp.) 
Lycophron. Cf. Calijmachus. 
Lyra Graeca. J. M. Edmonds. 3 Vols. (Vol. I. 4th Imp.. 

Vol. II. revised and enlarged, and III. 3rd Imp.) 
Lysias. W. R. M. Lamb. (2nd Imp.) 
Manetho. W. G. Waddell : Ptolemy : Tetkabiblos. F. E. 

Robbins. (2nd Imp.) 
Marcus Aubeltds. C. R. Haines. (4th Imp. revised.) 
Menandeb. F. G. AUinson. (3rd Imp. revised.) 
Minor Attic Orators (Antiphon, Andocides, Lycubgus, 

Demades, Dinabchus, Hypebeides). K. J. Maidment and 

J. O. Burrt. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 2nd Imp.) 
NoNNOs : Dionysiaca. W. H. D. Rouse 3 Vols. (Vol. III. 

2nd Imp. ) 
Oppian, Colluthus, Teyphiodorus. a. W. Mair. (2nd Imp.) 
Papybi. Non -Literary Selections. A. S. Hunt and C. C. 

Edgar. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 2nd Imp.) Literary Selections. 

Vol. I. (Poetry). D. L. Page. (3rd Imp.) 
Paethenius. Cf. Daphnis and Chloe. 
Pausanias : Description of Greece. W. H. S. Jones. 5 

Vols, and Companion Vol. arranged by R. E. Wycherley. 

(Vols. I. and III. 3rd imp., Vols. II., IV. and V. 2nd Imp.) 
Philo. 10 Vols. Vols. I. -v.; F. H. Colson and Rev. G. H. 

Whitaker. Vols. VI.-IX. ; F. H. Colson. (Vols. I.-III.. 

V.-IX. 2nd Imp., Vol. IV. 3rd Imp.) 
Philo: two supplementary Vols. (Translation only.) Ralph 

Marcus. 
Philostratus : The Life of Apollonius of Tyana. F. C. 

Conybeare. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 4th Imp., Vol. II. 3rd Imp.) 
Philostbatus : Imagines ; Callistbatus : Descbiptions. 

A. Fairbanks. 
Philostbatus and Eunapius : Lives of the Sophists. 

Wilmer Cave Wright. (2nd Imp.) 
Pindar. Sir J. E. Sandys. (1th Imp. revised.) 

6 



Plato : Charmides, Alcibiades, Hippabchus, The Lovers, 
Theages, Minos and Epinomis. W. R. M. Lamb. {2nd 
Imp.) 
Plato : Cratylus, Parmenides, Greater Hippia3, Lesser 

HiPPiAS. H. N. Fowler. (4</i Imp.) 
Plato : Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, Phaedo, Phaedrus. 

H. N. Fowler, {llth Imp.) 
Plato : Laches, Protagoras, Meno, Euthydemus. W. R. M. 

Lamb. (3rd Imp. revised.) 
Plato : Laws. Rev. R. G. Bury. 2 Vols. (3rd Imp.) 
Plato : Lysis, Symposium, Gorqias. W. R. M. Lamb. (5th 

Imp. revised.) 
Plato : Republic. Paul Shorey. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 5th Imp., 

Vol. II. 3rd Imp.) 
Plato: Statesman, Phllebus. H.N. Fowler; Ion. W. R. M. 

Lamb. (4</i Imp.) 
Plato : Theaetetus and Sophist. H. N. Fowler, {■ith Imp.) 
Plato : Timaeus, Critias, Clitopho, Menexenus, Epistulae. 

Rev. R. G. Bury. (3rd Imp.) 
Plutarch: Morally. 14 Vols. Vols. I.-V. F. G Babbitt; 
Vol. VI. W. C. Helmbold ; Vol. X. H. N. Fowler. (Vols. I., 
III., and X. 2nd Imp.) 
Plutarch : The Parallel Lives. B. Perrin. 11 Vols. 
(Vols. I., II., VI., VII., and XI. 3rd Imp.. Vols. III.-V. and 
VIII.-X. 2nd Imp.) 
PoLYBius. W. R. Pa ton. 6 Vols. (2nd Imp.) 
Procopius : History of the Wars. H. B. Dewing. 7 Vols. 

(Vol. I. 3rd Imp., Vols. II. -VII. 2nd Imp.) 
Ptolemy : Tetrabiblos. Cf. Manetho. 

QuiNTUS Smyrnaeus. A. S. Way. Verse trans. {3rd Imp.) 
Sextus Emplricus. Rev. R. G. Bury. 4 Vols. (Vol. 1. 3rd 

Imp., III. 2nd Imp.) 
Sophocles. F. Storr. 2 Vols. (Vol. i. lOth Imp. Vol. II. 6th 

Imp.) Verse trans. 
Strabo : Geography. Horace L. Jones. 8 Vols. (Vols. 1., V., 
and VIII. 3rd Imp., Vols. II., III., IV., VI., and VII. 2Hd Imp.) 
Theophbastus : CHARACTERS. J. M. Edmonds. Herodes. 

etc. A. D. Knox. (3rd Imp.) 
Theophrastus : ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. Sir Arthur Hort, 

Bart. 2 Vols. (2nd Imp.) 
Thucydides. C. F. Smith. 4 Vols. (Vol. I. 4</j Imp., Vols. 

II., III., and IV. 3rd Imp. revised.) 
Tryphiodorus. Cf. Oppian. 
Xenophon : Cyropaedia. Walter Miller. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. ith, 

Imp., Vol. II. 3rd Imp.) 
Xenophon : Hellenica, Anabasis, Apology, and Symposium. 
C. L. Brownson and O. J. Todd. 3 Vols. (Vols. 1. and IIL 
3rd Imp., Vol. 11. iih Imp.) 
Xenophon : Memorabilia and Oeconomicus. E. C. Marchant. 

(3rd Im,p.) 
Xenophon : Scbipta Minoba. E. C. Marchant. (2nd Imp.). 



IN PREPARATION 



Greek Authors 

Aristotle : De Mundo, etc. D. Furley and E. S. Forster. 
Aristotle : History of Animals. A. L. Peck. 
Callimac'hus : Fragments. C. A. Trypanis. 
Plotinus : A. H. Armstrong. 



Latin Authors 

St. Augustine ; City of God. 

Cicero : Pro Sestio, In Vatinium, Pro Caelio, De Provincus 
CoNsuLARiBUS, Pro Balbo. J. H. Freese and R. Gardner. 
Phaedrus Ben E. Perry. 



DESCRIPTIVE PROSPECTUS OI\ APPLICATIOIS 



London 
Cambridge, Mass. 



WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTD 
HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS 



r 



Plutarchus. PA 

Plutarch's livss. ^^^^ 

vol . 5 . 



iii